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🌏 | Ireland still opposes tax reform of international corporations US trend watch = Finance Minister


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Ireland Still Opposes International Corporate Tax Reform US Trends Watch = Treasury Minister

 
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Treasury ministers from 20 countries and regions (G20) are expected to finalize the July agreement of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on international taxation rules at a meeting in mid-October.
 

[Dublin XNUMXth Reuters] -Irish Treasury Minister Donnafu said on the XNUMXth that a drastic reform of international corporate taxation ... → Continue reading

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Economic Cooperation Development Organization

Economic Cooperation Development Organization(Let's keep up with the economy)International economyThe purpose was to discuss the whole thingInternational organization.Official terminologyThe official name of is "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development" in English.[1], "Organization de Coopération et de Développement Economiques" in French.Abbreviation is in EnglishOECD, In frenchOECD.

Headquarters secretariatParis16 wardsOld(French version)Is placed in.The Secretary-General(English edition).

History

Establishment

1948 ToSecond World WarLater exhaustedEuropeTo revitalize and bail out the economyThe United States of AmericaThe purpose of the European reconstruction assistance plan byMarshall Plan16 European countries participated as an organization to improve the acceptance ofEuropean Economic Cooperation Organization(OEEC) was established.1950 To OEEC to the United StatesカナダParticipated as an associate member state.

Reorganization

1961 With the revival of the European economy,Western countriesAnd two countries in North AmericaLiberalismThe Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was established with the aim of developing and cooperating on an equal footing in the economy and trade.

1964 Since then, the traditional framework of Europe (non-communist bloc) and North America has been removed.AsiaAnd europeCommunist areaAlso expanded the member countries.Prewarof"Five powersIn one country,After the warReconstruction was in progressJapanShowed interest in joining the OECD early on, and in 1964 immediately after the expansionMay 4Joined[2]..It was the first member other than the original member country.

After the collapse of the Cold War

1990 eraTo enter the,Cold WarWhen the structure collapsed, it was once excluded from the reconstruction support of the "Marshall Plan"Eastern EuropeFormer communist countries and many of them became independent after World War IIEmerging industrialized countriesBecame a member and continues to the present.

the purpose

The purpose of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development is to promote policies intended to: (Article 1 of the OECD Convention).

economic growth
To achieve the highest possible economic growth and improvement of employment and living standards in member countries while maintaining fiscal and financial stability, and to contribute more to the development of the world economy.
development of
To contribute to the sound expansion of the economies of member and non-member countries in the process of economic development.
Trade
To contribute to the diversified and indiscriminate expansion of world trade in accordance with international obligations.

Handling items

The topics covered by the OECD are extensive and include:[3].

組織

Member countries

As of June 2021, the following 6 member countries are listed.

CountryMembership date
United States flag The United States of America1961 May 9(Original member countries at the time of inauguration)
British flag The United Kingdom
French flag France
German flag Germany
Italian flag イタリア
Canadian flag カナダ
Spanish flag スペイン
Portugal flag Portugal
Dutch flag Netherlands
Belgian flag ベルギー
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³
 ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯
 ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼
Iceland flag アイス ランド
Irish flag アイルランド
Swiss flag スイス
 ã‚ªãƒ¼ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒªã‚¢
Greek flag Greece
Turkish flag トルコ
Japanese flag Japan1964 May 4
 ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰1969 May 1
Australian flag Australia1971 May 6
New Zealand flag New Zealand1973 May 5
Mexican flag メキシコ1994 May 5
 ãƒ ェ コ1995 May 12
 ãƒãƒ³ã‚¬ãƒªãƒ¼1996 May 5
Polish flag ポーランド1996 May 11
Republic of Korea flag South Korea1996 May 12
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2000 May 12
 ãƒãƒª2010 May 5
Flag of Slovenia スロベニア2010 May 7
Israeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル2010 May 9
 ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢2010 May 12
 ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢2016 May 7
 ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢2018 May 7[4]
 ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢2020 May 4[5][6]
Costa Rica flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2021 May 5[7][8]

Cooperating countries

Country of application for membership

Key partner country

The Board requested the Secretary-General to start an investigation on the OECD side with a view to joining (May 2007).

Countries for which membership applications are being considered

Other countries and regions

In addition to the above-mentioned countries under review for membership, countries applying for membership, and countries with increased involvement,Hong Kong flag Hong Kong SAR,Republic of China flag Republic of China(Taiwan) ("Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg Chinese TaipeiParticipate as),Singapore flag SingaporeMany countries and regions participate in the activities of various OECD organizations as observers.

