Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🌏 | TPP membership application, unrelated to AUKUS = Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China


写真 

TPP membership application, unrelated to AUKUS = Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China

 
If you write the contents roughly
At AUKUS, Britain and the United States will provide the technology and capabilities to deploy nuclear submarines in Australia.
 

[Beijing XNUMXth Reuters] -China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs applied for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

submarine

submarine(Senseikan,English: Submarine) Is underwaterwarship.

Overview

Battleship,aircraft carrier,cruiser,DestroyerThe biggest difference between submarines and submarines is that submarines can navigate underwater. EspeciallySecond World WarSubsequent submarines have the main purpose of underwater navigation.

radar OfRadio wave,Visible lightIs rarely received, and it is effective as one of the few search methodssoundEven with the state-of-the-art detection deviceAnti-submarine weaponsIt's not easy for modern anti-submarine units equipped with.Submarines break through enemy patrol networks and become enemy ships without being aware of their existence.Transport ship, Sink the transport ship,mineLaying the otherSpecial ForcesIt can be used for infiltration support and information gathering tasks[1].. Some submarinesCruise missileGround attack byNuclear warheadEquipped withSubmarine fired ballistic missileThere are some that can operate (SLBM). It may also attack enemy submarines or escort surface ships from enemy submarines.

April XNUMX,Argentine military occupies Falkland IslandsI happened to have lunch with a submarine officer on Monday immediately after, and...Royal NavyHe should immediately declare that one of our submarines has arrived in the conflict zone, my friend told me. No one could dispute such claims, but perhaps not, the friend continued. "But it's only when the ships of your army actually begin to disappear that it becomes clear that the submarine is in its waters, which is a very expensive way to verify authenticity." — Tom ClancyTranslated by Hideaki Hiraga, "Tom Clancy's Underground Anatomy"[2]

And to "somewhere" under the watertorpedo, Or the fact that there are submarines with missiles (sometimes "blunt", which is unknown until they detect the submarine or are attacked by it) puts psychological pressure on the enemy[2]As a result, it also leads to deterrence[3] [Note 1].

In that sense, the biggest weapon of a submarine is stealth.[5][6][7].. Submarines are oftenUltimateStealth weapon"(Ultimate stealth weapon), the submarine unitArmy of silence(OrSilent execution army[8])” (Silent Service[Note 2]That is why it is called.

Submarines show their true value by hiding, so it is desirable not to surface. Attacking an aircraft from the sea is difficult,Anti-submarine patrol aircraftAre often unilaterally searched and attacked. Some submarines equipped with anti-aircraft weapons[Note 3] However, it is basic to have no anti-aircraft equipment because it will notify you of the existence if you attack.

Developmental history

Dawn

The submarines that were conceived or built before the modern era include:

First modern submarine

In 1900,Father of modern submarineA shipbuilder,John Philip HollandDesigned bySubmarine Holland(Underwater drainage 74t)US NavyWas commissioned to. Holland is the main enginegasoline engineIt is a direct connection method ofInternal combustion engineWas the originator of the modern submarine promoted by.

World War I period

Since the commissioning of the Holland, submarines have come to the spotlight around the world,Strong lineThe Navy has all begun building submarines.Early submarines were dominated by gasoline engines, but soondiesel engineWas replaced by. Submarines of that timeDischarge amountIt was 100-1,000t, the water speed was 10kt, and the maximum diving depth was about 100m.

The full-scale activity of a submarineWorld War IFrom The one who used the submarine effectivelyGerman EmpireMet.U boatThe German submarine was called the German Navy submarine in September 1914, shortly after the outbreak of the war.cruiserBeginning to sink four ships, one after another sinking British warships and freighters,Trade destructionWas active in.

The British merchant fleet was hit hard and drowned the British economy. But in July 1915,LucitaniaThe incident sank many Americans around. As a result, the German Empire, fearing that the United States, which was a neutral nation at the time, would be reluctant to attack British ships after September 1915, and its outcome was reduced.

After that, the German Empire recovered in 1917 to recover the war situation.Unlimited submarine warfare, The German Navy submarine fleet temporarily achieved great success. But the UKConvoyIf you use, the battle result will decrease drastically. Moreover, the indiscriminate attack on British Merchant Ships led to the entry of the United States and contributed to the defeat of World War I.

In World War I,German Imperial NavyHas commissioned 381 submarines and lost 178 of them, but by the end of the war, it sank about 5,300 or 1,300 million tons of ships, and the Atlantic Wolf and U-Boat were known to the world. It was a roar.

Interwar period-World War II period

World War IThe effectiveness of submarines was proved by the success of U-boats in Japan, and each country embarked on full-scale operation of submarines.

Second World WarThen, the submarines of each country demonstrated their power not only by the destruction of trade but also by the results of the sinking of battleships including battleships and aircraft carriers.

Until this time, homing torpedoes with high accuracy that could be used for underwater attacks had not been introduced in earnest, so underwater3 dimensionsIt was difficult to fight between submarines that moved in a targeted manner.

An example of a submarine sinking a submarine was in February 1945.ノルウェー OfBergenBritish submarine offshoreVenturerIs a German submarine navigating the periscope depthU-864TheSonarDetected by a few timesSnorkelTheperiscopeAfter seeing with, chase with sonarLightningAnd then sunk[9], 1943rd November 11Operation submarine operationWas on the way homeIXNUMX Penang IslandThere is an example of being sunk by the British submarine "Torus" while sailing offshore.

An example of a two-sided attack was in July 1943.(English editionUS submarine "Scamp"JapanI number XNUMXThere is a battle between and.

However, all submarines that have been sunk are sailing at or near the ocean, which is different from the battle between submarines that is generally imagined in modern times.

British flag The United Kingdom
Britain, which was driven to the brink of destruction of its merchant ship unit,Treaty of VersaillesBanned Germany from owning submarines, and a new modelAnti-submarine weaponsHowever, due to the effects of military spending cuts due to financial difficulties, anti-submarine warfare technology was stagnant during the interwar period.
Nazi Germany flag Germany
Germany was banned from owning submarines under the Treaty of Versailles, but in 1935Rearmament declaration(English edition,German versionConstruction will resume after the conclusion.Second World WarAt the start,German NavyWas in the process of being rebuilt. Therefore, the construction of the surface combatant ship, which takes time to complete, was postponed and the focus was on mass production of submarines, and the U-boat unit was put into the destruction of trade with Britain as in the previous war. The mainstay of U-boats in World War IIU-boat type VIIU-boat type IX.
Initially sank many British cargo lines, but laterAllied forcesIs a new anti-submarine weapon and escort shipAnti-submarine patrol aircraftWhen a large number of U-boats were introduced, on the contrary, a large number of U-boats were sunk.
On the other hand, the German side also tried to improve the performance of the U-boat,Snorkel,Walter OrganizationDevelopment of new technology such as, and was called a miracle U-boatU-boat XXI typeWas introduced at the end of the war, but the war situation did not recover.
Flag of the Imperial Japanese Navy Dainichi this empire
Imperial Japanese NavyIntended to launch submarines for attacking enemy fleets in fleet decisive battles with large sea submarinesBattle cruiserIt was built around the two series. The battle cruiserSeaplaneIt was a reconnaissance type with excellent cruising power and enemy search power. On the other hand, the large sea was an attack type with excellent surface speed and lightning strike power.I-XNUMX submarineWas the largest submarine commissioned in World War II.
HoweverPacific WarThen, the fleet decisive battle that was expected before the start of the war did not occur, and there was no outstanding activity.Indian OceanIt was used to destroy commerce in Japan and to transport it to the south, but many were sunk in front of the excellent anti-submarine weapons of US Navy vessels.
United States flag The United States of America
US NavyLike Germany, it also launched a submarine to destroy trade with Japan. U.S. submarines are high performanceradar,SonarAs a result, Japanese ships with inferior electronic weapons were sunk one after another. The success of the US submarine destroyed the Japanese Merchant Navy and greatly contributed to the victory over Japan.

After World War II

The U.S. Navy's "" completed in 1955Nautilus"(Water displacement 3,180t) isReactorSteam turbineFor the first time in historyNuclear submarineMet. The ship had an underwater speed of 20 knots and a dive time of around 3 months. With the advent of the nuclear main engine, the underwater speed and underwater cruising power of submarines have greatly increased. As a result, the combat capability of submarines has improved dramatically.

An example of a nuclear submarine sinking a large surface ship was in 1982.Falkland conflictSometimes the Royal Navy's "Conqueror"ButArgentine NavyCruiser "General BelgranoIs the first case of being sunk by a lightning strike. "Conqueror" followed "General Belgrano" for more than 24 hours, but was not detected at all.This battle proved the effectiveness of the nuclear submarine, which was previously considered to be overwhelmingly disadvantageous to surface ships.Conversely, the Argentine Navy was forced to curtail its operations because it was unable to sink just one British submarine to the end.

