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🌏 | New York Times Digital Subscription, Second Quarter Weak Growth for the First Time in Three Years


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New York Times digital subscription, weak growth in second quarter for the first time in three years

 
If you write the contents roughly
After the recession caused by the pandemic last year, companies increased their spending, resulting in a recovery in advertising revenue both in print and digital.
 

[Reuters] – The New York Times announced on the XNUMXth that the number of digital subscribers in the second quarter is XNUMX ... → Continue reading

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Ads

Ads(Kokoku,British: advertising) Means the products / services and ideas (meaning ideas, policies, opinions, etc.) that the advertiser specified in the inhuman message targets the specified people and achieves the advertising purpose. social情报propagationIt is an activity and its information is manageable by the advertiserAdvertising mediaIt is widely disseminated to society through. 

For advertisingCompanyIn addition to fulfilling the advertising purpose ofconsumerOr user satisfaction[2], Encounter new things, ideas and ideas, as well as social and economicwelfareWith functions such as increasing[3]It will be.It can be said that it is inherently subject to various regulations (including self-regulation) because it affects the values ​​of more people and may have a long-term social and cultural impact.In addition to companies, non-profit organizations and individuals may be advertisers.

Overview

What is generally regarded as an advertisement iscommercial,FlyerSuch as the spread ofMediaThroughPropagandaRepresented by activities.But,Mass societySo, anything that emphasizes a particular event, from effective merchandise display to symbolic acts such as releasing a dove at a ceremony, can result in advertising in all contexts, regardless of mediation.[4]..Therefore, the criteria for classifying advertisements from non-advertisements are not material, but the criteria for the intention to advertise.[4]..This intention means that the analyst considers that the sender of the advertisement actually has the intention, and that the recipient of the advertisement receives the advertisement while "guessing the intention of the sender". The dynamics of communication are in advertising.

The definition of advertising in the US style is that the following three conditions must be met in order to be an advertisement.American Marketing AssociationAmericaSome are defined based on the definitions of many researchers.

  1. Manageable advertising media (unmanageable when advertisers try to get featured in newspaper articles and TV showsPublicityTo distinguish from)
  2. Inhuman message
  3. Performed by an explicit advertiser

Advertising is a sculptural expression on paper, images, videos, or web pages, and is called advertising in terms of whether it is an activity or whether it is actually disseminated to society. Is a different concept.At first glance, it is easy to think that Japanese advertisements correspond to English advertising, but loose characters, corporate publicity turned into articles and programs, crown events, press conferences with logo marks, company websites, etc. , English advertising and its literal translations of marketing-defined advertisements are often pointed to by the commonly used Japanese word "advertisement."It should be noted that it is abstract that Japanese advertising points more broadly than English advertising.Furthermore, it may seem reasonable to distinguish propaganda from political advertising and advertising from commercial advertising, but the distinction is not so easy.

The oldest major advertising agency was founded in 1864Jay Walter Thompson(JWT)Is said to be[5][Source required].

History

Egyptians used papyrus to create posters and promotional complaints[6]..In China around the 11th and 7th centuries BC, it seems that children are calling to buy sweets with a bamboo flute.PoetryIt is written in.

Advertising trading mechanism

I want to advertise.Those who think that as an advertiserBroadcaster,Newspaper company,Infomation,PublisherPurchase spaces, time frames, or more generally advertising opportunities from "media companies" that have a large number of people who will eventually come into contact with them, and publish and distribute "advertising messages" created according to the characteristics of the media. , "Public (unspecified)" or the recipient (audience).In return for the act, the advertiser pays advertising expenses to organizations and companies such as "media companies".

There are many companies that are advertisers, and there are many types of "media companies," and it can be difficult to carry out appropriate advertising activities.Advertising agency.

However, it was generalized in the 21st centuryGoogleof"Search-linked advertisement"Also"Content-linked advertising"Also,Social network services,LINEInserted in etc.AppsIn "Article body advertisementHowever, the conventional explanation does not fully describe it.But these are "based on advertising revenuebusiness modelIt can be said that advertising is being developed with a logic different from the "advertising transaction mechanism" up to the 20th century by establishing a global "giant company".

In the case of online advertising, networking, automation, and real-time transmission of these transactions and transmissions began around 2010, and while advertisers themselves can deliver advertisements based on data management systems, the explanation has been conventional. Many middlemen who do not have it have been born, and many people recognize that it is still in a transitional period due to drastic changes in the industry and transaction structure.

