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🌏 | US unemployment insurance application increased to 33.2, possible impact of hurricane "Aida"


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US unemployment insurance application increased to 33.2, possible impact of hurricane "Aida"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Aida devastated energy production on the Gulf Coast of the United States, causing a power outage in Louisiana and unprecedented floods in New York and New Jersey.
 

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] – New unemployment insurance for a week until September XNUMXth announced by the US Department of Labor on September XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Gulf of Mexico, USA

Louisiana

Louisiana
State of Louisiana
État de Louisiane
Louisiana State FlagLouisiana Mark
()(State emblem)
State nickname: PelicanState of
Pelican State
Louisiana Location
State capitalBaton Rouge
Largest cityNew Orleans[1]
Governor
Official terminologyThere is no legal basis, but in factEnglish.. In the State Constitution promulgated in 1974,FrenchThe preservation and development of minority languages ​​are respected.
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
31th in the US
135,382 km²
112,927 km²
21,455 km² (15%)
population(2010
 - Grand total
 - Population density
25th in the US
4,533,372People
40.5 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

18th
1812 May 4
Time zoneUTC -6
STD -5
latitude29 ° N-33 ° N
longitude89 ° -94 ° west longitude
East-west width210 km
North-south length610 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

163 m
30 m
-2.5 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-LA
WebsiteLouisiana Government
SenatorJohn N. Kennedy
Bill Cassidy

Louisiana(British: State of Louisiana) IsThe United States of AmericaSouthern OfStateIs.It ranks 50st in land area and 31th in population among the 25 states of the United States. State capital TheBaton Rouge City,Biggestcity TheNew OrleansIs. ExFranceIt was a territory,1812 , Became a state of the United States.Civil lawToContinental lawThe influence of is still strong.Also used in other states as an administrative division under the stateCountyParish instead of (county, county)キ リ ス ト 教 OfParishMeaned, but nowAdministrative parish In civil parish, Japanese translates as "county" as equivalent to county).FranceIt is the influence of the colonial era.Parish is used as a county equivalent only in Louisiana in the United States.

In some metropolitan areas of the state, multicultural and multilingual heritage remains, and France, which dominated the territory in the 18th century (homeland andAcadia) Andスペイン(Nueva Espana) Strongly influenced by mixed culture and indigenousイ ン デ ィ ア ンAndWest AfricaからslaveBrought in asAfrican AmericanThe influence of the culture of Became a territory of the United States in the early 19th centuryAnglo-SaxonBefore the influx of Americans of descent and promotion to the state, a culture that was somewhat different from other states in the United States was formed and continues to this day.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Louisiana) 2010
English
  
91.26%
Spanish
  
3.30%
French
  
2.79%
Racial composition (Louisiana) 2010
White
  
60.3%
Black
  
32.0%
Hispanic
  
4.2%
Asian
  
1.5%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
  
0.7%
Mixed
  
1.6%

Origin of the state name

The place name Louisiana is the King of FranceLouis XVIDerived from (Louis XIV, reign: 1643-1715).Robert-Cabrielle de la SalleBut,Mississippi RiverWhen declaring this area of ​​flow as French territory, La Luigiane (La louisiane)[2].. The suffix -ana (or -ane) is a Latin suffix that refers to "a particular individual, object, or place."Therefore, roughly speaking, "Louis" + "ana" means "things related to Louis".French LouisianaFrom the present as part of the French colonial empireカナダIt extended north of the border with and included a small part of southwestern Canada.

History

Prehistoric

16st centuryIndigenous Indians lived for thousands of years before Europeans arrived in the region of Louisiana.The Watson Brake archaeological site near the current city of MonroeNorth AmericaIt is the place where the mound called the mound was built at the earliest, and the place where the oldest complex structure in the Americas was. The site, which consists of 11 mounds, was built about 5,400 years ago, around 3500 BC.[3]..The pre-owned Canney and Frenchman's Bend sites are estimated to be 5,600 to 5,000 years old, with hunter-gatherer tribes organized seasonally in the northern part of the state to form complex structures. Indicates that it was built.Lincoln CountyThe Hedgepes site is a bit new and is estimated to be 5,200 to 4,500 years old.[4].

Nearly 2,000 years later, Poverty Point, the largest and most well-known archaeological site in the late years, was built.The current village of Epps developed nearby.Pobati Point culture may have reached its peak around 1500 BC,North AmericaThen the firstComposite structureAnd probably created the first tribal culture[5]..This culture lasted until about 700 BC.

The Poverty Point culture was followed by the Tula period Chefunkt and Lake Cormorant cultures.This was what it looked like in this region during the Woodland period.The Chefant culture produced a large amount of pottery for the first time in the region.These cultures continued until around 200 AD.Mid-Woodland began with Marksville culture in the south and east, and Fuschmarin culture in the northwest.Marksville cultureAvoyelles ParishThe name comes from the Marksville Prehistory Indian Ruins.These culturesOhio,IllinoisIt was at the same time as Hopewell's culture and was part of Hopewell's trading network.Bows and arrows were brought about by interaction with people in the southwest direction[6]..The first tomb was built during this period[7]..Political power began to unite when the first platform mound was built as the center of the ritual to enhance hereditary political and religious leadership.[7]..By 400 AD, the late Woodland began with Baytown culture in the south, but it was just one of the changes in the cultural history of the region.There is strong evidence that the population has grown dramatically and cultural and political complexity has increased.The Coles Creek site was built on an early Woodland tomb, and there is a theory that a privileged class emerged to symbolically and physically worship its ancestors and emphasize their authority.[8]..In the Louisiana regionMississippi periodThen, the plaquemin culture and the cado-mississippian culture emerged.This time is widespreadcornIt was when cultivation was adopted.MississippiThe plaquemin culture in the lower Mississippi River basin in the west and eastern Louisiana began around 1200 AD and continued until around 1400.An example of this culture is Louisiana.West Baton Rouge CountyMedra Ruins, Mississippi Emerald Mound, Winterville Ruins, Holly Bluff Ruins[9].

Plaquemin cultureMissouriSt. LouisClose toCahokiaIt is the same period as the middle Mississippian culture symbolized by the ruins.The people who belonged to this cultureNatchezConsidered to be the ancestors of the tribes and Taenza[10]..By 1000 AD, the Fourche Maline culture in northwestern Zhou had evolved into a Cado Mississippian culture.The Cado-Mississippian culture is todayOklahomaEastern,ArkansasWestern,TexasIt was widespread, including northeastern and northwestern Louisiana.Archaeological studies show that this culture continues uninterrupted from prehistoric times to the present, at the time of the first contact between prehistoric times and Europeans.CadThe connection between the tribe's direct ancestors and Caddo-speaking people, as well as the Caddo tribe currently in Oklahoma, is unquestionable.[11].

Many place names in Louisiana today, such as Atchafalaya, Natchitoches, Cado, Homa, Tanjipahoa, and Aboyle, are transliterations of words used in various Indian languages.

European exploration and colonization

1528 Toスペイン OfPanfilo de NarvaezThe expedition led byMississippi RiverReached the estuary.1542 ToHernando de SotoSpanish expeditions pass through the north and west of Louisiana (encountered the Cado and Tunica) and then down the Mississippi River in 1543.Gulf of MexicoWas reached.But Spain has left the area for a long time since then. With the French in the late 17th centuryFrench CanadianExpeditionary Corps established bases on the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico for regional control and religious and trade purposes.