In movies and simulation games, battles between submarines may be depicted, but since World War II, there have not been many offshore armed conflicts between countries that own submarines, so there are not many submarines. It is said that no full-scale battle has occurred until now.

Types

Attack submarine

Attack submarine(British: attack submarine) Is the main armament such as torpedoes and mines, and is a submarine whose mission is to attack enemy surface ships and submarines. Abbreviations are US and British Navy andJMSDFThen it is called SS.The nuclear propulsion type is called SSN with N representing nuclear power (Nuclear).

The former submarines were inferior in basic capabilities such as maximum speed, defense, electronic equipment, underwater range, etc. compared to surface ships, and it was difficult to compete with cruisers and destroyers. For this reason, it is mainly used for ambush attacks, information gathering at ports, special unit deployment, material transportation, freighter ships, etc.Trade destructionWas put into a mission such as. However, since World War II, the performance of torpedoes, sonars, various electronic devices, and communication devices have been improved.Nuclear powerWith the advent of, the performance has improved dramatically, and now as a warship with strong fighting power,BattleshipWon a position comparable to.

Attack submarines are now targeting not only enemy surface ships but also enemy submarines. The reason why submarines are advantageous is to detect and attack submarines with high covertness. There, they are tasked with attacking enemy strategic missile submarines and escorting their own fleet from enemy attack submarines.

In addition,Cold WarTook over the Soviet Navy after the endRussian NavySubmarine troops have become significantly inactive due to worsening financial conditions.As a result, in the US Navy's offensive nuclear submarines, missions such as attacking conventional enemy submarines and surface ships and escorting friendly mobile aircraft carrier fleets have been greatly reduced.However, with the end of the Cold War, regional conflicts began to occur frequently in the world, and American offensive nuclear submarines began to fulfill new missions.Cruise missileOf the bowVLSLaunches underwater from (vertical launch system) to attack the ground's important target on the ground of the enemy, secretly invades the coast of the enemy country, conduct reconnaissance and information gathering activities, and throw in and recover special forces. It has a ship structure that can be used. In addition, missions such as the discovery and tracking of conventional enemy submarines continue to be the most important tasks of attack-type submarines in terms of importance.

Coastal submarine

Coastal submarine(British: coastal submarine) Is a type of attack submarine or laying submarine.Patrol type submarineAlso called. It is small and lacks cruising ability, and is used for patrol missions in the waters around its own country. Until World War II, medium and small submarines with a displacement of several hundred tons to less than XNUMX tons are classified as coastal submarines.

Cruise submarine

Cruise submarine(British: cruiser submarine) Is a type of attack submarine or laying submarine. It is large in size and has excellent cruising ability and habitability. It is capable of long-term action by expanding into the distant open ocean. Patrol mission under enemy sea control, reconnaissance mission invading enemy port base, open seaTrade destructionUsed for etc. Those that have the ability to act in the open ocean more than coastal submarines, but do not have the ability to move into the ocean as cruise submarinesNautical submarine(British: ocean-going submarine) And so on.

The 1,000 to 2,000 ton-class wastewater that appeared from the First World War to the Second World War was classified as a cruise submarine. The operators are mainly open ocean navies,ColonyIt was owned by the British Navy, which had a large number of ships, and the Japanese-US Navy, whose operational area is the vast Pacific Ocean.

Fleet type submarine

Fleet type submarine(British: fleet type submarine) Is a type of attack submarine. A submarine that is supposed to be used in the field. Follows friendly surface ships and is in charge of attacking enemy surface ships and submarines during battle. In order to cooperate with a warship that is faster than a freighter ship, high-speed performance is required when navigating.

Due to its nature, the operating nations are limited to naval powers that have large surface fleets. What was clearly built as a fleet submarine is a large naval submarine of the Japanese Navy,US Navy OfAA-1 class submarineSuch. However, it was impossible to build a fleet submarine with satisfactory performance with the technology of the time, and soon the fleet submarine became extinct.

However, with the practical application of nuclear power engines, high-speed submarines that can take the same actions as the surface fleet have appeared, and the former fleet submarine concept has been realized.Generally, they are often referred to as offensive submarines, but even today only the Royal Navy continues to use the Fleet submarine classification.

Laying submarine

Mine laying submarine(British: submarine mine layer) Is an enemySea controlThe task is to lay a mine below. NormalMine laying shipCompared to, mine laying on a submarine was safe. Due to the miniaturization of mines, it is now possible to mount and lay mines even if the ship is not designed specifically for mine mining, so the classification of mine-laying submarines has disappeared.

Transport submarine

A submarine used to operate supplies and troops. Submarines are easier to break through enemy patrol and surveillance networks than surface ships and aircraft, so they are suitable for transporting supplies under enemy forces and for landing special forces. Japanese Navy submarines during the World War II period were often used for transportation missions, but since these submarines were originally designed for attacking enemy ships, their loading capacity was low and transportation capacity was limited. It was

The first transport submarine built from the beginning to transport goods was during the First World War. The original purpose of construction was the Royal NavySea blockadeBreak through the net,AmericaWas to carry out a transportation mission to and from. The Japanese Navy also at the end of the Pacific WarSubmerged largeBuilt a submarine dedicated to transportation such asJapanese Army TheType XNUMX submersible transport boatI built a submarine for transportation.

But basically, transport missions on submarines are so inefficient that submarines are not used for transport today, except for special missions such as the introduction of special forces.

Supply submarine

Supply friendly ammunition, food, etc. to friendly ships. Built for supply missions to submarines operating under enemy sea control. The typical one isXIV U-boat,Sublimation submarineetc.

Monitor submarine

HugeMain gunDiving type equipped withMonitor shipIs. British NavyM-class submarineAndFrench navyof"SulkhowIs typical. The concept of operation was to secretly approach the sea near the enemy base and surrender to ambush and fire. However, with a gun that is large enough to be mounted on a submarine,Naval shootingIt was not powerful enough to be used for, and this concept was a failure.

other,Trade destructionA mission was also envisioned. Until the middle of World War I, it was common in a trade destruction war to surface before a target merchant ship, give a warning and give crew evacuation time before attacking. In addition, torpedoes were expensive, so if the opponent was a non-warship, there was a tendency to attack with cheaper shells. However, as the submarine at the time of its emergence was extremely vulnerable, it was dangerous to challenge the battle even with a non-warship opponent, so he tried to overpower by strengthening his gun power. However, it was an overwhelming fall to abandon the submarine's greatest advantage, stealth, and this initiative was a failure.

Diving aircraft carrier

Japanese NavyI-XNUMX submarine (Equipped with 3 seaplanes)Ijuzo submarineIt is a common name for (equipped with two aircraft). The onboard machine was a torpedo/2kg bomb at the time for a surprise attack on the localAttack aircraft-Ship bomberIt has the same attack capability as that of the submarine, which has the ability to mount an aircraft in the past. Other than thatThird Reich NavyU-boat XI type was planned, but there is no example that actually reached completion.

However, the above-mentioned submarine aircraft carrier actually has only the ability to mount a seaplane, and in spite of its name, in reality it should be called a submarine aircraft carrier. The number of installed aircraft, such as two or three, is only the same as or slightly less than the number of ordinary cruisers of the same period, and it is hard to say that it is a full-fledged submarine carrier. However, in the actual battle, it was planned to operate as a non-seaplane without mounting a float, but it can be taken off but it is a disposable item that can not be recovered, and it ends without being given the opportunity to put it in the actual battle. It was

通常 のAircraft carrierSimilarly, there has never been a true submarine aircraft carrier capable of launching a carrier-based aircraft from the flight deck.[Note 4].

Cruise missile submarine

ManyCruise missileA submarine that fires. Operated mainly by the Soviet Navy during the Cold War. The Soviet Navy's cruise missile submarines were built to attack the enemy fleet and were equipped with large, powerful, ship-to-ship cruise missiles.

The US Navy also intends to operate cruise missiles on submarines,Tomahawk cruise missileWas developed. Because the Tomahawk was small and could be launched from torpedo tubes, the US Navy did not build a submarine dedicated to cruise missiles. However, after the end of the Cold War, it was used for ground attack by cruise missiles.Kai Ohio class submarineHas appeared.

It can be said that the modified Ohio class has realized the idea that the idea collapsed in the monitor submarine and the submarine aircraft carrier.The modified Ohio class can carry as many as 154 Tomahawks, so it is expected to have a powerful ground attack capability.