Under such circumstances, "a framework for giving a bird's-eye view of the current advertising industry" has not yet been established.

World advertising

The world's largest advertising power is the United States (total advertising costs are four to five times that of Japan), followed by Japan.Britain, France and Germany follow, but total advertising costs are half that of Japan.Cultural RevolutionChina, which had been suppressed by, is now catching up sharply.In the United States, the ratio of total advertising expenses to GDP is 2%, and the size of the country and the number of languages ​​used are double that of Japan.Advertising is studied at many universities, and there are also advertising departments and advertising departments.Advertising itself is not so different in the world, but advertising-related companies are very different from Japan in the world, and so-called mega agencies (especially the top four) occupy a very large position.Various large and small agency businesses, which are subdivided according to function, form one group.As a result, a huge corporate group will exist in the world.It is thought that the background to the fact that innumerable agency businesses gather to form a huge group is that there were a series of mergers and integrations, and that there is an industry practice of "one industry, one company system" (which is not functioning in Japan). Be done.In other words, if you have a car company as a client, you will not be involved in the advertising of rival companies.Therefore, if the profit of scale is pursued, it will be grouping.

Major mega agencies in the world (4 major mega agencies)

  • WPP group (WPP Group)
  • Omnicom Group
  • Interpublic Group of Companies
  • Publicis Groupe

In the 2010s, Internet advertising grew and expanded to a level that surpassed the amount of TV advertising, which is typical of traditional mass advertising, in major developed countries.In the midst of this industry change, the entry into online advertising from the consulting industry has been achieved.Traditionally, the consulting industry does not have the concept of "one industry, one company," so Accenture, for example, deals with multiple global advertisers in the same industry, including automotive, telecommunications, and finance.In other words, the current advertising industry has entered with different logics from different industries due to the growth of online advertising, and the structure and rules of transactions have changed drastically, and many people recognize that this is still a transitional period of major changes. ..

Advertising industry scale

Advertising costs during World War II

Dainichi this empireThen in 1942,Advertising tax lawIs in force, and 10% for advertisements in publications such as newspapers, magazines, and books.Advertising tax was levied.Others ...Nobori,flag,Field sign,FlyerSince the tax rate was set for each, the advertising cost can be estimated from the tax revenue of the advertising tax at that time.HoweverReligious corporation,Minister of FinanceReceived the designation of "organization related to public affairs"Taisei Tsubasa CouncilSome groups were exempt from taxation[7]..Also overseasKarafuto,Kanto,Korea,TaiwanThe advertising tax law was enforced in each.

These laws were enacted in 1946,Japan under Allied occupationIt was abolished in.

Advertising costs in modern Japan

Advertising costs in JapanMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustrySpecific service industry dynamic statistics andDentsuIt can be seen in the presentation materials of.

Advertising expenses in 2004 were 5 billion yen in the specific service industry dynamics statistics and 4,684 billion yen in the Dentsu data, which is estimated to be about the latter half of 5 trillion yen (specific service industry dynamics statistics are on a monetary basis). Covers more than 8,571% of business establishments nationwide. Dentsu materials are estimates added to in-house transactions. There are differences in the coverage rates and estimates between the two. Generally, there are differences. The value of Dentsu materials is taken up as advertising expenses in news etc.).As a trend, the four major media advertisements (TV, newspapers, magazines, radio) were sluggish except for TV, and in other advertisements, Internet advertisements (search engine-linked advertisements) increased significantly, and in 5, TV advertisements were finally overtaken. can give.

SNS such as Google and Facebook have become media that can be easily advertised for private shops and small businesses, and the part outside the scope of so-called "advertising expenses in Japan" has come to be widely recognized. As far as Google is concerned, the parent company Alphabet's sales are not active in the People's Republic of China, so even if you consider it as a percentage of global GDP, Google is raising sales of around 1 trillion yen in Japan.This should be considered as the "outside number" of the above Internet advertising estimates.

Some companies spend more than 1,000 billion yen annually on advertising expenses, and the advertising expenses of automobile manufacturers are particularly large.[8].

Advertising media

Usually with advertisers (advertisers, clients)媒体During (media), authority was delegated by the mediaAdvertising agencyWill intervene, and the advertiser will negotiate fees with the advertising agency.For advertising mediaFour mediaAnd other media.

Four media

Five major TV stations also run major radio, newspapers, and publishersCross ownershipThere are no major restrictions on.United NationsIs a legal scholar in 2017David KayeWe nominated and conducted a special survey and pointed out that this limits the number of participants in the information market (Special Rapporteur's Visit to Japan Report on "Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression")[9].