1682 , French from French CanadaRobert-Cabrielle de la SalleIs hereLouis XVIIt was named after Louisiana.1699 French soldier Pierre Le Moins de Verville from Canada makes Fort Morepa, the first permanent settlement, today in Mississippi.BiloxinearOcean SpringsEstablished in.By this time, a small fort called La Barry's (French for route target) had also been built at the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 1721 he built a 62-foot (19 m) high lighthouse-like structure of wood to guide ships navigating the river.French LouisianaFrom the Mississippi River basinカナダAlthough it is a vast area leading up to, it was actually composed of a network of several trading bases.The French settlement had two purposes.That is,Spanish TexasIt was to trade with Spain in Japan and to prevent Spain from advancing into Louisiana.Naketes, a settlement at the northern end of the Old San Antonio Road (El Camino Real de los Tejas in Spanish, "Texas Royal Road"), quickly prospered as a city of river ports and highways, along the river. A vast cotton kingdom was born in Texas.The farmer is largePlantationAnd built a stylish house in the growing town.This was repeated in other towns such as New Orleans.

Further exploration from the French settlement of Louisiana, along the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, north of Louisiana, todaySt. LouisAroundIllinois CountryA predecessor base was established in the area called.

at firstAlabamaMobilBiloxi, Mississippi, was functioning as the capital of the colony.France reaffirmed the importance of the Mississippi River in terms of trade and military1722 , The capital of French Louisiana, New Orleans (FrenchAnd Nouvelle Orleans, the newOrleans).For about 80 years from that time, France and Spain alternately ruled the colonial empire from New Orleans. 1720,GermanImmigrants todayGerman CoastSettled in an area along the Mississippi River called.

In North AmericaFrench indian warと 呼 ば れ るSeven year warAs a result, France moved to the Canadian colonies and east of the Mississippi River (except near New Orleans).The United KingdomCeded to the rest of New Orleans and west of the Mississippi River1762 Transferred to Spain under the Fontainebleau Treaty.The coast of eastern CanadaAcadiaColony (nowNova Scotia,New BrunswickPrince Edward Island) French residents1765 Refused to express loyalty to the King of England and was exiled, now in southwestern LouisianaAcadianaThey moved in large numbers to an area called Louisiana, which dramatically increased the French population of Louisiana.These Acadian offspringCajunIt is called.SpainCatholicWe welcomed immigrants from Acadia as they were trying to get immigrants from Acadia.Spanish territoryCanary islandsAn islander called Isrenho migrated between 1778 and 1783.

Ruled SpainNapoleon The1800 OfTreaty of San IldefonsoSo he got Louisiana back from Spain, which was kept secret for the next two years.1803 , Napoleon is due to financial needs etc.The United States of AmericaToSelldid.Louisiana was a Spanish territory from 1762 to 1800, during which time the French community survived, with few new Spanish settlers, despite the fact that the officers were Spanish.In other words, Louisiana has a history of more than 100 years as a French colonial society.

Expansion of slavery

In 1709, French capitalist Antoine Crozer acquired a commercial monopoly on French Louisiana, which stretches from the Gulf of Mexico to Illinois.British historian Hugh Thomas wrote, "This concession has made it possible to bring in a black cargo from Africa every year."[12].

When France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803, it was as easy to bring black slaves to neighboring Mississippi as it was to Louisiana.However, it was illegal at that time[13].. Louisiana's sugar production in the early 19th century was low, with a relatively small number of slaves engaged in its production, but soon became a major producer as plantation owners purchased the slaves and made them work unpaid. It was.SlaveAfricaからSouth carolinaHe was then bought and sold to Louisiana.New territory of the United States has federal law that makes slavery illegal[13], Congressman James Hillhouse and controversyThomas PayneDemanded that the law be enforced, but slavery spread to Louisiana because it was a resource that made great profits at low cost.The last Spanish governor wrote that "it is virtually impossible to go without slavery in Louisiana" and that using slavery "has taken a big step towards prosperity and wealth."[13].

Louisiana's first governor, William CC Clayborn, said white free workers do not work in unhealthy climates here, so forced labor of slaves is needed.[14]..Hugh Thomas noted that Clayborn was obliged to abolish trafficking but was unable to do so.

Haiti immigrants and their impact

Pierre Clement de Rosa, Envoy of Louisiana, France, said:Saint-Domingue AntillesHe noted that his spirituality and customs had the greatest influence on Louisiana in his colonies (1718).

Became Louisiana and her motherCaribbeanThe colonies built intimate relationships in the 18th century, with active maritime trade, exchange of capital and information, and colonial migration.From the beginningハイチPeople have had a great influence on Louisiana's politics, citizens, religion and culture.Colonial officials banned Saint-Domingue slaves from entering the country in 1763 in response to anti-slavery plots and uprisings on the island.The rebellion of Saint-DomingueAmerican Revolutionary WarFrench RevolutionThroughout the age of LouisianaSlave tradeContinued to influence immigration policy.

The Spaniards, who ruled Louisiana from 1763 to 1800, were also afraid of these two democratic struggles.It suppressed what it considers to be a security turmoil and banned sabotage in futile attempts to isolate its colony from the spread of the democratic revolution. In May 2, by royal decree, whether slaves or free menWest IndiesBlacks were banned from entering the country.A year later, the first successful slave revolution in world history in Saint-Domingue led to the founding of Haiti.[15].

During the Saint-Domingue revolution, people of various races fled the colonies in large numbers.The French fled with their slaves.The free-colored race, who was also a slave owner, also fled.In 1793, the main city of Cap-Haitien (nowCap-HaitienA big fire broke out, burning two-thirds of the island, leaving nearly 3 people forever.In the era following the revolution, there were foreign aggressions and civil wars, and more people fled.Many are in the eastern Santo Domingo (nowEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu), orCaribbeanMoved to an island near.Many people, white or black, are in North America, especiallyニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Baltimore,Philadelphia,Norfolk,Charleston,SavannahOrSpanish FloridaMoved to.But no land was as affected by these refugees as Louisiana.

From 1791 to 1803, 1,300 displaced persons arrived in New Orleans.The local government was worried if any of them had the intention of disturbing security. Spring 1795,Pointe coupeA riot broke out and the farmer's house was burned.Following this, the free refugee Louis Benoit from Saint-Domingue was accused of being "stained by the revolutionary ideas that destroyed the colony" and was banished.The riots led planter Joseph Pontalva to "watch out for the catastrophe of Saint-Domingue and prevent the buds of the revolution from spreading among our slaves."Unstable conditions continued on the Pointe Coupe and the German Coast, and in the spring of 1796 the decision was made to suspend the slave trade altogether.

In 1800, Louisiana officials discussed the resumption of the slave trade, but blacks in Saint-Domingue agreed to ban entry.He also noted the black and white riots in the French West Indies and said, "We are promoting dangerous ideas among our Nigros."They saw that their slaves were more arrogant than they were five years ago, were unruly and unheard of.

That same year, Spain returned Louisiana to France, and the planters continued to live in fear of a revolution. In 1803, the failure of the expedition against Saint-Domingue worsened his financial position and diminished his military power, and he later became emperor.Napoleon BonaparteBecame more influential on the island after the sale of Louisiana to the United States cast a shadow over Louisiana[17].

Louisiana Purchase by United States

When the United States gained independence from Britain in 1783, one of the concerns of the United States was that European powers bordered its western border and needed to allow unlimited travel to the Mississippi River. It was.As American pioneers move westAppalachian MountainsHas been found to be an obstacle to transporting goods to the east.The easiest way to carry goods isFlatboatOhio riverThe Mississippi River was to be transported to New Orleans Port from where it was transshipped to a ship capable of ocean navigability.The problem with this route was that the Mississippi River, downstream of Natchez, was owned by Spain on both banks.Napoleon's ambition in Louisiana was to build a new empire centered on the Caribbean sugar trade. 1800Amiens covenantBrings Britain to FranceMartiniqueWith the islandGuadeloupeReturned ownership of the island.Napoleon saw Louisiana as a transit point for these sugar islands and a buffer zone for American settlements. In October 1801, Napoleon sent a large army to conquer the important island of Santo Domingo and reintroduce slavery.Slavery was abolished in Saint-Domingue between 10 and 1792 after the slave revolution.The French colony also abolished slavery in 1793 by law and constitution.