Ballistic missile submarine

Ballistic missile submarine TheSubmarine fired ballistic missileIt is a submarine equipped with (SLBM) and aimed at maintaining nuclear attack power against enemy countries. In the case of nuclear promotion,Strategic missile nuclear submarineCategorized asStrategic nuclear weaponsSee also). The abbreviations in English are "SSB" and "SSBN" for nuclear promotion.US Navy slangIs called "Boomer".

Since long-term diving is effective for concealing the whereabouts, all of them are currently promoted by nuclear power. Soviet NavyType 629 submarine (golf type)There were also diesel-powered early ballistic missile submarines.

Early in the Cold WarBallistic missileBecause of its short range, the ballistic missile submarine had reached the sea near the enemy. Even after the range of ballistic missiles has improved, compared to land bases, ballistic missile submarines continue to operate because they are highly confidential and less susceptible to attack. Also, some early SLBMs needed to surface when launched, but this has also been improved to allow underwater launch.

It is difficult to confirm or detect the location of SSBN, which can be easily submerged in water for a long period of time and easily change its location. Even in its operation, it is required to keep quiet and avoid detection. Due to its covert nature, it is more viable than other nuclear forces, and even if other bases are destroyed by a preemptive attack, it is highly likely that they will retain their strength. Therefore, it is supposed to be used for retaliation or second strike attack.[10].

Radar picket submarine

Equipped with a powerful anti-aircraft radar to carry out early warning missions.Sailfish class submarineThere existed, butEarly warning aircraftWith the advent of, it quickly lost its value and disappeared.

Special submersible

An ultra-small submarine with a displacement of several tens of tons and a few crew members.Although it lacks armament loading capacity and cruising capacity and lacks ocean navigation capability, it is difficult to detect due to its small size, and it is unlikely to be detected or attacked, especially in shallow water with many obstacles.Therefore, it is used for coast guard and ambush attacks.During World War IIAttack on Pearl HarborUsed by the Japanese NavyInstep target, German battleship "TirpitzOf the Royal Navy used in the attackX-class submersibleSpecial submersible boats were manufactured in each country including. There is also a type where personnel are operated outside the ship (Human torpedoSee).

Even in modern times, it is sometimes used to invade enemy-controlled waters to gather information, send spies, and contain captured prisoners near the coast.Even in peacetime, the midget submarineWatersSoviet special submersible during the Cold WarWestern countriesWas a troublesome enemy for EspeciallyUSSR,ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アThe development innorth koreaHas a history of transferring technology from Yugoslavia and working to build a submersible. On the other hand,イタリアEven in this case, some companies are building submarines for special operations, and although the Navy has not adopted them, it isMiddle EastCountries,コロンビアHas a track record of being exported to.

1996 years South Korea OfGangneung Penetration CaseThen North KoreaOperative Sano class submersibleHas succeeded in invading Korea and proves the usefulness of submersibles as equipment for invasion operations.

Construction

Hull shape

Submarine hull shapes include the following.

Fish type
It was found in early dive submarines such as the Protector and Holland. The fish type was a hull shape with less resistance to water, and it was a precursor to the later teardrop type and cigar type. However, rather than intentionally aiming for that effect,FishIt was a shape that was created because it was modeled after the appearance of.
Surface boat type
World War I-Shape seen in submarines around World War II. Since submarines at that time had overwhelmingly longer ascent times than submersible times,Surface battleshipSimilar to the above, a water surface boat type with less water resistance (wave resistance) was adopted.
After World War II, it was gradually replaced by a teardrop type or cigar type, but since it has great advantages when sailing on the water,Normal powered submarineThere are still some water surface hulls.
Teardrop type
Water drop typeAlso called. It has a shape that has little resistance to underwater. With the advent of high-performance storage batteries and nuclear power facilities, the submarine's ability to act underwater increased and it was adopted. The first teardrop-type submarine in history is an experimental submarine that was commissioned by the US Navy in the 1950s.AlbacoreIt is. However, the teardrop type has less resistance but the space capacity of the hull is poor, so an improved cigar type has appeared.
Cigar type
Torpedo typeAlso called. A teardrop-shaped hull that extends in the center to increase the hull volume. Most submarines from the post-WWII period to the present day have this shape.
In a cigar-shaped substreamWhale shapeThere is. The whale-shaped hull has a shape that only the lower part of the hull is hull-shaped, and is more suitable for water navigation than a cigar-shaped hull.

Pressure shell

A submarineWater pressureTherefore, the hull needs to be strong enough not to be crushed by water pressure. The pressure resistant part of the hullPressure shellCalled. There are roughly two types of arrangements of pressure-resistant shells, a single-shell type and a double-shell type.

Single shell
The hull has only one layer of pressure-resistant hull, and the living quarters, engines, seawater tanks, fuel tanks, etc. are housed inside.In other words, the hull itself can be said to be a pressure hull.The structure is simple and the hull can be miniaturized, but the seawater tank needs to be mounted inside the hull, which reduces the hull capacity.
Saddle tank type
Basically the same as the single shell type, but on the outer side of the hullBulgeWas installed and the space inside the bulge was used as a fuel tank.It was widely used in World War II submarines.Since the water pressure applied to the bulge is transmitted to the inner shell via the fuel, there is no problem even if the bulge is non-pressure resistant.However, after fuel consumption, the inside of the bulge becomes empty, and if it is left as it is, it will be crushed by water pressure, so seawater is injected instead.
Double shell
It is a double structure hull consisting of two layers of an outer shell of non-pressure resistant structure and an inner shell of pressure resistant structure.thermosIt is made like this.The space between the outer shell and the inner shell will be used as a fuel tank or seawater tank, and the living quarters and others will be housed inside the inner shell.
The water pressure applied from the outer seawater does not apply to the outer shell, but is transmitted to the inner shell via the seawater or fuel between the outer shell and the inner shell.Therefore, there is no problem even if the outer shell has no pressure resistance.
The features of the double shell type are as follows.
  • The space between the outer and inner shells can be used as a space for fuel and seawater. Therefore, cruising force and reserve buoyancy can be increased.
  • Since the outer shell and the inner shell are separated, the noise leaking to the outside can be reduced.Also, the outer shellHollow armorWhen hit, the outer shell and the seawater and fuel in between absorb the explosive pressure, reducing the impact on the inner shell and reducing damage.Therefore, it contributes to the improvement of survivability.
Half shell
Partial shell typeAlso called.It is an intermediate form between the single-shell type part and the double-shell type part mixed in the hull.
Compound eye
A structure with two inner shells inside the outer shell.I-XNUMX submarine,Typhoon submarineAs seen on large strategic class submarines.

Hull material

For the hull material (hull structural material), a high-strength material that can withstand water pressure in the deep sea is required. Mainly on the hull of a submarineHigh strength steelIs used.

SovietAlpha type submarineSuch,Titanium alloySome have adopted.Titanium alloy is better than high-strength steelmagneticIs low,Magnetic detectorIt has the advantages of low capture rate and higher strength than high-strength steel of the same weight.However, it is difficult to process,Sound waveIt is not generalized due to its high reflectivity and higher material cost than high-strength steel.

Dive mechanism

Submarine is hulledDischarge amountIs smaller than buoyancy, so it floats on the water.When you want to dive, you inject seawater into the seawater tank inside the ship and settle by making the displacement of the hull larger than the buoyancy.In the sea tankMaineballastTank(Called main tank, ballast tank, etc.),Negative tank,Trim tankThere is.The main tank is a hull buoyancy adjustment tank that injects seawater or air.The negative tank is a small tank for fine adjustment of buoyancy to assist the main tank, and normally performs water injection and drainage in the opposite direction to the main tank.The trim tank is for adjusting the trim (tilt of the front and rear of the ship), and is installed at two locations in front of and behind the hull to control the buoyancy ratio of the front and back of the hull.

When submarines dive, firstVent valveOpen the main tank internal air exhaust valve. Then,Flood hallSeawater enters through (the hole for injecting seawater at the bottom of the main tank), the buoyancy of the hull decreases, and the ship begins to sink.After that, operate the trim tank and rudder to lower the bow and reach the target depth.After reaching the target depth, adjust the trim to keep it horizontal.When ascending, when air is injected from the compressed air tank inside the ship to the main tank, seawater is discharged from the tank, the buoyancy of the hull increases, and the ship begins to float.This operation is called (main tank) blow (the captain's command is also uttered).

The maximum depth of the submarine is importantMilitary secretAndObserving ceremonyIn such cases, it is hidden with a sticker so that outsiders cannot see the depth gauge.Therefore, the published dive depths are only for reference, but according to them, the dive depths of attack submarines are about 300-600 m, and the strategic missile submarines are about 100-500 m.The dive depth record of the armed submarine was recorded in 1985 by the Soviet nuclear submarine of the titanium alloy hull.K-278It was reported that the K-1,027 was capable of launching torpedoes at this depth. At that time, no country had the ability to detect and attack submarines at this depth. The world depth record of non-military submersibles was recorded in 278 by the deep sea research boat "TriesteDepth10,916cm.