Other media

Make an external connection with the TV receiver,Home terminalOrSet top box(STB) isBroadbandIt develops content including advertisements by connecting with services.

Outdoor advertising

Outdoor advertisingIs displayed to the public outdoors at all times or for a period of timeSignboardKind.Outdoor advertising matter law,Building Standards Law,Road Traffic LawThere are restrictions due to regulations and regulations.Traffic advertising and bus shelter (Street Furniture),POP advertisementOOH media (OOH media)w: Out-of-home advertising).As an index to measure the effectiveness of outdoor advertising,DEC (Daily Effective Circulation) = 1 day effective traffic volume ”, VAI (Visibility Adjusted Indices), EOI (Eyes On Impressions), etc.[10],The United KingdomThen, the industry group "POSTAR",AmericaIs formulated and managed by TAB (Traffic Audit Bureau).In addition, there is a medium purchase index called "showing".This is an advertising transaction index when dozens or hundreds of poster boards are posted on the network at the same time as in the United States, and it is the contact rate of one month for residents, and 1 shows if you aim to contact all residents. Ing, 100 shows if you aim for half[11][Source required]..In most cases, Japanese poster boards are traded alone.[12].

Types of outdoor advertising
  • Large video board: Electronic bulletin boardAlso called, most of them are large-screen visions with LEDs.
  • Digital Signage : Digital video panel installed in train stations and shopping malls.
  • Telephone pole advertisement : Become a source of information for the community.Especially useful for knowing your address.
  • : One of the few advertisements that can be posted on public roads.Below the fire hydrant sign is an advertising space, which will help improve the image of the local community by co-sponsoring disaster prevention activities.
  • Spine : Build a pillar dedicated to advertising in the city.
  • Neon sign (Spectaculars): Installed on the rooftops and walls of downtown buildings.
  • Billboard (billboard): A large signboard installed on the roof of an urban building or condominium.
  • Poster Panels: Signs that are mainly installed on the streets.In the United States, there are 1-sheet posters and 30-sheet posters supported by a single pole, and large paint bulletins.SignboardThose installed in fields along railways and highways, and those installed in station premises are included in traffic advertisements.
  • Baseball field,Soccer fieldFacility advertisements such as will be OOH.

Traffic advertising

Transit Advertising refers to advertisements posted on and off trains and buses, and on public transportation such as aircraft and ships.In Japan, it is often referred to as a traffic advertisement, including those posted at ancillary facilities of public transportation such as stations, airports, and bus stops.[13]..This ratio is high in countries with well-developed railway networks such as Japan and Switzerland.

Moving medium

Other SP related media

New media

In advertising-related statistics, it is classified from terrestrial television and has an item called "new media." In 1999, it was overtaken by Internet advertising due to advertising expenses by medium.[Source required].

Internet advertising or web advertising

The Internet is also a new media (advertising) in English, but not in Katakana Japanese, so Internet advertising is listed below separately.

Direct mail advertising

Also called DM advertisement, address advertisement, etc.Post,Mail serviceAdvertisements are sent directly to individuals via e-mail, fax, etc.The feature is that advertisements can be appealed to specific individuals according to characteristics such as region, gender, age, occupation, hobbies, etc., and advertisements can be carried out at the convenience of the advertiser regardless of the broadcast date of TV / radio, the publication date of newspapers / magazines, etc. There is.An advertisement target list has been created to effectively send direct mail advertisements.[13].. "Email established in the 20th century and its management system"Direct marketingThe essence is one-on-one (in English)One to one) Statistical and diachronic management of behavior induction through communication.With the generalization of the Internet, advertisements that immediately encourage target purchasing behavior online (so-called "reaping type", CTA advertisement: call to action, call to action type advertisement) have become popular, and B21C in the 2st century It led to prosperity, but this is the online application of "direct marketing".

Naming and logo mark

MarketingIn research, business administration, and accountingbrandThe theory has developed significantly since the 1990s, but the basis for this is the "what kind of words should be named for companies and products in the first place" from before the 1980s.namingThere was a practical area.in addition,Corporate identityWhen it comes to practiceDesignTraditionally, includingLogoThe work area called was also expanded.Both are advertisements in a broad sense in terms of their intentions and effects.

Naming rights

In the 21st century, facilities known and used by many people, such as government offices, railways (station names), and stadiums.Naming rightsThe act of selling and acquiring is now commonly observed.These actions can be said to be advertisements in terms of their intentions, actions, effects, etc.[14].