Napoleon's brother-in-lawLeclercNapoleon decided to sell Louisiana when the French army under his command was defeated by an army of Santo Domingo citizens who opposed the reintroduction of slavery.

3nd generationPresident of the United StatesThomas JeffersonWas plagued by Napoleon's plans to reestablish a French colony in the United States.If Napoleon owns New Orleans, the United States will always be able to block the exit of the Mississippi River, which is essential for trade.Jefferson is the Envoy to FranceRobert LivingstonTo buy the city of New Orleans on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River and negotiate to allow it to navigate the Mississippi River freely for American trade.Livingston was empowered to pay up to $ 200 million.

The return of Louisiana from Spain to France was not officially over, and Napoleon's deal with Spain was not kept secret at the frontier.However, on October 1802, 10, Louisiana's Deputy Chief Executive Juan Ventura Morales publicly announced Spain's intention to revoke the rights to deposits in New Orleans for all cargo from the United States.The closure of this important port has upset and astonished the United States.Trade in the west was virtually blocked.Historians interpret that the revocation of deposit rights was promoted by American abuse of the law, especially by smuggling, and was not a French conspiracy, as believed at the time.President Jefferson ignores public opinion demanding a war with France,James MonroeWas dispatched as a special envoy to Napoleon to support the acquisition of New Orleans.Jefferson also confirmed that he would raise the deal to $ 1,000 million.

But on April 1803, 4, the French Foreign MinisterTaley RunBut surprised Livingston when asked how much the United States was willing to pay for the transfer of not only New Orleans and the surrounding area, but the entire French Louisiana.Monroe and Livingston agreed immediately that Napoleon could withdraw the offer at any time and that it could take months to get President Jefferson's approval. Decided to start. April 4, total area 30 square miles (828,000 km)2) Has signed a contract to purchase the entire Louisiana for CHF6,000 million (about US $ 1,500 million).Part of the payment will be offset by debt that France has already borrowed from the United States.Payments are made in US public debt, which Napoleon pays at par NetherlandsHope and Company, and at a discount of $ 100 for every $ 87.5 in the UKBerings BankSold to.In the end, France received only US $ 8,831,250 in return for Louisiana.British bankerAlexander Baring TheParisI met Malvois in Japan and went to the United States to collect the bonds, carry them to England, cash them and hand them over to France.Napoleon with this moneyWar against EnglandThe began.

Jefferson was surprised when the news of the Louisiana Purchase arrived in the United States.He allowed $ 1,000 million to buy New Orleans, but had a treaty in place to buy territory that would double the size of the country for US $ 1,500 million.Jefferson's political enemyFederal partyIs the territory of Louisiana worthless,United States ConstitutionThen.SenateHe argued that it was not permissible to acquire new territories or negotiate treaties without the approval of.The truth that plagued the Federalist Party was that it was inevitable that a new state would emerge from the territory of Louisiana, in which case it would strengthen the western and southern powers of parliament.New EnglandIt was to reduce the influence of the Federalist Party on the national affairs.President Jefferson enthusiastically supported the expansion to the west and gave solid support to the treaty.The Federalist Party objected, but on October 1803, 10, the United States SenateAcquisition of LouisianaRatified.

The ceremony for the transfer of jurisdiction was held in New Orleans on November 1803, 11.The territory of Louisiana had not yet been officially returned to France, so Spain first lowered the flag and France raised the flag.The next day, General James Wilkinson of the United States accepted the territory of New Orleans. A similar ritual took place in St. Louis on March 29, 1804.Near the river, the French flag was raised in place of the Spanish flag.The next day, a unit led by Captain Amos Stoddard of the First American Artillery marched through the town and raised the American flag on the flag-raising platform of the fort.Louisiana territoryMeriwether LewisWas officially transferred to the United States Government, which was attended on behalf of.

Louisiana territory is 1 acre (4,000 m)2) It was purchased for less than 3 cents per unit, there was no war, and the life of an American was not lost, doubling the land of the United States.This set a precedent for purchasing land in subsequent territorial expansions, and eventually the United StatesThe Pacific OceanIt became a stepping stone to reach.

1812 , Louisiana was established as a state of the United States,1849 The state capital is from New OrleansBaton Rouge CityWas moved to.In the fertile land of LouisianaCottonsugarPlantations were formed and became a very rich state,1861 Broke outCivil WarThen.ConfederacyJoined and withdrew from the United States,1862 Was occupied by the Union Army.During the Union occupation, the provincial capital was moved from the city of Baton Rouge to the strategically important city of New Orleans.1868 , Louisiana was allowed to return to the United States.1901 In the stateoilWas discovered, and Louisiana temporarily became an important oil producing area.

Geography

terrain

The entire state occupies a corner of the Gulf of Mexico Plain, and the eastern border of the northern part of the state is the largest in North America.Mississippi River, On the opposite bankMississippiBut in the southern part of the stateMississippi RiverIs penetrating.The south of the state faces the Gulf of Mexico and the westTexas, NorthArkansasContact with.

The state territory is along the northern hills and coastAlluvial plainIt can be divided into.Alluvial plains include low-altitude swamps, coastal wetlands and beaches, and approximately 20,000 square miles (51,800 km).2) ofWave-proof archipelagoThere is.The region is essentially along the Gulf of Mexico, with a total length of 600 miles (1,000 km) of the Mississippi River penetrating north and south through the state before pouring into the Gulf of Mexico.As its tributaryRed riverThe Ouachita River is the main one, and many small streams join them (many of them).BayouIt is called).The alluvial plain along the Mississippi River is 10 to 60 miles (15-100 km) wide, and the other areas along the river are about 10 miles (15 km) wide.The Mississippi River is a levee, artificialEmbankmentFormed of deposits called)Natural embankmentThe land, which flows along the river and heads for the river, has an average slope of 1 feet (3 m / km) per mile.Land along other streams has a similar shape.

High hills in the northern and northwestern parts of the state are 25,000 square miles (64,750 km)2) There is more than that.This is a grassland and a woodland.Elevations are 10 feet (3 m) on riverbanks and wetlands and 50-60 feet (15-18 m) on grasslands and alluvial plains.The highest point in the state is Driskill Mountain at an altitude of 535 feet (163 m).

The water currents in this area include the Sabine River, which forms the western border, and the Pearl River, which forms the eastern border.Calcasieu River, Marmento River, Vermilion River, Bayeux Tesh, Achafalaia River, Beef River,Bayou Lafourche, The Courtabrow, Bayou D'Arbbon, Macon, Tenso, Ameet, Chafunkta, Tickfaw, Natrubany, etc., with a length of 4,000 miles (6,400 km) for ships to navigate.

The Gulf of Mexico continental shelf is 3 miles (5 km) wide and covers the state's jurisdiction.However, in the United StatesPolitical geographyDue to its eccentricity, neighboring Texas and Florida own a 9-mile (14 km) wide continental shelf.[18].