OECD Board

The Board of Directors is the highest body of the Organization and convenes a Ministerial Board of Directors (held once a year) in which all Member States participate and a regular Board of Directors (held frequently) with standing representatives.The sub-organization is divided into 1 fields (economic policy, trade, finance, development, environment, food, science and technology, nuclear power, education) and consists of 12 committees.[12].

Committee / affiliated organization

2009 May 3, The Committee has released provisional figures for 22 Official Development Assistance (ODA) performance of 2008 DAC member countries.According to the report, the total amount of ODA in 22 countries reached a record high of 1,198 billion dollars (up 10.2% from the previous year) and about 11 trillion yen in Japanese yen.However, looking at the ratio of gross national income (GNI), the average of member countries increased slightly from 5% in the previous year to 0.28%.It is well below the UN target of 0.3%.By country, the United States is $ 0.7 million, Germany is $ 260 million, the United Kingdom is $ 1 million, France is $ 139 million, and Japan is $ 1 million (fifth place).Only five countries meet the UN goals: Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.

Secretariat staff

OECD Secretariat officials are required to work as international civil servants in a neutral position, not for the benefit of a particular country, such as their country of origin, but for the common interests of the international community. OECD Secretariat staffDiplomatHaveDiplomatic immunityThe same benefits are given.

At the OECD Secretariat, when a post becomes vacant, it is common to publicly solicit a successor by public notice of the vacancy.For this reason, applicants are required to have experience and practical skills.Qualifications for application are determined for each institution and each position, but generally it is required to meet the following requirements.

  • Language:EnglishandFrenchBeing able to do duties at
  • degree:MasterHave a degree of degree or higher
  • Specialty: Have work experience in the field of degree acquisition

Japanese staff

From 1990 to 1996,Makoto Taniguchi(Ministry of Foreign AffairsFrom)JapaneseBecame the first Deputy Secretary-General, and in 1997 became a Special Advisor to the Secretary-General.Then from 1997 to 1999Kumiharu Shigehara(Bank of JapanFrom 1999 to 2003Seiichi Kondo(From the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), but from 2003 to 2007Kiyotaka Akasaka(From the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), but from 2007 to 2011Mari Amano(From the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), but from 2011 to 2017Rintaro Tamaki(Ministry of FinanceFrom 2017, Masamichi Kono (from XNUMX)Financial Services Agency(From) serve as Deputy Secretary-General.

In addition, the Economics Department, which is said to be the most influential bureau of the OECD Secretariat,Kumiharu Shigehara(Bank of JapanBorn) has been seconded from the Bank of Japan four times since the early 1970s.After working in all positions (economist, senior economist, chief of financial research section, deputy director of policy research bureau, director of policy research bureau), he became the first Japanese to become the head of economics department (corresponding to the post of deputy minister of the economic government of OECD member countries). He was selected and worked as OECD Chief Economist for many years.No other Japanese than Shigehara has been active on the international stage for a long time as the chief economist of a major international organization.In addition, Shigehara was appointed Deputy Secretary-General in 4 after the Secretary-General, overseeing OECD cross-cutting activities on issues such as economics, finance, society and development. He has worked to deepen OECD cooperation through exchanges with ministers and vice minister-level government officials from non-OECD countries such as China and Russia. There is no one other than Shigehara who has been appointed to the political appointment post through all the positions of the economist who is the most influential profession of the OECD secretariat, not only Japanese but also from other OECD member countries.[13].. Shigehara's activities as the top executive of the OECD Secretariat are included in his book, "The Bank of Japan and the OECD-Actual Records and Discussions" (Central Public Theory Business Publishing, December 2019).Former OECD Secretary-General Donald Johnston said in the opening part of the book, "This book is irreplaceable for the OECD, which has few communicators of organizational memory."Yoshio Suzuki(After serving as the director and director of the Bank of Japan's Financial Research Institute, he also served as the director of Nomura Research Institute and a member of the House of Representatives), all of which are highly evaluated as "valuable public assets."

The ratio of Japanese staff to all staff has consistently remained below the level of Japanese investment.In addition, most of the Japanese staff are mid-career to senior-class seconded employees from Japanese ministries, government agencies, major electric power companies (in the case of NEA), etc.Therefore, in terms of young staff, the percentage of Japanese staff is significantly lower than in other countries.

Indices

It shows various statistical indexes for OECD countries.