Triple media

With the generalization of the Internet and SNS, advertisements have become difficult to grasp from the conventional perspective of "paid media", both as a management target and as an understanding of phenomena.Therefore, in addition to the conventional "paid media (paid media)", "owned media" such as the company's official website and SNS articles posted by the company (paid media)Owned media, Owned media) ”, the so-called word-of-mouth“ acquired media (earned media) ”, can be organically linked and managed.Marketing communicationsIt is internationally advocated to recognize as the basis of[15].

Advertising content

Traditional advertising theory has tried to understand advertising from the classification of "advertising media" according to the structure of the industry.The item denominated on this page is also in the flow.However, due to the generalization of the Internet, there are increasing cases where it is not always appropriate to classify and recognize advertisements centered on the media.In essence, it is necessary to chapter "advertising content", that is, "advertising message" and "directing element" on this page as well.In that case, "Design"((catch copy)" "Movie""image""Digital content""talent""Music(Commercial song) ”,“ Other advertising content ”,“ Recommendation function ”, etc. are conceivable, and it is expected that those who have such knowledge will describe them appropriately.

Advertising regulation

Regarding the content of the advertisement,Unfair gifts and unfair display prevention law(Premium display method)Pharmaceuticals and medical devices lawSuch as laws and regulations, industryFair competition agreementIn addition to being regulated by such as, each media has its own advertising standards.[16], If the expression does not meet the criteria, you may be requested to correct it, or in some cases you may be refused posting.However, the operation of the posting standard is generally loose, so hype advertisements are endless, especiallyreal estate business,Money lending business(Above allsports newspaper,Evening paperJust registered, called Toichi, which is advertised inSarakin dealer) And other industries that are causing social problems.others,Outdoor advertising matter lawThere are also regulations like.

Regulations for industry

AboveAs you can see, there was during World War II, but it was not a regulation on the content.

In modern Japan, there are also regulations on advertising for specific industries, such as laws and regulations and voluntary standards.Medical institution, Medical practice, etc.hospital-ClinicEtc.)Medical lawAlthough it has been regulated by Article 69 (only clinical departments, consultation hours / holidays, addresses, telephone numbers, and maps were available), the regulations were partially relaxed in 2001 (DoctorFirst name, affiliation学会,Home PageURLSuch).

Lawyer,法律 事務所Advertising is also a governing bodyJapan Federation of Bar AssociationsIt was regulated by the policy of (Japan Federation of Bar Associations), but it was abolished in October 2000.mainlyDebt consolidation,bankruptcyprocedureAdvertisements to the general public have become more prominent, centered on law firms in charge of such matters.Long time agobankEtc. individualFinancial institutionAdvertising was also regulated, but it has been abolished.

on the other hand,tobaccoAdvertising has been available since the 1990sMinistry of FinanceRegulations have been tightened by decree.In self-regulation, which is not a legal regulation,Alcoholic beverage(Alcoholic beverages)Money lending businessThere are advertisements such as.Especially for money lending advertisingGeneral paperIn many cases, the conditions are becoming stricter or refused in the broadcasting media.

Advertising Theory and Department of Advertising

Advertising as an academic disciplineResearchToothEducationThere are "advertising studies" and "advertising theory"Western,AsiaIn countriesUniversity"Faculty of Advertising" and "Department of Advertising"graduate School"Graduate School of Advertising" is set up inMarketing communicationTheory, advertising medium theory, advertisingcreativeTheory, advertisingPsychology, Advertising research theory (effect measurement), etc. are systematically researched and educated.

AmericaThen in 1901Northwestern UniversityDr. WD Scott offered an "Advertising Psychology" course, and then the "Advertising Department" was established. Today, more than 15 universities have an advertising department, and more than 10 universities have a graduate school doctoral program in advertising.In China, the first advertising department was set up at Amoy University in 1983, and the graduate school was able to major in advertising in 1993. Today, more than 200 universities, including Beijing University, have an advertising department and an advertising department, and research on advertising is active. is there.In Taiwan, more than 7 universities have advertising-related departments, and more than 2 graduate schools have advertising majors.It is located in more than 30 universities in South Korea.EuropeThen.Germany OfUniversity of BerlinThe Department of Advertising was established in 1921, and many universities have departments of advertising.in Japan1921(Taisho 10) at Meiji University in advertising theory讲座Has been established and today has more than 2,100 advertising-related courses, but there is no Faculty of Advertising or Department of Advertising.