Steering system

Unlike submarines, submarines are required to perform three-dimensional three-dimensional movement in water in addition to trim balance, so they are equipped with side rudders and sub rudders in addition to longitudinal rudders.

The submarine was traditionally located in the bow, but the bow isSonarSuch asacousticBecause it became a space for the device, to reduce noisebridgeIt has become mainstream to mount it on the side. This methodSail plane methodCalled.

on the other hand,Soviet Union/Russian NavyIt is,BowWas attached to the part (Bow plane method). This is the submarineArctic OceanThis is because there are many actions in.This is because when ascending in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice must be crushed at the top of the bridge, and if there is a submarine on the bridge at that time, there is a risk of damage.Another advantage of the bow-plane method is that the submersible rudder is highly responsive (although the noise to the bow sonar increases).

In addition, the steering part of the stern often had a cross shape, but in recent years, "Fail-safeThe number of X-type steering blades is increasing due to "improvement of steerability in water."

Propulsion device

Submarine propulsion devices includeScrew propellerIs used. Especially in submarines,CavitationIs a big problem. Cavitation causes corrosion of propellers, vibration, and reduction in propulsion efficiency, but noise is a particular problem in submarines.

To reduce cavitation,High scud propellerA propeller with a crescent-shaped paddle called was developed. Since processing of this propeller requires advanced manufacturing technology, and its performance can be estimated from its shape, in each country, the propeller part is hidden in the launching ceremony of the latest submarines.JMSDF Kure Historical Museumof"AkishioEven if it becomes an old-fashioned ship and is displayed after retirement, as in "," it is replaced with a dummy propeller. Also, around the propeller processing equipment,Toshiba COCOM violation caseUS-Japan diplomatic problems like those once occurred.

To suppress cavitation,Shroud ringEquipped with (ring)Pump jet propulsion system(Propeller system with duct) is also available.This has lower propulsion efficiency than general propellers (about 45%, general propeller propulsion efficiency is about 65%), but it may be used in nuclear submarines with ample output.Soviet and Russian submarinesArctic OceanSince there was a lot of action at the time, in addition to pump jet propulsion, there is also one equipped with a shroud ring simply for the purpose of protecting the propeller from sea ice.

Ultimately, in seawater, which is a good conductormagnetic fieldMultiply by to promoteSuperconductivityElectromagnetic propulsionThere is nothing better than, but its strong magnetic field impairs concealment andNuclear powerAIPExceptSuperconducting electromagnetSupply toelectricityIt seems unlikely that it will be deployed in actual battles in the future because it cannot cover[Original research?].

power

Diesel engine

The most common power of submarinesdiesel engineAndNormal powered submarineMost of them are diesel submarines. Inhalation is not possible when diving,electric motorTo use. Submarines have been using diesel engines and electric motors for a long time since their introduction.

The power system of a diesel submarineDirect connection methodDiesel electric systemThere is. Direct connection method is diesel engine, electric motor (Generator(Combined), the propeller is directly connected, the diesel engine when navigating in the water, the electric motor when navigating underwater. The Diesel/Electric system uses a diesel engine to rotate the generator and operate the electric motor with the electric power when navigating underwater, and when navigating underwater.Storage batteryPower the electric motor. The former was capable of high speeds when sailing on water, but had low charging efficiency. Therefore, after World War II, when submarine underwater navigation became mainstream,ChargingThe latter, which excels in efficiency, has become the mainstream.

Steam engine

Instead of a diesel enginecoalboilerSteam turbineEquipped withSteam submarineWas once built. Royal NavyK-class submarineOr "Swordfish"And so on. The steam engine was faster than the diesel engine,chimneyIt took too long to store the car and start the engine, so it was not suitable for submarines, and both failed.

AIP institution

The former diesel submarines were inferior in underwater activity and could hardly move during the dive.Over time, the development of snorkels, high-performance batteries and motors improved to some extent, but diesel submarines, which still required regular intake and charging, were far inferior to nuclear-powered submarines. ..Therefore, a propulsion engine that does not require outside air and can be driven in a constantly submerged state, that is,AIP (Promotion of non-atmosphere dependence)organHas been needed.

In Germany during World War II,Walter TurbineEquipped withWalter submarine,XVIIB type U-boatWas prototyped. In addition, the Soviet Union was equipped with a closed-cycle diesel engine.Quebec submarineWas built, but none of them had any safety problems and could not be put into practical use.

However21st centuryOnly then did submarines equipped with non-atmosphere-dependent engines come into practical use. They areFuel cell,Stirling engineIs used as an auxiliary organization to improve underwater activity.

Nuclear power

It was born by making full use of the nuclear technology that developed rapidly after World War II.Nuclear submarineIs. Ideal for submarines, driving for an extremely long period of time without intake or refuelingboilerBarrelReactorWith the advent of the submarine, the underwater speed of the submarine has increased significantly, and the dive time has increased to several months.

Nuclear submarines utilize the surplus output to produce seawaterElectrolysisAnd always fresh inside the shipoxygenI will provide a. For this reason, nuclear submarines are so comfortable that they are said to have the cleanest air in the world. However, ultratrace elementsradiationLeaks are constant (especially outboard) and U.S. military crew members are radiatedExposureDosimetry badgeTurn on.

常 にStorage batteryCompared to a normally powered submarine that requires regular ascent while paying attention to the remaining amount of water, it has "infinite" cruising power and can navigate even the Arctic Ocean under ice.

From this perspective, nuclear submarines seem to be overwhelmingly superior, but they also have some structural drawbacks that cannot be resolved.

Nuclear propulsion is a nuclear reactorCooling waterCirculation pumps andSteam turbineBy blade orReduction gearBecause of the noise generated, it is inferior in quietness to a normal power ship that uses a storage battery and an electric motor to supply power during submersion. Furthermore, since reactor cooling is always required, even if natural circulation cooling is possible under low output, it is impossible to stop all operating noise and make it silent like a normal power ship. Therefore, as far as the combat phase of attack submarines is concerned, it is difficult for both nuclear ships and conventional power ships to be superior or inferior.

In addition, the technical level required for construction, construction cost, and maintenance cost are high, and the countries that can own it are limited.In addition to technical problems in Japan, etc.Negative public opinion on nuclear powerNot owned due to the existence of.

navigation

Submarines, when ascended, are like regular shipsAstronomical navigation,Satellite positioning systemCan be used, but cannot be used when diving. Therefore, during the diveInertial navigation systemAnd use sonar-based submarine navigation.

Submarine navigation is usuallyChartIt is a method of grasping the position of the own ship with an inertial navigation system and occasionally confirming the position by using the reflection of sound waves.For submarines that require confidentiality, issuing active sonar and sailing in the sea is a suicide act (not limited to emergencies), so it is like "blindfolding and maneuvering an airplane" by passive "surrounding sound". You have to fumble for changes.Therefore, the US-Russian Navy, which operates a large submarine fleet, has its own ocean.Research vesselIt is said that they are constantly creating a seafloor map of the sea area that will be the "assumed battlefield" by operating multiple of them.Of course, it seems that efforts such as improving the accuracy of the map are being made by the normal patrol of the submarine unit.

However, since inertial navigation increases the error when used for a long time, it is necessary to occasionally surface and grasp the accurate position of the ship by celestial navigation or satellite positioning system.

Not only in JapanChugoku, South KoreaSeems to have created its own seabed map, etc.,Northern Territories issuenot only尖 閣 諸島And diplomatic issues for undersea resources,TakeshimaDue to the issue of territorial rights, the act often causes problems in the sea near Japan.

communication

Since radio waves are easily attenuated in the sea, a normal submarine for a submarineShort wave-HyperwaveCommunication is impossible, and underwaterLaser communicationHas not been put to practical use. As a communication facility, it is relatively easy to penetrate underwaterVery long waveCommunication with the ground is performed using (VLF), etc., but it is difficult for VLF to receive a large amount of information, and since it is not possible to transmit from the submarine side, the communication antenna mast is exposed as necessary. , Short wave / ultra high frequencySatellite communicationDo.

In case the communication antenna is completely damaged due to a collision etc.Satellite mobile phoneThere is also an example of introducing a communication device independent of the ship's system.[11].

Ultra long wave communication

Very long waveSince (ULF) reaches deep into the sea, submarines can receive near the maximum depth of dive. However, since the amount of data that can be transmitted is very small, it is not suitable for receiving a large amount of information. In addition, ULF requires a large antenna facility over several tens of kilometers to transmit,EmergencyIn this case, there is a problem with the vulnerability of these facilities. It is a one-way communication from land and cannot be transmitted from a submarine.