Countryarea[14]
(kilometer2)
2018
population[14]
2018
GDP
(PPP)
[14]
(Intl. $)
2018
GDP
(PPP per person)
[14]
(Intl. $)
2018
Income inequality[14]
2012 2018
(Latest value)
Human development(HDI)[15]
2019
Failure state
(FSI)
[16]
2020
Rule of law index
(RLI)
[17]
2020
Corruption perception(CPI)[18]
2019
Index of Economic Freedom(IEF)[19]
2020
Global Peace Index[20]
2020
Press Freedom Index[21]
2020
Democracy(DI)[22]
2019
Australian flag Australia7,692,02024,982,6881,291,189,884,23251,66334.40.93819.70.87782.61.386979.09
 ã‚ªãƒ¼ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒªã‚¢82,5238,840,521490,609,688,00155,45529.70.91424.10.827773.31.275938.29
Belgian flag ベルギー30,28011,433,256587,185,652,75351,40827.40.91927.10.797568.91.496967.64
Canadian flag カナダ9,093,51037,057,7651,783,652,225,32848,13033.80.92218.70.817778.21.298989.22
 ãƒãƒª743,53218,729,160472,396,758,34325,22344.40.84742.50.676776.81.804908.08
 ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢1,109,50049,648,685745,372,245,78015,01350.40.76176.60.503769.22.646667.13
Costa Rica flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
 ãƒ ェ コ77,22010,629,928422,303,340,92539,74424.90.89135.70.735674.81.337917.69
 ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯41,9905,793,636322,750,574,38155,67128.70.93017.20.98778.31.283979.22
 ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢43,4701,321,97747,517,185,74635,97430.40.88238.50.817477.71.680947.90
 ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰303,9105,515,525267,167,073,86048,41727.40.92514.60.878675.71.4041009.25
French flag France547,5576,697,71073,037,362,126,71845,34231.60.89130.50.736966.01.930908.12
German flag Germany349,3608,290,57824,401,361,323,10553,07531.90.93923.20.848073.51.494948.68
Greek flag Greece128,90010,731,726317,454,786,56329,59234.40.87252.10.614859.91.877887.43
 ãƒãƒ³ã‚¬ãƒªãƒ¼90,5309,775,564303,833,662,36731,10330.60.84547.60.534466.41.559706.63
Iceland flag アイス ランド100,250352,72120,260,872,41357,30326.80.93817.8N/A7877.11.078949.58
Irish flag アイルランド68,8904,867,309403,828,175,28683,20332.80.94219.9N/A7480.91.375979.24
Israeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル21,6408,882,800354,633,919,32739,919390.90675.1aN/A60742.775767.86
Italian flag イタリア294,14060,421,7602,527,866,331,41741,83035.90.88342.40.665363.81.690897.52
Japanese flag Japan364,560126,529,1005,415,123,908,44242,79732.90.91532.30.787373.31.360967.99
Republic of Korea flag South Korea97,48951,606,6332,071,181,809,85140,11231.60.90632.00.7359741.829838
 ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢62,1801,927,17458,383,571,13930,30535.60.85442.3N/A5671.91.700897.49
 ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢62,6422,801,54398,920,631,43235,46137.30.86936.5N/A6076.71.705917.5
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg2,430607,95068,878,323,882113,33734.90.90918.8N/A8075.8N/A988.81
Mexican flag メキシコ1,943,950126,190,7882,504,211,474,50119,84545.40.76767.20.442966.02.572626.09
Dutch flag Netherlands33,69017,231,624970,604,942,31256,32928.50.93322.90.8482771.528999.01
New Zealand flag New Zealand263,3104,841,000200,331,983,66341,005N/A0.92117.90.838784.11.198979.26
 ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼365,1235,311,916348,145,261,70465,511270.95416.20.898473.41.4961009.87
Polish flag ポーランド306,19037,974,7501,190,118,700,05531,33729.70.87241.00.665869.11.657846.62
Portugal flag Portugal91,60610,283,822343,569,579,62133,41533.80.8523.50.76267.01.247968.03
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu48,0805,446,771183,762,547,00533,73625.20.85738.2N/A5066.81.568887.17
Flag of Slovenia スロベニア20,1422,073,89478,660,992,03838,04924.20.90225.80.696067.81.369947.5
Spanish flag スペイン499,56446,796,5401,855,654,206,04039,71534.70.89340.40.726266.91.712928.29
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³407,31010,175,214541,835,380,99653,20928.80.93718.20.868574.91.4791009.39
Swiss flag スイス39,5168,513,227579,643,931,03268,06132.70.94617.1N/A85821.366969.03
Turkish flag トルコ769,63082,319,7242,310,620,759,90128,06941.90.80679.10.433964.42.959324.09
British flag The United Kingdom241,93066,460,3443,056,736,514,97345,97434.80.9238.10.797779.31.770948.52
United States flag The United States of America9,147,420326,687,50120,544,343,456,93762,79541.40.9238.30.726976.62.307867.96
OECDb, c35,585,9841,352,647,42560,217,473,802,07245,598 -0.895-0.746873.21.665-8.11
Countryarea[14]
(kilometer2)
2018
population[14]
2018
GDP
(PPP)
[14]
(Intl. $)
2018
GDP
(PPP per person)
[14]
(Intl. $)
2018
Income inequality[14]
2012 2018
(Latest value)
Human development(HDI)[23]
2019
Failure state
(FSI)
[24]
2020
Rule of law index
(RLI)
[25]
2020
Corruption perception(CPI)[26]
2019
Index of Economic Freedom(IEF)[27]
2020
Global Peace Index[28]
2020
Press Freedom Index[29]
2020
Democracy(DI)[30]
2019