Advertising researcher

Japan

Japan Advertising Society

Japan Advertising Society (Chairman)Waseda University) Is a group of scholars and business people who study advertising and marketing communications. It was founded in 1969 and celebrated its 2009th anniversary in 40.Headquarters office is nowWaseda UniversityIt is located inside and holds a national convention once a year and an event called Creative Forum once a year as well.The number of members is about 620 after 30 corporate members. The referee-based academic journal "Advertising Science" was published twice a year, and the 2th anniversary issue was published in 2009.

Japan's main advertising agency

Foreign-affiliated advertising agency in Japan

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注 釈

Source

  1. ^ Hong Liu, Chinese Business: Landscapes and Strategies (2013), p. 15.
  2. ^ Kobayashi TasaburoWritten by "Introduction to Contemporary Advertising" 2nd Edition, Diamond, 58, pp. 10-12
  3. ^ Kobayashi TasaburoWritten by "Introduction to Contemporary Advertising" 2nd Edition, Diamond, 58, pp. 10-12
  4. ^ a b Masayuki Goto "Mass Media Theory" <Yuhikaku Compact> Yuhikaku 1999 ISBN 4641076219 pp. 196-199.
  5. ^ Koichi Shimizu (2018). "Advertising Theory and Strategy" 18th Edition, 2nd PrintSoseisha, page 39 
  6. ^ Behal, Vikas; Sareen, Sania (2014). "GUERILLA MARKETING: A LOW COST MARKETING STRATEGY". International Journal of Management Research and Business Strategy. 3 – via Google Scholar.
  7. ^ "Ministerial Ordinance No. 149 Hiroshi Tax Law Enforcement Regulations Niyori Association Designation",Official gazette.. 1942.
  8. ^ Toyo Keizai online advertising market will decrease significantly in FY09!The media is a fire doll (1)
  9. ^ United Nations. "David Kaye "Freedom of Expression" UN Special Rapporteur Visit to Japan Report (A / HRC / 35/22 / Add.1)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2018/7/27Browse. "Each of Japan's five major commercial broadcasters is connected to the mainstream national daily newspapers, which limits the number of participants in the information market."
  10. ^ Koichi Shimizu, Arihiro Kimura, Saburo Shinkawa (2014) "Construction of Outdoor Advertising Index Estimate System", Nikkei Advertising Research Institute Bulletin No. 276, Nikkei Advertising Research Institute, pp. 38-45.
  11. ^ Koichi Shimizu (2018) "Advertising Theory and Strategy", 18th Edition, 2nd Print, Soseisha, pp. 187-190.
  12. ^ Koichi Shimizu (2018) "Advertising Theory and Strategy", 18th Edition, 2nd Print, Soseisha, pp. 187-190.
  13. ^ a b Dentsu Advertising Encyclopedia Project Team "Dentsu Advertising Encyclopedia" 2008 Dentsu
  14. ^ https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/120006368708/ Yutaka Mizuno (2017) "Naming Lights (XNUMX)Naming rights), "Bulletin of the Faculty of Sociology, Kansai University" 49 (1), 205-217. https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/120006624697  Same (2018) "Naming Lights (XNUMX)Naming rights) Fragment (continued) "Bulletin of the Faculty of Sociology, Kansai University" 50 (1), 61-74.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Example of Sankei Shimbun-Sankei ShimbunFrom the media material Internet version
  17. ^ "Capital and business alliance with Dentsu and Septeni Holdings". CNET Japan (September 2018, 10). 2019/1/25Browse.

References

  • J.Thomas Russell, W.Ronald Lane (2005) “Kleppner's Advertising Procedure,” 16th edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (2001), “Advertising Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective,” Fifth Edition, Rchard D. Irwin, Inc.
  • Yuka MizunoWritten by (2004, Revised 2014) "Integrated Advertising Theory" Minerva Shobo.
  • Yuka Mizuno・Toshiyuki Senoo・Yuuki IbukiEdited (2015) "Advertising Communication Research Handbook" Yuhikaku Publishing.
  • Shizue Kishi,Hiroshi Tanaka, Kazue Shimamura (2008) "Modern Advertising Theory" Yuhikaku Publishing.
  • Akihiro Kamei,Satoshi HikitaEdited (2005) "New Advertising Theory" Nikkei Advertising Research Institute.
  • Supervised by Kazue Shimamura (2006) "New Advertising" Dentsu.
  • Akira Mochizuki (1991) "Advertising Business Handbook" Sendenkaigi.

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