Very long wave communication

Very long waveSince (VLF) reaches a depth of about 10 m underwater, it can be received by submersing at a depth of about several meters. In reality, it is more likely that it will be discovered when it dives to such a shallow depth, but if a towed buoy or floating antenna is used, the submarine body will be able to receive signals at a deep depth. However, since the amount of information that can be transmitted is small, it is not suitable for mass information communication. In addition, it is a one-way communication from land and cannot be transmitted from a submarine.

In addition to using a huge terrestrial antenna facility for transmission, there is also a TACAMO machine (aerial communication repeater) that tow a long antenna over the sea area where the submarine exists to receive radio waves and transmit the signal to the ground by another line. It's being used. As a TACAMO machineE-6 Mercury,Tu-142MRand so on.

Microwave communication

Communication satelliteIs available in countries whereMicrowaveTransmission and reception can be performed by transmission.Since microwaves do not reach the sea, it is necessary to expose the submarine's antenna above the sea surface during communication, increasing the possibility of being detected by the enemy.However, since microwaves can send and receive a large amount of information, the work can be completed in a short time if compressed communication is performed.

Underwater acoustic communication

By using the underwater telephone, it is possible to communicate with submarines under diving and with surface ships. Also, install a communication relay device using sound waves at key points on the seabed,Submarine cableCommunicate with the submarine by connecting to the ground facility.Cold WarOccasionally, the US Navy and the Soviet Navy laid a number of acoustic communication devices.

army

torpedo

The main weapons of submarines during anti-ship and anti-submarine battletorpedoIs. There are the following methods for inducing torpedoes for submarines.

Wake homing
Occurs when sailing an enemy surface shipIt tracks the target by sensing the wake. It can only be used on surface ships, but has a long range.
Passive homing
The torpedo seeker receives the target sound wave and tracks it.It can be used both on and off the water, and it is unlikely that it will be detected by the enemy during homing, but if the sound source is stopped, it will not be possible to guide and it is vulnerable to deception.
Active homing
A sound wave is transmitted from the torpedo seeker, and the bounced sound wave is received to track the target.It can be guided regardless of the target sound source, such as a stationary enemy submarine, but the range is shortened.In addition, since the torpedo seeker moving at high speed has a narrow field of view, it is easy to lose the target if countermeasures such as noise maker decoy and avoidance maneuver such as rapid diving are taken.Also, since the course cannot be changed after launch, it will not hit unless the launch aim is perfect, and it will take time to launch.Therefore, when using it over a long distance, use another method.Intermediate inductionNeed.
When a torpedo launcher simultaneously launches a conical or radial shot like an unguided torpedo, the torpedoes of one side receive the active detection sound of one torpedo and the torpedoes are attracted. Therefore, every 2-5 minutes, you can only shoot 2 shots.
Semi-active homing
Sound waves are emitted from the sonar of the submarine toward the target, and the sound waves that bounce back are received by the torpedo's seeker for tracking. Since it uses the powerful sonar of a submarine, it has a longer range than Active Homing, but the enemy's position is detected by the enemy.
Since the torpedo seeker has a narrow field of view due to high-speed cruising, it is easy to lose sight of it if it is decoyed and turned at a steep angle to the submarine, but the sonar of the submarine hovering the sinking etc. has a speed field of view. It is not narrowed down, but rather it captures the cruising sound of the target submarine during the avoidance maneuver, so it is difficult to find it and it is resistant to deception.
Wired induction
The torpedo and the main body of the submarine are connected by an electric wire, and the torpedo is guided by sending a guidance signal.You can also send the data captured by the torpedo seeker to the submarine.It has the longest range and is suitable for intermediate guidance.If the wire breaks, the torpedo's active sonar seeker will automatically awaken.
However, if the torpedo becomes active homing before it is sufficiently close to the target, the target is easily lost as described above, and the acoustic guidance is vulnerable to deception.Therefore, when shot with a wired torpedo, a strategy is taken to launch a high-speed torpedo in the direction of the shot, cut the guide line to the opponent who attacked first, and drive it into evasive maneuver.
It is said that it is often done.

The various torpedoes described above are used properly according to the situation according to the characteristics of each of them, such as the intermediate guidance system and the terminal guidance system.

For semi-active homing and wire-guided missiles, the course and speed can be changed during the voyage.For example, it is possible to launch the torpedo in the rough direction of the enemy submarine before confirming the launch specifications, and then enter the launch specifications later based on the data obtained by the sonar of the submarine body. is there.

Fire control system

In order to improve the accuracy of torpedoes, it is important to determine not only the direction but also the launch specifications such as distance, depth, target direction of travel, and speed of travel.

Fire control requires complicated calculations and to master multiple sonarsFire control systemWith advanced computer softwareDatabaseNeed.The software and database of the fire control system are said to be superior to both the United States and Russia, which have long experience.The Soviet Union and Russia have installed fire control systems for their diesel submarines.Communist countriesAfter the Cold War, it is exported at a low price to every country where it is purchased.Since the United States does not build diesel submarines, Western countries either build or import fire control systems.

mine

Submarines are hidden behind the sea routes and ports used by enemy ships.mineAlso used for laying.

armament

Until the end of World War II, submarines save expensive torpedoes when attacking enemy ships,DestroyerAnd was equipped with a gun to counterattack the aircraft.IJN submarine fires anti-ground fire on mainland US and Canada.

Modern submarines emphasize underwater speed and quietness and are not equipped with artillery.

missile

Anti-ship missile
It can attack enemy ships at long distances compared to torpedoes.HarpoonMany types can be launched from torpedo tubes.
Anti-submarine missile
For attacking long-distance enemy submarines captured by passive sonar. When the normal type hits the water, the torpedo that is the warhead heads for the enemy submarine. Can be destroyed without hitting an enemy submarine directlyNuclear warheadThere is also an equipment type.
Anti-ground missile
Cruise missile,SLBMA submarine equipped with can attack land bases and cities.

Anti-aircraft weapons

In the past, it had a low dive ability, so many submarinesAnti-aircraft gunWas installed.

Submarines are basically equipped with anti-aircraft armament because it is safer to dive and hide against aircraft than to fight due to the longer dive time and the increased depth of dive in modern times. Often not.

I approached when I couldn't diveAnti-submarine helicopterTo deal withPortable anti-aircraft missileSome submarines are equipped with this, but like automatic rifles, they are for self-defense and avoid aggressive battles such as surfacing and attacking.

An anti-aircraft missile ejected from a torpedo launcher to attack a patrol helicopter searching for its own ship (IDASEtc.) are being developed.

Carrier-based aircraft

aircraft
Until the end of World War II some large submarinesWater reconnaissance aircraftWas installed. The submarine's hangar is extremely narrow and its shape is limited to a cylinder, so a number of aircraft designed to quickly disassemble and assemble the main and tail wings have been developed. Some submarines were equipped with catapults to assist in launching ships. Many were reconnaissance planes to supplement the search capability, but the Japanese Navy was equipped with a bombUS mainland air raidIn addition to theFine stormAnd its mothershipI-XNUMX submarine,Ijuzo submarineWas developed.German NavySo when sailingRotorcraft(Fa 330) Was carried over and the surroundings were monitored.
Aircraft-mounted submarines rapidly disappeared after the end of World War II, as they could only carry small aircraft with limited capabilities and were difficult to work with while the mother ship was underwater.In modern times, there are no submarines equipped with manned aircraft, but consumer productsMulticopterSmall size that can be brought onboardUnmanned aerial vehicleIs used for hull surveys during surfacing and for monitoring the surroundings.
Ship
Small size for submarinesSpecial submersible,Human torpedo,ボ ー トEtc., destroy the enemy ship at anchor,Special ForcesIt is also used for reconnaissance and infiltration of contacts.
Unmanned submersible
Can be ejected and collected from torpedo tubes for seabed topography and mine search and processingAutonomous unmanned submersible(AUV, UUV) is being studied.
Since ancient times for submarinesmineWas a big threat.It cannot be visually confirmed in the sea, and detection by the submarine body active sonar does not always have enough room to avoid mines when they are found.The UUV, which can search for and remove mines prior to the navigation of the submarine, has become an important factor for submarines operating in shallow water where mines are likely to be laid.However, the operation of UUVs from submarines requires long-term recovery work on the sea surface or completion of recovery technology for torpedo launchers, and there is also the problem of securing space for storage and maintenance, so future technology It does not go out of the realm of.
Currently, surface ships are starting to use UUVs.MinesweepingOnly troops. There could be ejection from a submarine if you give up on recovery and reuse, or if minesweepers recover.
The attack-type unmanned submarine (UUCV) "MANTA", which the U.S. Navy is planning to develop, is also capable of anti-submarine combat, and is expected to exert great effects in shallow water where danger is high when a submarine acts. The US Navy is planning to put it into practical use around 2050.