The southern coast of the state is one of the fastest disappearing areas in the world.The main reason for this is that humans have mismanaged it.In the olden days, the Mississippi River overflowed every spring, increasing sediments and increasing wetlands, so the land was growing, but now it is declining.There are several causes for this[19]..artificialEmbankmentHowever, it has stopped flooding due to spring flooding, which should bring fresh water and sediments to the swamps.Extensive trees have been cut down in wetlands, allowing saltwater to be carried inland through canals and ditches.Canals dug for the oil and gas industry have also been storms to bring seawater inland, damaging swamps and wetlands.Moreover, rising sea levels exacerbate the problem.There is also an estimate that the land equivalent to 30 ball games is lost every day.There are also many proposals to reduce human damage and protect coastal areas, such as restoring the natural flooding of the Mississippi River.If those remedies are not taken, coastal communities will continue to disappear.[20]..With the disappearance of communities, more people are leaving the area[21]..Wetlands on the coast also support economically important fisheries, so the loss of wetlands can hurt fisheries.Wetland-dwelling wildlife species other than fish are also adversely affected, but there is no doubt that the Mississippi River estuary continues to support vast wetland and marsh forests.Despite these problems, the coast of Louisiana still has many beautiful wetlands and swamps for exploring the ecosystem.[22],wildAmerican alligatorSee,Brown pelican,Great egretA pleasure boat to see the herds is the centerpiece of Louisiana tourism.

On the outskirts of New OrleansLake PontchartrainIs the longest in the worldLake Pontchartrain CausewayIt takes (total length 38.4 km).

Geology

2 million years ago, Americas was oneSupercontinentPangea continentThe Gulf of Mexico did not exist in part of.When Pangea splits大西洋And the Gulf of Mexico was formed.The land of Louisiana slowly formed from sea to land and from north to south for millions of years.[22]..The oldest bedrock is exposed in the north, such as the Kisatchi National Forest.That rockPaleogeneInitially, it is said to be about 6,000 million years old.The formation process of these rocks can be seen in Spearing's Geological History of Louisiana.[23].

The youngest formations in the state are on the Mississippi River, such as Maring Inn, Tesh, St. Bernard, Rafusch, modern Mississippi, and today's Achafalaia.deltaAnd its formation has continued from 7,500 years ago to the present.[24]..The sediment was carried by the Mississippi River from north to south.

Between the northern Tertiary bedrock and the relatively new coastal sedimentsPleistoceneThere is a vast belt area called a terrace.Its age and distributionLast glacial periodIs associated with the rise and fall of sea level.In general, the northern terraces have long rivers carving deep waterways, and the new terraces are relatively flat.[25].

In the stateSalt domeCan also be seen.Its origin can be traced back to the Gulf of Mexico formation period, when the shallow ocean had a high evaporation rate.There are hundreds of salt domes in the state, among othersTabascoThe island of Avery, which is also known as the production center of[26]..The salt dome is important not only as a source of salt, but also as an underground containment of oil and gas.[27]..In addition, the offshore area, along with the offshore area of ​​Texas, is one of the leading oil and gas fields in the United States.

Cretaceous OfStrataTheTertiaryAnd many of the states covered by post-Tertiary sedimentsterrain,SwampIs largely dependent on the Mississippi River, originallyThe area that was was down the riverSiltSuch asAccumulationlandIt has become.Such areas are low in altitude, only 50m above sea level.Weeks IslandThe terrain is so conspicuous that it is called an "island".

climate

LouisianaWarm and humid climate(Köppen climate classificationcFA), Which has the most typical humid temperate climate in the South Central State of the United States.Summers are long, hot and humid.Winters are short and warm.This is largely due to the presence of the Gulf of Mexico, which is less than 200 miles (320 km) from the Gulf of Mexico, even at the most inland points in the state.Precipitation is year-round, slightly higher in summer and less in October.There is a lot of rainfall in the south, especially in winter.Summers are hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 10 from mid-June to mid-September.° F (32 ℃) or higher, 70 even at nighttime minimum temperature° F (22 ℃) or more.Summer temperatures tend to be higher in the north than in the south.100 near the bay° F It can reach (38 ° C), but 95° F (35 ° C) is normal.105 in the north° F It may exceed (41 ° C).

Winters in the south are generally warm, with a maximum daytime temperature of 66 in New Orleans, around the Baton Rouge, and in the Gulf.° F (19 ° C).Slightly cool in the north 59° F It becomes (15 ℃).The minimum nighttime temperature rarely drops to freezing, 46 in the Gulf° F (8 ℃), 37 in the north° F (3 ° C).20 in the north when the cold front passes° F It often falls below (-8 ° C), but rarely cools in the south.Snowfall is rare in the Gulf region, with annual snowfalls of 1 to 3 inches (2.5-7.5 cm) in the north, and more frequently in the north.Record highs were recorded by plain dealing on August 1936, 8 10° F (46 ° C), record low temperature recorded in Minden on February 1899, 2-13° F It is (-27 ° C).

LouisianaTropical cycloneThe lowlands around New Orleans are particularly vulnerable to large hurricanes, and the unique terrain with many bayous, wetlands and coves increases the damage caused by hurricanes.Thunderstorms are more likely to occur, especially in summer.Thunderstorms occur on average over 60 days a year, the second highest number after Florida.竜 巻An average of 27 cases occur annually.The entire state has been damaged by tornadoes, but the southernmost part of the state is somewhat less frequent.Most in the south from January to March, and in the north from February to March[28].

Hurricane

  • On August 1856, 8, Hurricane 10, Landing Category 1, landed on Last Island, a 4-mile (25 km) long breakwater island was divided into five islands, killing more than 40 people.
  • June 1957, Category 6, damages 4-60% of homes and businesses from Cameron to Grand Chenier, leaving 80 homeless and more than 4 dead It was.
  • August 1965, 9,Hurricane Betsy, Category 3 at the time of landing, the first hurricane with total damage exceeding $ 10 billion.New Orleans was particularly devastated, flooding about 35% of the city and killing 76 people throughout the state.
  • 1969 year 8 month,Hurricane Camille, Category 5.The storm surge reached 23.4 feet (7.1 m), killing 250 people.Officially, it landed in Mississippi and caused great damage, but it also had a significant impact in Louisiana.New Orleans escaped the storm, but most of the lowlands were flooded.
  • 1992 year 8 month,Hurricane AndrewAt the time of landing, it struck Category 3, the south central part of the state, killing four people and shutting down nearly 4 households.Crop damage was estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars.
  • October 2002, 10, Hurricane Riri, Landing Category 3
  • August 2005, 8,Hurricane Katrina, Landing category 3[29] Struck the southeastern part of the state, destroying the New Orleans embankment and flooding 80% of the city.Most citizens had escaped, but many lost their homes.The city was virtually closed until October.More than 10 million people have been evacuated in the Gulf region and more than 200 have died in Louisiana alone.There were criticisms that local, state, and national preparations and responses were slow and inadequate.Due to this effect, many people were evacuated all over the country.
  • August 2005, 9,Hurricane RitaHit the southwestern part of the state in Category 3 at the time of landingCameron County,Lake Charles CityFlooded many counties and towns.The embankment of New Orleans was damaged and part of the city was flooded.
  • August 2008, 9,Hurricane GustavLanded near Cocodley in the southeastern part of the state. On August 8stCategory 3However, when it landed on September 9, it became category 1 and soon after that it became category 2.[30].. Many citizens escaped from New Orleans because it was predicted to be a "hurricane of the century" and could be stronger than Hurricane Katrina three years ago.[31], It wasn't that strong.Still many dead[32].. The power outage on September 9 affected about 1 million people[33].

Protected area

Louisiana is home to a wide variety of organisms due to its location and topography.Over 98% of species have been lost in important areas such as the Southwestern Plains.The pine forest lowlands of Florida County (northern part of the eastern part of the state) are also at serious risk, due to forest fire prevention and urbanSprawl phenomenonIs large[22]..There is not yet a well-organized mechanism for protecting Louisiana's biodiversity.If such a mechanism were possible, it would be like Florida is planning.Green corridorIt will be composed of a mechanism to protect the core area of ​​biodiversity connected by[34].