a The Failed State Index (FSI) does not provide Israel's own figures, but rather "イ ス ラ エ ルとWest Bank of the Jordan RiverIs the average (76.5).
b Indicators 1 (area) to 3 (gross domestic product [PPP]) are the sum of OECD member countries. Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita is an OECD weighted average.Indicators 1 (income inequality) to 5 (democracy index) are also OECD weighted averages.However, the Human Development Index (HDI) is for 13, the Global Peace Index is for 2018, and the World Press Freedom Index is for 2019.
c Colombia is not included in the figures for indicators 6 (Human Development Index) to 13 (Democracy Index).
Note: The background color indicates the country's international position in each indicator.For example, a green square indicates that the country is ranked in the top 25% of the table (including all countries with data).

Top 1/4
Upper half of the median (from the 2nd quartile to the 3rd quartile)
Lower half of the median (from the 1st quartile to the 2nd quartile)
Lower 1/4

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ "About the OECD-OECD". October 2020th, 12Browse.
  2. ^ OECD and Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  3. ^ OECD Homepage> Topics
  4. ^ "Lithuania's accession to the OECD". www.oecd.org. October 2021th, 6Browse.
  5. ^ "Colombia's path towards OECD accession-OECD". www.oecd.org. October 2021th, 6Browse.
  6. ^ "Columbia is a new member OECD, XNUMXth country" (Japanese). Newsletter(July 2020, 4). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2020042900220&g=int October 2020th, 4Browse. 
  7. ^ "Costa Rica becomes the 38th member of the OECD-OECD". www.oecd.org. October 2021th, 6Browse.
  8. ^ "Costa Rica joins OECD 38th country (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 6Browse.
  9. ^ "OECD and the Russian Federation". www.oecd.org. October 2020th, 5Browse.
  10. ^ "OECD suspends procedures for joining Russia" (Japanese). Reuters Communications(July 2014, 3). https://jp.reuters.com/article/l3n0ma4j7-ukraine-crisis-oecd-idJPTJEA2C01E20140313 October 2020th, 4Browse. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "OECD strengthens engagement with partner countries during annual Ministerial Meeting --OECD". www.oecd.org. October 2018th, 7Browse.
  12. ^ OECD organization
  13. ^ "OECD in Japan and Japan in OECD" (OECD "Observer" magazine, Japan OECD 50th Anniversary Special Issue, April 2014) http://oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/4340/Japan_at_the_OECD_and_the_OECD_in_Japan_A_story_of_economic_policymaking.html
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "World Development Indicators". World Bank (September 2020, 4). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  15. ^ "2019 Human Development Index Ranking". United Nations Development Program (2019). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  16. ^ "Global Data". Peace Foundation (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  17. ^ "WJP Rule of Law Index 2020". World justice project(World Judiciary Plan) (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  18. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". Transparency International (September 2020, 1). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  19. ^ "2020 Index of Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  20. ^ "Global Peace Index 2020”. Institute for Economics and Peace (June 2020). October 2020th, 6Browse.
  21. ^ "World Data Resources Freedom in the World Comparative and Historical Data: • All Data, FIW 2013-2020 (Excel) ”. Freedom House (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  22. ^ "Democracy Index 2019". economist (September 2020, 1). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  23. ^ "2019 Human Development Index Ranking". United Nations Development Program (2019). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  24. ^ "Global Data". Peace Foundation (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  25. ^ "WJP Rule of Law Index 2020". World justice project(World Judiciary Plan) (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  26. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". Transparency International (September 2020, 1). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  27. ^ "2020 Index of Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  28. ^ "Global Peace Index 2020”. Institute for Economics and Peace (June 2020). October 2020th, 6Browse.
  29. ^ "World Data Resources Freedom in the World Comparative and Historical Data: • All Data, FIW 2013-2020 (Excel) ”. Freedom House (2020). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  30. ^ "Democracy Index 2019". economist (September 2020, 1). October 2020th, 5Browse.

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