External unit

In the U.S. Navy, to facilitate the entry and exit of divers and small submersibles during divingDry deck shelterWe have introduced a removable module to the hull called.

Crew

Submarines, especially those during and before World War II, are poorly habitable.Originally, warships needed to load large amounts of weapons, supplies, and fuel.Submarines need to further reduce their buoyancy space, which takes up space, and as a result, the habitability is so poor that it is said that the crew first loads the supplies and sneaks into the gaps.The inside of the ship is full of humidityWashingDo not let things dry, and use fuelexhaust-MoldSince the odor is full,Sense of smellIn addition to causing abnormalities, those odors permeate the body.fresh waterIs preciousbathingIs restricted[Note 5].

On a submarineAir conditionerAlthough it is equipped with, the room temperature did not fall below 25 degrees because many are used for cooling power. When approaching an enemy ship, the air conditioner was stopped to prevent hearing, so it became hotter. Also, due to water pressure during divingWCAlso became unusable. Submarine duty was extremely demanding, as monotonous missions continued every day in this environment. Quiet card games are preferred so that entertainment does not make noise, in the United StatescribbageIs a classic pastime[12].

After the advent of the atomic energy agency, the living environment has improved more than before. As mentioned above, a nuclear power station with high output has enough power,Electrolysis,DesalinationBecause it can be done, there is no problem in securing oxygen and fresh water. Russia's large-scale strategy submarineTyphoon typeThen,Pool,saunaIs equipped up to.

However, the submarine crew who could not return for a few months once they set sail,家族It is difficult to maintain a relationship with.

The US Navy divides the crew into two teams, blue and gold, and reduces the voyage period by rotation.When one group finishes the 2-day voyage and returns to port, the ship will be maintained for about a month, and then the other group will go on the 70-day voyage.Then, the group of those who have completed the voyage will train after a short vacation.

However, one pair per submarine voyagedivorceIt is said that there will be crew members to do.In addition, crew members must meet extremely strict physical and mental conditions due to missions that may not surface for several months once they dive, which is called tin disease among submarine riders.depression,NeurosisIt is said that there are not a few occupants.This problem is the same in every country.In the first place, the operation of the submarineConfidentialIs essential and the crewAnti-theftBecause of this, even the family cannot teach the start date and period of the operation.

U.S. NavyJMSDFIn, the emblem of the submarine crewOrcasesIt is a design that treats this, but this isDolphinCalled "Mark", it is another name for a submarine rider.[13][14].

Meal

The crew of the submarine will be on a tough task,MealIs said to be the most fulfilling of the Navy, including the Empire of Japan at the end of World War II, which was suffering from food shortages.Nazi GermanyHowever, the submarines were given food priority. However, in small and poorly-equipped submarines, fresh food is consumed within a few weeks after departure, and after that a similarPreserved FoodsWill be issued forever. After this fresh food has run out, it is a good point of the cooks how to continue to provide a wide variety of delicious meals in a limited cooking space and a small cooking room. Cooking cooks were valued. Even so, when the voyage lengthened, the smell of heavy oil, mold, and so on, it is said that no matter what you ate, you would lose the "flavor of a submarine". Food is stored in a warehouse, sausages are hung from the ceiling, bread is used to load as much space as possible, and to save space.ハ ン モ ッ クYou can hang it up or stuff vegetables on the bench. It also consumes oxygen during cooking on boardGas stoveUse of electricity is prohibited and all electricity is usedElectromagnetic cookerCook in.

For Japanese submarines, the meal isStaple foodToWhite rice-Dried noodles,Non-staple foodDried vegetables (Kiriboshi-Daikon (Dried Daikon Radish Strips)etccanning,picklesIn addition to various types, as fresh vegetables that are relatively easy to storeonion,potatoSuch asRoot vegetablesVarious menus were offered, using ingredients such as varieties (although these fresh vegetables bottom out in about a week).

In the case of German submarines, almost every meal is "the staple food issalamisausagecheese,バ タ ー, Baked together on boardBlack bread, As a side dishSauerkrautOf onions and potatoes as fresh vegetablesBraisedWith dessertLemon(However, like Japanese submarines, fresh vegetables and fruits are served only for about a week)." These diets are necessarily deficient in various nutrients. Therefore, regardless of the east or west of the ocean,vitaminIncluding agentsSupplementIt was essential to replenish a large amount of.

Class and living room

Since fresh water is precious, seawater is used for washing and showering while sailing. As a post that officers are assigned to,Captain, Deputy director, seniorOfficer, Chief of voyage, chief of engine, chief of torpedo, and chief of communication. The captain'sclassIn Japan during World War IIMajor, In germanyCaptainWas normal. In Germany and Japan during the war, submarines are said to have a looser hierarchy than other Navy units. In Japan, even the captain had to wash his underwear himself. Because the space for sleeping was limited,Sergeant,Noncommissioned officerWas installed on the side of the aislebedI went to bed at, but on a relatively small ship such as a U-boat, the bed was shared by several people and in the ammunition storage.torpedoThere was even a low-ranking crew member who was sleeping with him.The larger IJ Navy's I-go submarine had a bed for each person, but instead the voyage was longer than the U-boat.

In some cases, the former Soviet Union / Russian Navy's nuclear-powered submarines have reduced the number of crew members through significant automation and labor saving, and secured a large space for crew members. However, there are also harmful effects due to labor saving,Reactor accidentThere were also problems such as not being able to deal with such issues.

JMSDF "JinryuIn ", the shower cannot be washed once every three days. With a three-tiered bed, when a member of the apprenticeship training is on board, a part of the torpedo is landed and the vacant storage shelf becomes a temporary bed.[15].

Gender difference

For a long time, the crew of submarines was limited to men, but since 2010, the navies of each country have begun to allow female crew members.On the other hand, scandals that damage or involve female crew members have also occurred, and in 2014, the U.S. Navy's "Wyoming (nuclear submarine)There was a voyeur riot at[16] In addition, in 2017, the British Navy's "Vigilant (nuclear submarine)The captain and deputy captain have been dismissed for the world's first improper conduct on board a ship sailing with a female officer.[17].

Argentine NavyThen, by 2017, female officers will be submarinesSan JuanWas on board, but in November 2017, it went missing with the ship.[18]..If the death is confirmed, it will be the first female submarine rider to die. British territory of the South Atlantic in November 2018Falkland IslandsIt was confirmed that the ship was sunk on the seabed at latitude 45 ° 56'59'S and longitude 59 ° 46'22'W (offshore).en: Disappearance of ARA San Juan).

JMSDFIn, the placement of women was restricted only for submarines, but by 2018, female SDF personnel were to be on board short-term voyages to confirm problems, and the submarine education and training team planned to install women's toilets after FY2019.[19]. Since October 2020MichishioStarted training in Japan and finished training in October of the same year.[14].

Underwater acoustic warfare

Unlike regular ships, submarines operate underwater. For this reason, the combat system is very different from other ships. In water, unlike in airElectromagnetic waveDue to the significant attenuation ofRadio waveTo useradarOr in the visible / invisible light rangeOpticsYou cannot use means such as searching.Instead, the main thing is in seawaterSound waveIt is a search / attack that utilizes the nature of. The main means isSonarTherefore, the technical accumulation of detection and avoidance by sonar and the confrontation using them are collectively called hydroacoustic battle. Regarding this point, the properties of sound waves and the propagation of sound waves in the sea will be explained.

Properties of sound waves

Sound waves used in sonar (Ultrasound) IsLow-frequencyIt is roughly divided into those with high frequency and those with high frequency.

  • Low-frequency sound waves are difficult to attenuate in water, so they travel far, butwavelengthBecause it is longresolutionIs low,DirectivityIs wide, so the detection accuracy is low.
  • High-frequency sound waves can only detect short-range targets because they are easily attenuated in water. However, since the wavelength is short, the resolution is high, the straightness is excellent, and the directivity is narrow, so that measurement with high accuracy becomes possible.

For the above reasons, sonar uses both high-frequency and low-frequency sound waves properly so as to compensate for the advantages and disadvantages of both.

The propagation of sound waves is based on the topography of the sea area, the composition of seawater, and the temperature.Ocean currentIt changes in a complicated manner. In addition to developing high-performance sonar, to win underwater acoustic battles on a daily basisOcean observation shipIt is necessary to mobilize such as and collect data on the sea area.

Sound wave propagation in the sea

In the sea, if you simplifySurface layer,Thermocline,Thermocline(Actually, it changes in a complicated manner depending on the topography and ocean currents).