In any case, there are many areas in the state that prevent human intervention, to varying degrees.[35].United States National Park ServiceIn addition to the locations and areas under the jurisdiction of the Department of Forestry and the State Forestry Department, Louisiana operates state parks, state historic sites, one state conservation area, one state forest, and many wildlife management areas.The Nature Management Committee also owns and manages the natural area[36]..The largest natural area in the state is the Kisatchi National Forest.Area is 60 acres (2,400 km)2) Yes, more than half of which is an important forest area and is home to many rare plants and animals.[22], Includes ya.Around Lake PontchartrainEasy showSwamp reserves are also large and important natural areas, and the southern wetlands are home to egrets, alligators and sturgeons.At least 12 core areas are needed to create a system of protected areas within the state.These will extend from the southwestern plains to the eastern Pearl River floodplain and the northern Mississippi alluvial plain.[22].

The Louisiana Natural Landscape River System protects 48 rivers, streams and bays in the state.It is under the jurisdiction of the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fish Conservation.

National Park Service

United States National Park ServiceThe historical and landscape areas that we manage, protect, or otherwise recognize are:

  • Kane River National Historical Heritage Area, near Natchitoches
  • River Kane Creole National Historical Park, near Natchitoches
  • Headquartered in Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Conservation Area, New Orleans, St. Bernard Parish, Barataria (Crown Point), andAcadiana(Lafayette) Has a branch office.
  • Povati Point National Reserve, Epps
  • Saileen Bayeux, Northern StateWinn ParishDesignated as a national wildlife river nearby

National Forestry Bureau

  • Kisatchi National Forest: The only national forest in the state, 60 acres (2,400 km) in the central and northern parts of the state.2) Area, low woodland (Flatwoods)WhenLongleaf pineThere is a forest

State parks and recreation areas

Main article:w: List of Louisiana state parks,w: List of Louisiana state historic sites

Louisiana operates 22 state parks, 17 state historic sites, and one state conservation area.

Demographic

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
181076,556
1820153,407100.4%
1830215,73940.6%
1840352,41163.4%
1850517,76246.9%
1860708,00236.7%
1870726,9152.7%
1880939,94629.3%
18901,118,58819.0%
19001,381,62523.5%
19101,656,38819.9%
19201,798,5098.6%
19302,101,59316.9%
19402,363,51612.5%
19502,683,51613.5%
19603,257,02221.4%
19703,641,30611.8%
19804,205,90015.5%
19904,219,9730.3%
20004,468,9765.9%
20104,533,3721.4%
Source: 1910-2010[37]

As of July 2011, 7, the state population was 1,2010 CensusWas increased by 0.91%[38]..Population density is 1 people per square mile (104.9 people / km)2)[39].. Large since 2000HurricaneThe population tends to be sluggish compared to other states because it was attacked many times.

LouisianaCenter of gravityHas the town of New Rose,Pointe Coupee CountyHas become[40].

According to the 2000 census, 5% of state citizens over the age of 90.8 are at homeEnglishSpeak only (99% of English speakers),FrenchOr the percentage of Cajun French speakers is 4.7%,SpanishThe percentage of those who speak was 2.5%[41]..OtherVietnamese0.6%,German0.2% is spoken.State law allows the use of English and French in certain circumstances, but there is no official language provision in the state constitution.[42]..The "virtually controlled languages" of the state government are English and French.

French spoken by some inhabitants in the southern part of the stateCajun (Cajun) Called French,カナダEasternPrimoryeFrench spoken inAcadiaIt is derived from a dialect.The reason is1755 Seven year war(French indian war), Acadia's French residents refused to be loyal to Britain and were expelled, and many Acadia dialect speakers emigrated to French Louisiana.The Acadia dialect is derived from the Anjou-Poitiers dialect of southern France, and the old wording remains, so it is quite different from the standard French.There is also Louisiana Creole French.There are also two dialects in English.Cajun English is an English dialect influenced by French.Also known as Yat, it resembles the New York City accent, especially that of Brooklyn.Both regions are influenced by Irish and Italian immigrants.However, Yat is also influenced by French and Spanish.

When Louisiana became a state of the United States in 1812, it was dominated by French speakers.The original text of Louisiana's first constitution was written in French (translated into English, with both English and French being authentic).However, in the second half of the 19th century, English speakers became the majority and politically dominant.In recent years, the number of French speakers in Louisiana has been declining, but since the 1960s it has been French.French cultureEfforts have been made to preserve it and it is also taught at school.

Colonial French was the language spoken during the French colonial era and was mainly spoken by white pioneers.Black creoleLouisiana CreoleSpoke.Cajun French was introduced after the Acadians moved between 1710 and 1763.Cajun and its culture did not emerge immediately, but the original Acadian culture has slowly changed under the influence of the local culture.

Race and ancestry

The proportion of ancestors declared in the state is black (32.0%),French / French Canadian (15.1%),German descent (8.7%),Irish descent (8.1%),British It is in the order of (6.7%)[44].

Religious

Like other states, Louisiana is largely Protestant, but the southern part of the Cajun immigrant state has a large Catholic population, unlike other states in the south.Currently, the religious distribution of Louisiana's inhabitants is as follows.  

Indian tribe

In Louisiana,Alabama,ApalacheeTribe,Atakapan,,,,Cado,,,,Choctaw,,,,Koroa,Muskogee,Natchez,,(,,),,,,,,,,,,such asイ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribes settled in various parts of the country until the 19th century, with farming inland and fishing in the coastal areas.

Since ancient times, this fertile land has become a prime farmland for white settlers, and many Indian tribes have been slaughtered and destroyed.Further in 1830Andrew JacksonBy the presidentIndian immigration lawWhen enacted, most Indian tribesOklahomaWas forced to relocate to.

Many Indian tribes who refused to be displaced and remained in the area have been designated as "extinct tribes" and have been discontinued from the United States to this day.United States Department of the InteriorCertified byReservation placeThere are four tribes that have (Reservation).The Choctaw Gina Band was recertified by the United States in 4 and "revived".

In addition to traditional fishing, coastal tribes also cultivate shrimp and farm rice.Hurricane damage has been devastating in recent years in Indian communities such as the "Pointe au Shen" in the coastal Bayou region.The budget for the restoration of submerged settlements has had to rely on the state government for tribes that have not been certified by the United States, and the hurricane damage in the fall of 2008 has led to a lack of budget and calls for donations.

The Louisiana government has identified 10 tribes as "state tribes," but many are still demanding US accreditation, which guarantees greater autonomy.

≪Tribes and reservations officially recognized by the United States government≫

  • "... Louisiana"
  • "CoushattaTribe "
  • ""
  • "Choctaw・ Gina Band "
  • "Indian Township Reservation"

≪A tribe that is not officially recognized by the United States but is officially recognized by the state government≫

  • "AdiceCado'
  • "Biloxi Chitimacha Federation (Union)"
    • "Bayou Laforche Band"
    • "Grand Keilo Durack Band"
    • "Islede Juan Carlos Band"
  • "Clifton Choctaw"
  • "Choctaw Apache"
  • "Cherokee・ Four wind bands "
  • ""
  • ""

≪Tribes and organizations that are not officially recognized by the United States or state governments≫

  • "Apalachee'
  • "Apalachee Tarimari Band"
  • "Atakapa Ishak'
  • "(Okra Tasannuk)"
  • "Avogel Kaskaskia"
  • "Avogel Taensa"
  • ""
  • "Louisiana's First True Native American Tribe"
  • "Ohio·Shawnee・ Kiss Poco Band "
  • "Choctaw・ Turtle Clan "

Indian Casino

There are three "Indian Casinos" currently operating in the state.All by tribes officially recognized by the United States Government.In connection with the opening of the Louisiana Coushatta casino, a big brokerJack AbramoffIn 2006, a large amount of embezzlement by Abramov was discovered and became a national scandal.