Surface layer

A layer of seawater located near the surface of the sea, mainly due to heat exchange between the surface of the sea and the atmosphere, and sea breeze.ConvectionSince seawater is mixed in, the temperature and salt density are constant.

Normally, the temperature gradually decreases as the surface layer shifts to the thermocline, so there is no clear difference between the two. ButnoonPhenomenon around which sea surface temperature rises rapidly (Afternoon effect, afternoon effect) Occurs, the temperature suddenly changes at a certain depth. The depth at which the temperature changesLayer depth(Depth of temperature change, LD).

When LD is formed by the effect of the afternoon, sound waves are reflected there, and the depth below LD is not reached. Then, the sound wave propagates to a long distance while being repeatedly reflected by the LD and the sea surface. The sound waves are confined in the surface layer. The surface layer in this stateSurface duct(Surface duct, SD).

When an enemy submarine is lurking in SD, the surface submarine can be detected from a long distance using active sonar, but when diving deeper than LD, the submarine is not detected by the surface submarineSurprise attackYou can attack. To counter this, surface ships and anti-submarine helicopters drop towed and suspended sonar at a wide range of depths to prevent sonar blind spots.

Thermocline

Located under the mixed layerWater thermocline(Thermo Klein), the water temperature decreases in proportion to the depth, so that the sound waves are bent downward and proceed.

The sound wave traveling downward is reflected on the seabed if it is shallow, and then repeats reflection between the seabed and the sea surface. As a result, a so-called shadow zone (dead zone) where sound waves do not reach is formed between the seabed, which is the blind spot of the sonar.

Thermocline

Since the water temperature becomes almost constant from around the depth of 1000m, this layer is called the density cline.When the water temperature becomes almost constant, the sound waves do not travel downward.On the contrary, this time, it is bent upward by water pressure and advances toward the sea surface.

As a result, in the deep-sea area, sound waves that have traveled to the bottom of the sea once return and then gather at the surface of the sea again, causing a phenomenon in which the sonar suddenly reacts on an empty sea surface. This area is called the convergence zone (CZ), and the distance from the source is 27-33.nautical mileEach time, CZ appears in a section 4 to 5 nautical miles wide (varies depending on the composition and temperature of seawater). If you use CZ, you can detect enemy ships 27-33 nautical miles away from your own ship (if conditions are good, the second convergence zone, the third convergence zone ... that is 81-99 nautical miles beyond). Therefore, you can immediately attack the enemy detected by CZ with passive sonarAnti-submarine missileWas developed.

In addition, due to the balance between water temperature and water pressure, between the thermocline and the pycnocline near the depth of 1000 m,Sound channel(SCThe sound wave propagation layer called) appears. Since sound waves are not absorbed or attenuated by reflection in SC, sound waves propagate very far.A whaleBy using SC, they are in contact with friends who are thousands of nautical miles away by ultrasonic waves. SC rarely occurs even in shallow water, and the detailed principle is unknown.

There is a possibility that you can detect an enemy ship that is very far by using the SC, but the submarine that can dive to the SC is a Soviet titanium alloy submarine,Alpha type,Microphone typeIt does not exist except for.However, if you use a towed sonar (TASS), you can use the SC without diving that far.The SC also monitors the passage of enemy submarines.SOSUSA fixed submarine sonar monitoring network is installed.

Sonar

Detection method

Sonar detection methods include active (active) and passive (passive) methods.

The active type is a method in which a detection sound is emitted from a sonar, and the sound hits a target, is reflected, and receives a sound bounced back. However, this method not only consumes a considerable amount of power by producing a detection sound, but also reverses the detection of sound waves that have reached a distance farther than the distance that can be detected by the sound waves emitted, exposing its own location. There is a risk of being killed.

The passive method is a method of directly receiving the sound emitted by the target. There is no danger of exposing one's whereabouts. However, the accuracy of measuring the exact position of the target by this method is inferior to that of the active method. Also, it cannot be detected when the target is stationary or when the sound is very low.

In other words, these two methods have advantages and disadvantages, and it is necessary to use them so as to complement each other's characteristics. Normally, you use a passive sonar to grasp the rough position of the target, and then use the active sonar only when precise measurement of the target is necessary, such as during torpedo launch control.

Sonar type

The main sonars on submarines include: However, the method of equipment differs depending on the country, so I will focus on the US Navy ceremony.

Bow sonar array
A large, high-power sonar equipped on the bow of a submarine.Sound catchers (hydrophones) are lined up on the surface in a spherical shape.This makes it possible to have directivity by using only a specific sound catcher (the direction of the sound source can be known), and in active mode.Phased array radarThe same principle can be used to emit sound waves only in a specific direction.
This sonar has excellent long-distance detection capability and is suitable for submarines operating in the vast and deep ocean, but it occupies a considerable space in front of the hull,Torpedo launcherIs moved to the center of the hull.Submarines of the U.S. Navy, Maritime Self-Defense Force, and Russian Navy that operate in vast waters are generally equipped with large sonar on the bow, but this format is not so common in European countries that mainly operate in the narrow North Sea. can not see.In narrow waters, detection from a long distance is not necessary, and it is more important to respond to close combat, so a torpedo launcher is placed at the bow to enhance close combat capability.
Conformal sonar or frank array sonar
A sonar for exclusive use in passive mode, in which sound collectors are lined up on the side of the hull and the target direction can be estimated from the arrival time difference of sound waves. Since it is on the side of the hull, it is possible to hear sound at a distant position that can not be made with the spherical sonar array on the bow, and it can be expected to improve the detection accuracy, shorten the measurement time, and reduce the opening diameter of the sensor as the submarine quietens year by year. Increasingly examples are being equipped to increase. If it is conformal, it is necessary to correct the listening sound analysis according to the mounting angle of the sensor.
Submarine towed sonar array (S-TASS)
A tow sonar is a tow sonar that is attached to an independent unit that is separate from the hull and towed by a tow line. It is mainly used for low frequency band passive detection. When combined with the sonar of the hull, a large baseline length can be obtained, so improvement in estimation accuracy can be expected. It can also be used by suspending it in the deep sea where sound channels and other vessels cannot dive. It can be isolated from the noise of the hull, increasing the search distance.

Submarine Countermeasures

Quiet measures will be taken against sonar detection.In the activities of submarines after the war, the ratio of dive time has increased more than before, and as a result, quietness has become more important.This is, on the one hand, to prevent the enemy from detecting it, but on the other hand, to prevent it from being detected by its own sonar (especially listening), which is important in both offense and defense.Therefore, from advanced technical improvements in design, to the floor inside the shiprubberWe are implementing all kinds of measures, such as laying seats and using simple rubber shoes for passengers.

Anti-vibration floating platform mechanism
A typical measure to reduce noise is to use a floating structure. The flotation structure is not installed directly on the hull of equipment such as an engine, but mounted on the flotation (raft), and at the base of the vibration absorption rubber orsuspensionBy installing it on the hull of the ship, it aims to absorb noise.It needs to be fixed during heavy maneuvers.
Non-echo tiles
Adopted as a measure against detection by active sonar. Made of hard rubbertileCan be expected to reduce the echo of the detection sound and shield the noise from the inside of the hull.Today, it's a popular, non-reverberant tile, but its pioneer was the Soviet Union, which was realized at least in the late 1960s.
Essentially, it is a countermeasure devised for nuclear submarines (cooling water circulation pumps, reduction gears of turbines) that have a large noise source, but nowadays it has become widespread even for power submarines. In terms of avoidance from detection, there is no difference between normal power and nuclear power, but rather from the viewpoint of cruising performance, normal power submarines are more serious.
Quiet propulsion system
Become one of the noise sources of submarinesscrew OfCavitationHowever, in order to improve this, high skewed screws and pump jet propulsion devices are adopted. However, silencing is not something that can be easily improved by replacing one or two pieces of equipment. In addition, it is unclear whether equipping this type of screw without improving the hull structure and compatibility with the engine will contribute to the improvement of quietness.
Mobile Obstacle to Detect
  • Diving under the LD temperature boundary layer (several tens to a maximum of 10 m)
  • Deep diving
  • Knuckle (a method of making a strong water flow by sudden turning and making it a pseudo target. This water flow also reflects the sonar's detection sound)
  • Spiral turn (Turning and swiveling at the same time to deceive the enemy's active sonar and tracking torpedo by emitting false targets and bubbles)
  • HoveringWater massRiding the ocean currentStraitSuch as breaking through)
  • Escape in the east-west direction (avoid magnetic field lines and avoid magnetic detection)
Decoy device
decoyThere are bubble cans and noise makers that make the sound of enemy sonar difficult to hear due to bubbles and noisy noise, the sound emitted by the own ship is made many times louder than the actual sound, and the enemy torpedo and the active sonar of the enemy ship. There is a type that delays the sound a little and applies some modulation to make it flow with a large sound pressure.
There is a noise maker equivalent to a barrage jammer, but it is difficult to sustain.
To interfere with radarChaffThe traditional means equivalent to is a foam can,Actively home the virtual image created by. New torpedoDoppler shiftAnalyzes and finds out the difference between the submarine that was navigating and the bubble that does not move, and returns to the enemy search mode.There is also a multifunctional decoy equivalent to a deception jammer that counters it, and it is said that the active seeker of the torpedo will delay and return the false reflected sound that simulates the Doppler shift, showing a running virtual image.
However, with the newer smart torpedoes, some of them were able to detect submarines and decoys by length, so decoys that towed pronunciation arrays to imitate submarines also appeared.
in recent years,Kilo submarineIs equipped with a cable torpedo combined with a TV (TV is not effective unless you approach it, but there is no acoustic decoy that can deceive the TV).
Counter torpedo
A torpedo that intercepts enemy torpedoes. Although it is in the research stage for submarines, it is being tested as equipment for surface ships[20].