  • "Chiti Macha"
    • "Cypress Bay You Casino"
  • "Coushatta"
    • "Coushatta Casino Resort"
  • "Tunica Biloxi"
    • "Paragon Casino Resort"

Culture / art / music

Creole culture is a fusion culture that incorporates various elements from France, Spain, Africa and indigenous cultures.[45]..Creole culture belongs to both white and black creole.Initially, the word Creole was a French or Spanish offspring, referring to locally born Caucasians.It later also referred to the offspring of white men's relationships with black women, many of whom were educated freelancers.Many wealthy white men had a semi-permanent mistress relationship with women of color, apart from their marriage, and were fed as "places."If the woman was a slave when she became a mistress, she arranged for her release, and the children born to Place were also free.

Creole became more closely associated with the New Orleans region and developed a unique practice.Most of the wealthy planters had homes in the town and their plantations.There is a private idea that Creole is a mixed race of blacks and French derived from "Haitian" which means African French.Many immigrants from Haiti came to New Orleans after the Haitian Revolution.Black Creole is a type of Creole, but it is not the only type, nor is it the original meaning of Creole.All the cultures of the populations settled in southern Louisiana were mixed together to form a "New Orleans" culture.The combination of creative cultures of these groups, combined with the culture of Native Americans, was called the "Creole" culture. Until the turn of the 1th century, along with the Cajun culture, it remained one of the dominating cultures of Louisiana's society, economy and politics.

Cajun was a descendant of people who emigrated from the Midwest of France to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, called Acadia.When Britain won the French and Indian War, the Acadians had long declared political neutrality, and Britain forcibly separated and expelled the Acadian family.Most of the captive Acadians were imprisoned in concentration camps in the British and New England colonies for 10 to 30 years.Many of those who escaped Britain remained in French Canada.Many of those released in England were scattered in various places, some in France and some in Canada.メキシコOrFalkland IslandsHeaded for.Many are in southern Louisiana,LafayetteI found an escape area in the area centered on Ya. Until the 1970s, Cajun was often considered a lower-class citizen and was used somewhat derogatory.With the arrival of the oil and gas boom, Cajun culture, cooking, music and the "life song" lifestyle became rapidly recognized internationally.

CajunThe culture of Louisiana, strongly influenced by immigrants, has many unique points compared to other southern states.Cajun is one of them, but the most famous one isCajun cuisineWill.Based on the Cajun French cuisine brought in by Cajun immigrants, the Cajun cuisine that follows the flow of Indian cuisine, black slave cuisine from West Africa and Creole cuisine brought in by immigrants from Saint-Domang is one of the best in the United States.Typical examples are seafood and chicken.Andouille sausage(Andouille) etc.GumboSoup calledJambalaya, Blackened fish baked with spicy spices on fish, sausage with riceBoudin, French styledonutIsBenierand so on.On the other hand, in urban areasCreole foodDeveloped and interacted with Cajun cuisine.

In addition,CajunBrought in by immigrantsCajunMusic and Cajun dance (Fais do doEtc.) are very unique, not found anywhere else in the United States.

A third distinctive culture is the Spanish territory in the early 3s, when Louisiana was Spanish territory.Canary islandsThere is a culture of people called Isrenho, descendants of those who migrated from.They initially entered four settlements, many of which are nowSt. Bernard ParishMany of Isrenho are still concentrated here because they moved to.An annual festival called Fiesta celebrates the historical heritage of Isrenho.St. Bernard Parish is home to the Isrenho Museum, Cemetery and Church, and many streets bear Spanish and Spanish names.Isrenho's identity has become a vibrant cultural element in St. Bernard Parish.Some of its inhabitants are still Spanish-speaking and retain the unique accent of the Canary Islands.There are Isrenho clubs and organizations, many of which remain in contact with the Canary Islands.New Orleans is also well known as the birthplace of jazz.It is also the source of various music such as Dixieland jazz, blues, country and rock.New Orleans R & B, including Allen Toussaint, The Meters, Lee Dorsey and Dr. John, is loved by music fans around the world.Phil Phillips and Cookies & Cup Cakes are from around Lake Charles.

Administrative division

Louisiana was formerlyFrance OfColonyBecause it was, the administrative division was traditionallyParish(English: Civil parish) Is used.In the Japanese version of Wikipedia, in balance with other states, "countyThere are 41 counties in all.

Important cities and towns

Population> 10,000
(Urban area)
Population> 100,000
(Urban area)
Population> 1,000,000
(Urban area)
Suburbs of New Orleans

Top 10 Rich Districts in Louisiana

Per capita income Ranking by

  1. Mound: $ 92,200 (2000 census, population 12)
  2. : $ 34,944
  3. Elmwood: $ 34,329
  4. Eden Isle: $ 31,798
  5. Gilliam: $ 30,264
  6. Shenandoah: $ 29,722
  7. : $ 28,087
  8. : $ 27,088
  9. Prian: $ 26,537
  10. Mandeville: $ 26,420
reference:List of places by per capita income in Louisiana
Related item:

Politics and law

Related item:List of Governors of Louisiana,Louisiana law

In 1849, Louisiana moved its capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge.OtherDonaldsonville, Opelousas and Shreveport have been state capitals for a short time.Louisiana State CapitolAnd the Louisiana Governor's residence are both currently in Baton Rouge.

The Governor of Louisiana as of 2016Democratic PartyIt is.US Senator is nowDemocratic Party, Republican, one each.United States House of RepresentativesHas sent seven members, including six Republicans and one Democrat, a decrease of one as a result of the 7 census.The number of people in the presidential election is eight.In recent years, the Republican Party has been strongly supported, so it will not be a close battle in the national elections.

Continental law

Louisiana's political and legal system retains some elements from the time of French and Spanish rule.One is as a subdivision under the state "CountyIt is using "Parish" instead of "".The other is the French, German and Spanish codes, ultimatelyRoman lawbased onContinental lawHas adopted the BritishCommon lawIs different.Common law is a law made by judges based on case law, and is the basic idea adopted by 49 other states in the United States.Louisiana's civil law system is adopted by most of the world, especially European countries and their former colonies.British EmpireThe exception is countries derived from.However, it is incorrect to equate the Louisiana Civil Code with the Napoleonic Code.Napoleonic CodeHas had a strong influence on Louisiana law, but the Napoleonic Code was enacted in 1804, after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and was never enforced in Louisiana. .. The Louisiana Code of 1808 has been continuously revised and updated since its enforcement and is considered the basis for control within the state.There are differences between Louisiana's civil law and common law in other states.Some of these differences have been filled with the strong influence of the traditional common law.[46]It should be noted that the "civil law" tradition is deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana's private law.To this end, property, contracts, legal entities, many civil lawsuits, family law, and some aspects of criminal law are based on traditional Roman law thinking.Uniform Commercial CodeThe model code, such as, has been adopted in most states in the United States, including Louisiana, and is based on the Civil Code, which is a deductive element to the inductive common law.In the civil law tradition, the legislature a priori agrees on general principles to be followed.If a set of facts is presented before the judge, the judge deduces the judgment by comparing the law with the individual facts.In contrast, the common law, which does not exist in a purely historical form because it does not take the form of statutory law, applies the judgments made by other judges to the new pattern presented before the judge in one case. Has been produced in.As a result, it was a tradition that British judges were not bound by legislative powers.Times-PicayunAccording to Louisiana, Louisiana is the capital of the world's prisons because of its many commercial or sheriff-owned prisons.Louisiana's imprisonment rate(I.e.5 timesChugoku13 timesGermanyIs 20 times[47].

marriage

In 1997, Louisiana became the first state to allow traditional and contractual marriage options.[48]..In a contract marriage, the two married couples waive their right to a "no fault" divorce six months after separation, which is permitted in traditional marriages.For divorce in contract marriage, the two must clarify the cause.Marriage between ancestors and subordinates and between collateral relatives within the fourth degree of kinship (eg brothers, aunts and nephews, uncles and nieces, cousins) are prohibited.[49].Same-sex marriageIs also forbidden[50]..Louisiana is a state that adopts marital shared property[51].

election

Related item:Elections in Louisiana,Political party strength in Louisiana

From 1898 to 1965, Louisiana was a de facto one-party dictatorship dominated by the white Democratic elite, effectively depriving African Americans and proletariats of their right to vote under new constitutional provisions.After that, the right to vote for white people was expanded somewhat,Civil rights movementAs a result of1965 Election Rights ActBlacks did not have the right to vote until the establishment of.Blacks repeatedly resisted, but were left behind under racial segregation, violence and oppression, lasting from 1910 to 1970.Great migrationThe proportion of blacks in the state continued to decline as they sought better opportunities in industrialized cities in the north and west during their time. Since the 1960sLyndon B. JohnsonMost African-Americans in the state supported the Democratic Party when the Civil Rights Act was passed under the president to protect election and civil rights.Around the same time, many conservative whites began to support Republican candidates in national and governor elections. 2004,David VitterBecame the first Republican senator to be elected in general elections in Louisiana.Prior to that, Republican John S. Harris, who became a senator in 1868, was elected by the state legislature.

Louisiana is also unique in the United States by adopting a mechanism similar to modern French elections in state and local elections.All candidates, regardless of party they belong to, will run in nonpartisan primaries (also known as jungle primaries) for election days.If no candidate has won more than 50% of the total votes cast, the two candidates with the highest turnout will take part in the final vote, which will take place about a month later.This final vote does not matter which political party you belong to.Therefore, it is often the case that Democrats or Republicans face the final vote.Federal parliamentary elections are also held in the jungle primary.State of WashingtonIn all other states, after the primary elections by political parties, general elections by party candidates are held.Each election has the highest number of votes or a final vote, with US members of the Diet or state officials selected. From 2008 to 2010, the United States House of Representatives election was held in a limited primary, or among registered party candidates.However, House Bill 292 was passed, and the nonpartisan comprehensive primary was adopted again for the election of federal lawmakers.

Law enforcement

Related item:w: List of law enforcement investigation in Louisiana

The entire Louisiana police organization is the Louisiana Police Department.State police were established in 1922 when the Highway Commission was created. In 1927, the Criminal Investigation Bureau was created as the second department. In 2, the state highway patrol was allowed to carry weapons.

On July 1936, 7, the two police organizations merged into the Louisiana Police Agency, whose motto was "courtesy, loyalty, and service." In 28, the department was abolished and became a division of the Public Safety Agency called the Louisiana Police Department. In 2, the Criminal Investigation Bureau was reorganized[52]..Its members have the authority to enforce all laws in the state, including city and county ordinances.It patrols more than 1,200 million miles (2,000 million km) each year and arrests about 10,000 offending drivers.State police are primarily responsible for traffic control, with separate departments for traffic safety, drug regulation, and gambling surveillance.

In each countySheriffIs the head of the police organization in the county.He is the administrator of a county-level prison and holds prisoners for felony and misdemeanor.Sheriffs are primarily responsible for criminal patrols and are the first contact, whether criminal or civil.He is also an official tax collector in the county.

Sheriffs are tasked with enforcing the law within their respective counties.Orleans County is an exception, where the New Orleans Police Department is in charge of that task. Prior to 2010, Orleans County was the only county with two sheriff offices.Orleans County divided the duties of sheriffs into criminal and civil duties, with two separately elected sheriffs in charge of each. In 2, a bill was passed to integrate the two divisions into one, with one sheriff in charge of both criminal and civil affairs.

Most of the county is governed by a county commission called Police Julie. Eighteen of the 64 counties have adopted different forms of governance under the Statute of Autonomy.The governing body oversees the county budget and provides county maintenance services.This includes local level services such as road maintenance.

In 2010, the state's homicide crime rate was the highest in the country (10 per 11.2 population), making it the number one for 1989 consecutive years since 22.FBIAccording to the statistics of the Unified Crime Report, the average homicide crime rate during this period was 10 per 14.5 population, which is more than double the domestic average (6.9). "Chicago TribuneIs the most in LouisianacorruptionIt also reports that it is a state with many[53].

National Guard

There are more than 9,000 Louisiana Army members in the state, including the 225th Engineer Brigade and the 256th Infantry Brigade.These units were dispatched abroad to Iraq, Afghanistan, or both.The Louisiana Air Force has 2,000 soldiers and the 159th Fighter Battalion, and has also been dispatched abroad.Training bases include Camp Beauregard near Pineville, Camp Billery near Slider, Camp Minden near Minden, England Air Park near Alexandria (formerly England Air Force Base), Gillis Long Center near Carville, and New. There is Jackson Barracks in Orleans.

Economy

Louisiana quarter dollar coin

Louisiana's total state output in 2010 was US $ 2,136 billion, ranking 24th in the country.Per capita income was US $ 41, the 30,952st in the United States.

Louisiana's major agricultural product is marine products, the largest source of about 90% of the worldcrayfishProducing area),cotton,soy,,sugar cane,家禽as well as the Chicken eggs,Dairy productsAndRiceIs included.Industrial products are chemical products,oilas well as the coalIncludes products, food processing, transportation equipment, paper products, and tourism.The marine products industry employs an estimated 16,000 people[54]..Manufacturing industries include chemical products, petroleum and coal products, processed foods, transportation equipment and paper products.Tourism is also an important economic factor, especially around New Orleans.

The South Louisiana harbor between New Orleans and the Baton Rouge on the Mississippi RiverWestern hemisphereIt is the largest shipping port, the fourth largest in the world, andBulk carrierIs the largest in the world[55].

New Orleans, Shreveport and Baton Rouge also have a thriving film industry[56]..The film industry has made great strides due to state tax incentives and active publicity. Total area of ​​2007 square feet (2008 m) in late 300,000 and early 28,0002) The opening of a movie studioTremeScheduled at, with state-of-the-art equipment and training equipment[57]..McCull Henny, one of the largest producers of dry sauce in the United StatesTabasco・ Source is founded on Avery Island[58].

In the stateincome taxIs in 2 steps from 6% to 3%.consumption taxIs 4%, of which 3.97% is state sales tax and 0.03% is tourism promotion district sales tax.In addition to tax collection, consumption tax may be added at the local level.4% of the usage tax is allocated from the Ministry of Revenue to the local government.Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level.Louisiana is a heavily subsidized state, with $ 1 per dollar paid to the federal government being returned to the state.

Tourism and cultural businesses play a key role in Louisiana's economy, with annual sales of US $ 52 billion.[59]..Many cultural events are held in the state, including the World Cultural and Economic Forum, which is held every fall at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center.[60].

As of 2010, the unemployment rate in the state was 7.4%[61]..African-American unemployment is nearly three times higher than whites[62].

Federal subsidies and uses

Louisiana taxpayers receive more subsidies than the national average. In 2005, $ 1 for every $ 1,78 tax paid to the US government was returned for the state.This is the fourth highest in the country and has been increasing since it was $ 4 in 1995.In neighboring states, Texas was $ 1.35, Arkansas was $ 0.94, and Mississippi was as high as $ 1.41.Louisiana's high subsidies are due to reconstruction from Hurricane Katrina[63].