Appearance work

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The Argentine Navy, whose cruiser was sunk by a British submarine in the midst of the Falkland Conflict described in the above sentence, feared the loss of more ships and had deployed naval forces (including aircraft carriers) that had been deployed to the open ocean until then. He returned to the port and did not take maritime operations until the end of the conflict.[4](Detail is"Falklands War # Combat over aviation and maritime dominanceSee). However, although the Royal Navy was able to secure almost the right to control the sea in this case,Argentine Air Force OfSuper EtendardA-4 SkyhawkThe air raid of the attack aircraft represented by the(English editionWill be bothered by.
  2. ^ Kawaguchi KaijiCartoon ofSilence fleetThe title is "The Silent Service".
  3. ^ IDAS (missile) # Submarine-launched anti-aircraft missile,Kilo Submarine #Overview,U-boat type VII #variationSee.
  4. ^ Fictional war record,SFOften seen in works and war games.Roar series of steelSuper giant diving aircraft carrier dreadnought andAce combat series OfSymfax-class submarine carrier and submarine aviation cruiser Alicone,Battlestar Brunoa』And so on.
  5. ^ In generalShowerAlthough there is, the bathtub is often not related to the space and water.

Source

  1. ^ Tom Clancy 1997, p. 246 --328.
  2. ^ a b Tom Clancy 1997, p. 16
  3. ^ Toshihide Yamauchi 2015, p. 4.
  4. ^ Alfred Price, Jeffrey Essel, “Air Battle Falkland Harrier, Saving Britain”, Kensuke Ebata (translated), Hara Shobo, 1984, p. 73.ISBN 4-562-01462-8.
  5. ^ Gakken 2001, p. 10.
  6. ^ Akira Sakamoto 2013, p. 9.
  7. ^ Toshihide Yamauchi 2015, p. 130.
  8. ^ Tom Clancy 1997, p. 30.
  9. ^ Takeaki Kitabayashi "British History of British Submarines"World shipsFrom 454 (August 1992 issue).
  10. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA441621&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE'Do We Still Need Ballistic Missiles?'
  11. ^ "Communication blackout "Unexpected" Submarine accident, Chief of Staff, Maritime Affairs Yamamura: Jiji.com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. October 2021th, 2Browse.
  12. ^ “USS Los Angeles Embarks With a Piece of Submarine History”. US Navy(July 2007, 5). http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=29429 October 2013th, 2Browse. 
  13. ^ Emblem Class emblem accessories Maritime Self-Defense Force fashion - JMSDFHachinohe Air Base
  14. ^ a b The first female crew member of the Maritime Self-Defense Force submarine Hiroshima Kure - NHK
  15. ^ "Tell me! News Live Mika of Justice』(Broadcast January 2019, 1),Asahi Broadcasting TVMake.
  16. ^ Korean Navy to "advance women", this time to a submarine = "Young men and women in a closed space, absolutely something will happen" "This is related to the life of members!"-Korean NetRecord China(April 2017, 11) Viewed June 16, 2017
  17. ^ Scandals like stupid movies one after another ... British submarine "sex & drug" case Daily Shincho(April 2017, 11) Viewed June 16, 2017
  18. ^ "Argentine Navy submarine, the first female submarine officer in the country to lose contact". AERA.dot (November 2017, 11). October 2018th, 11Browse.
  19. ^ "Female member of submarine = Considering restriction removal-Ministry of Defense". Jiji Press (September 2018, 8). October 2018th, 8Browse.
  20. ^ The world's first torpedo interception torpedo "Sea Spider" appears Submarine and surface battle battle Will it change? -Vehicle news

References

Submarine General
  • Motoyoshi Hori "Submarine: Its Retrospective and Prospects" Hara Shobo, 1987.ISBN 4-562-01855-0. 
  • Akira Sakamoto "The Strongest World Submarine Picture Book" Gakken, 2013.ISBN 978-4-05-405008-2. 
  • Histoire des sous-marins: des origines à nos jours by Jean-Marie Mathey and Alexandre Sheldon-Duplaix. (Boulogne-Billancourt: ETAI, 2002).
Culture (life on board, etc.)
  • Redford, Duncan. The Submarine: A Cultural History From the Great War to Nuclear Combat (IB Tauris, 2010) 322 pages; focus on British naval and civilian understandings of submarine warfare, including novels and film.
Submarines before 1914
  • Gardiner, Robert (1992). Steam, Steel and Shellfire, The steam warship 1815-1905Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781557507747. OCLC 30038068 
Russo-Japanese War
  • Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Dieter Jung, Peter Mickel (1977). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy 1869-1945Annapolis, Maryland: United State Naval Institute. ISBN 0-87021-893-X 
  • Olender, Piotr (2010). Russo-Japanese Naval War 1904-1905 Vol. 2 Battle of Tsushima. Sandomierz 1, Poland: Stratus sc. ISBN 978-83-61421-02-3 
  • Showell, Jak (2006). The U-Boat Century-German Submarine Warfare 1906-2006. Great Britain: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176241-0 
  • Simmons, Jacques (1971). A Grosset All-Color Guide WARSHIPS. United States: Grosset & Dunlap, Inc .. ISBN 0-448-04165-0 
  • Watts, Anthony J. (1990). The Imperial Russian Navy. London: Arms and Armor Press. ISBN 0-85368-912-1 
Second World War
Cold War-until the 20th century
  • Sontag, Sherry, et.als, 1988, Blind man's bluff: The untold story of American submarine espionage, Public Affairs, ISBN-1 891620-08-8. = 2000, "Submarine Intelligence Warfare (Upper/Lower)" Hideaki Hiraga (Translated), Shinchosha, Volume 4 ISBN 10-290012-8-4, Volume ISBN 10-290013-6-XNUMX
  • Hide and seek: the untold story of Cold War espionage at sea, By Peter Huchthausen and Alexandre Sheldon-Duplaix(Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2008).
  • Tom Clancy; Hideaki Hiraga (Translation) "Tom Clancy's Nuclear Submarine Anatomy" Shinchosha, 1997.ISBN 4-10-247205-3. 
  • Richard Compton-Hall; Kensuke Ebata (Translation) "Submarine vs. Submarine Unknown High-Tech War in the Sea" Kobunsha, 1989.ISBN 4-334-96046-4. 
21st century
  • Toshihide Yamauchi "The Fighting Technology of Submarines: The Modern" Ninja of the Sea "-Approaching the Reality" SB Creative Co., Ltd., 2015.ISBN 978-4-7973-8129-0. 
  • Gakken "Modern Submarine" Gakken, 2001.ISBN 4-05-602446-4. 
Submarine accident
  • Edwyn Gray, 1996,Few Survived; A History of Submarine Disasters, UK Leo Cooper, 1996, ISBN-0 85052-499-7 — The Royal Navy submarine "June 1939, 6"ThetisThere is a list of submarine accidents from 1774 to 1985 at the end of the book, which is non-fiction about the accident.
  • Takuya Nishimura "Document" Nuclear Submarine Explosion " 10 days of "Kursk"] Shogakukan, 2000,ISBN-4 09-404612-7
  • Peter Mars "Survival from the seabed" The largest submarine rescue operation in history"Kensuke Ebata(Translation), 2001, Kobunsha ISBN-4 334-96112-6 — Non-fiction about the accident of the US Navy submarine Schorus on May 1939, 5
  • Peter Huchthausen; Prince Igor; R. Alan White; Mari Miyake (Translation) "Hostile Waters" Bungei Shunju, 1998.ISBN 4-16-353740-6. 

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close