Energy

Louisiana is rich in oil and natural gas resources.Its reserves are abundantly found below sea level, entering land and state territories.In addition, large reserves have been confirmed on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico, which is controlled by the US government.According to the Energy Information Agency, the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf is the largest oil-producing region in the United States.With the exception of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf, Louisiana is the fourth largest oil producer in the country, with oil reserves of about 4%.One-third of the United States' oil production comes from offshore, 2% of which comes from the deep waters of Louisiana.The oil industry employs about 3 people[64].

Natural gas reserves are about 5% of the domestic total.Recently, the Haynesville Formation, which spans eight counties including Caddo CountyOil shaleWas discovered and became the fourth largest gas field in the world.Initially 4 million cubic feet daily (2,500 m)3) Produced the above gas[65].

Louisiana is the first place in the world to dig an oil well underwater.The location is Lake Caddo in the northwest corner of the state.The oil and gas industry, as well as its associated transportation and oil refining industries, has dominated Louisiana's economy since 1940. Since 1950, the US Home Office has filed several proceedings in an attempt to deprive Louisiana of rights to underwater land.These are intended to control large oil and gas reserves.

When oil and gas boomed in the 1970s, Louisiana's economy also boomed.Over the last half century, Louisiana's economy and politics are incomprehensible except for the influence of the oil and gas industry. Since the 1980s, the headquarters of these industries have beenHoustonHowever, work for operations or support for logistics to the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf remains in the state.

Transportation

In March 2011, Louisiana was the second largest state in the United States after Kentucky due to poor waste disposal.Poor cleanliness and inefficiency of public spaces (mainly roads and associated waste disposal) throughout the state[66].

The Louisiana Department of Transportation Development is a state organization that maintains aviation, including public transport, roads, bridges, canals, embankments, floodplain management, port facilities, commercial vehicles, and 69 airports.

Interstate highway

  • I-10.svg Interstate 10
  • I-12.svg Interstate highway12
  • I-20.svg Interstate 20
  • I-49.svg Interstate 49
  • I-55.svg Interstate 55
  • I-59.svg Interstate 59
  • I-110.svg Interstate 110
  • I-210.svg Interstate 210
  • I-220.svg Interstate 220
  • I-310.svg Interstate 310
  • I-510.svg Interstate 510
  • I-610.svg Interstate 610
  • I-910.svg Interstate 910

American National Road

  • US 11.svg American National Road11
  • US 51.svg US Route 51
  • US 61.svg US Route 61
  • US 63.svg US Route 63
  • US 65.svg US Route 65
  • US 71.svg US Route 71
  • US 79.svg US Route 79
  • US 80.svg US Route 80
  • US 84.svg US Route 84
  • US 90.svg US Route 90
  • US 165.svg US Route 165
  • US 167.svg US Route 167
  • US 171.svg US Route 171
  • US 190.svg US Route 190
  • US 371.svg US Route 371
  • US 425.svg US Route 425

Intracoastal waterwayIs an important means of transporting products such as petroleum, petroleum products, agricultural products and building materials.

Education

References for schools:w: List of school districts in Louisiana

Colleges and universities

Sporting event

Professional sports team

football

baseball

basketball

hockey

rugby

Events

More

From Louisiana

(Last name in alphabetical order)

 

State symbols, etc.

  • State Birds-Brown Pelican
  • State Flower- Magnolia magnolia
  • State Wildflowers-Louisiana Ayame
  • State Tree-Bald Cypress
  • State Fruit- Strawberry
  • State Vegetables- sweet potato
  • State Vegetable Plants-CreoleTomato
  • State Crustacean-Crayfish
  • State insects- Honey bee
  • State Amphibians- American green tree frog
  • State Fish-White Perch
  • State Reptiles-American Alligator
  • State Mammals- American black bear
  • State dog- Catahoula Leopard Dog
  • State Fossil-Palmoxylon
  • State Jewels- agate
  • State Cuisine-Gumbo
  • State Meat Pies-Naketes Meat Pies
  • State Jelly-Mayho Jelly and Louisiana Sugarcane Jelly
  • State Beverages- milk
  • State Colors-Blue, White, Gold
  • State Musical Instruments-Diatonic (Cajun)accordion
  • State Motto-Unity, Justice, and Confidence ("Union, Justice, and Confidence")
  • The official state slogan-"Come fall in Love with Louisiana all over again."
  • State Song- You Are My SunshineAnd give me louisiana
  • State Environmental Song-The Gifts of Earth
  • State March-Louisiana My Home Sweet Home
  • State Tartan-Louisiana Tartan

Japan's sister cities

footnote

  1. ^ New Orleans a'ghost town' after thousands flee Gustav: mayor Archived August 2013, 5, at the Wayback Machine. August 31, 2008.
  2. ^ Baker, Lea Flowers. "Louisiana Purchase". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.Retrieved January 2010, 9.
  3. ^ Amélie A. Walker, "Earliest Mound Site", Archaeology Magazine, Volume 51 Number 1, January / February 1998
  4. ^ Robert W. Preucel, Stephen A. Mrozowski, Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism, John Wiley and Sons, 2010, p. 177
  5. ^ Jon L. Gibson, PhD, "Poverty Point: The First Complex Mississippi Culture" Archived August 2013, 12, at the Wayback Machine., 2001, Delta Blues, accessed 26 October 2009
  6. ^ "OAS-Oklahomas Past". October 2010th, 2Browse.
  7. ^ a b "Tejas-Caddo Ancestors-Woodland Cultures". October 2010th, 2Browse.
  8. ^ Kidder, Tristram (1998). R. Barry Lewis, Charles Stout. Ed. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0947-0 
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References

  • The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana's Cane World, 1820–1860 by Richard Follett Louisiana State University Press 2007. ISBN 978-0-8071-3247-0
  • The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 by Hugh Thomas. 1997: Simon and Schuster. P. 548.
  • Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World by David Brion Davis 2006: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533944-4
  • Yiannopoulos, AN, The Civil Codes of Louisiana (reprinted from Civil Law System: Louisiana and Comparative law, A Coursebook: Texts, Cases and Materials, 3d Edition; similar to version in preface to Louisiana Civil Code, ed. By Yiannopoulos)
  • Rodolfo Batiza, The Louisiana Civil Code of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance, 46 TUL. L. REV. 4 (1971); Rodolfo Batiza, Sources of the Civil Code of 1808, Facts and Speculation: A Rejoinder, 46 TUL. L. REV. 628 (1972); Robert A. Pascal, Sources of the Digest of 1808: A Reply to Professor Batiza, 46 TUL. L. REV. 603 (1972); Joseph M. Sweeney, Tournament of Scholars Over the Sources of the Civil Code of 1808,46 TUL. L. REV. 585 (1972).
  • The standard history of the state, though only through the Civil War, is Charles Gayarré's History of Louisiana (various editions, culminating in 1866, 4 vols., With a posthumous and further expanded edition in 1885).
  • A number of accounts by 17th and 18th century French explorers: Jean-Bernard Bossu, François-Marie Perrin du Lac, Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, Dumont (as published by Fr. Mascrier), Fr. Louis Hennepin, Lahontan, Louis Narcisse Baudry des Lozières, Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, and Laval. In this group, the explorer Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz may be the first historian of Louisiana with his Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763)
  • François Xavier Martin's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827–1829, later ed. By J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is the first scholarly treatment of the subject, along with François Barbé-Marbois' Histoire de la Louisiane et de la cession de colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830).
  • Alcée Fortier's A History of Louisiana (NY, 4 vols., 1904) is the most recent of the large-scale scholarly histories of the state.
  • The official works of Albert Phelps and Grace King and the publications of the Louisiana Historical Society and several works on the history of New Orleans, among them those by Henry Rightor and John Smith Kendall provide background.

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