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🌏 | Australian competition authorities consider Google's online advertising monopoly as a problem Regulatory authority request


Australian competition authorities raise Google's online advertising monopoly as a problem

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ACCC says that Google is benefiting from a large amount of user information obtained from its own services such as search engines, maps, and the video posting site "YouTube", and how this information is used in the advertising business. He ordered that the transparency of information disclosure should be increased.

[Sydney XNUMXth Reuters] -Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) reported on the XNUMXth that Alf of the United States ... → Continue reading


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Electronic information disclosure

Electronic (target) information disclosure(Denshi),Disclosure of electronic evidence(Denshi Shoko Kaiji), ore-discovery (-)(Electronic discovery, e-discovery)Civil actionInDiscovery procedure(Discovery) and stored electronically情报Refers to things related to.Here, electronically stored means that information is electronic.媒体(Magnetic disk,optical diskEtc.) means that it is recorded.


Electronic information differs from information recorded on paper in terms of its intangibility, quantity, transients and persistence.In addition, electronic information is usually rarely found in information recorded on paper.MetadataAccompanied by.Electronic information disclosureRaises new issues and offers new opportunities for lawyers, clients, technical advisors and courts.This appears in each aspect of collecting information, scrutinizing it, and submitting it to the other party.

Less than,The United States of AmericaThe explanation will focus on eDiscovery in.

In the United States, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (Federal Rules of Civil Procedure [1]) But2006It was revised on December 12st, and the regulations regarding eDiscovery were put in place.Of these, Articles 1 and 16 are particularly relevant to eDiscovery.[2].

Data subject to eDiscovery includes電子 メ ー ル,Instant message(IM)チ ャ ッ トRecord,Microsoft OfficeCreated with etc.File, Accounting data,CAD,CAMFile,WebsiteIt includes all electronically stored information, such as, which can be evidence of proceedings. "Raw data (raw data) ”Is subject to disclosure, of course, but experts can read more hidden information from here.The original datafile formatIs called the native format.In eDiscovery, the parties to the proceedings may scrutinize the information in any of a number of formats.Some of these are printed on paper, primitive formats, andTIFFThe image is included.If the primitive format isMicrosoft WordIf the file contains 10 pages of data, you can ask an eDiscovery specialist to convert it to a 10-page TIFF image.The submitted documents are the Bates number (Bates numbering)method[1]Numbered by.

Those who work in the field of eDiscovery often refer to their occupation as "litigation support."

In the past, lawyers conducted visual reviews in order to search and extract significant information from disclosed data. The amount of data subject to e-discovery is enormous, and it costs a lot of money to extract evidence that can be used in proceedings, which has contributed to the soaring costs of proceedings in the United States.In recent years, artificial intelligence is used to extract significant information from target data.Computer forensicsHas been utilized.In this field, UBIC (current company name: FRONTEO) and others provide e-discovery-compatible services.[2].


Document coding

To better organize and manage your documentsLawyer,ParalegalIs the attribute of the documentfieldCode for each (Sign), And this information is provided for easy classification and reference when scrutinizing the document.DatabaseEnter in.The information collected from the documents and input to the database includes the recipient name, sender name, document type (for example, letter, memo, opinion, etc.), document creation date, and the like.Historically, this work was done by a litigation team in a lawyer's office or outsourced to a contractor. As "documents" have changed from being recorded on paper to being stored electronically, this task has been increasingly replaced by the processing of electronic files.But the coding of paper documents won't go away altogether until the pen is completely replaced by a computer.

Coding is done manually and tends to be very expensive and time consuming.Therefore, it is often considered to outsource this process to an outside contractor.Codes for simple bibliographic fields are now often outsourced to vendors in countries where labor costs are lower than in the proceedings.For example, it is not surprising that there is a tendency to outsource the coding of documents related to proceedings in the United States and Commonwealth countries to India, which has a large population of English-speaking people.Large law firms also often have contract attorneys take charge of document scrutiny and coding.A contract attorney is a lawyer who is hired on a daily basis for a limited time.

Ease of coding in eDiscovery

One of the advantages of eDiscovery over regular paper document disclosure in terms of ease of coding is that it can be done automatically.That is, the work of collecting electronic files, extracting their metadata, and recording the information in the database is done automatically.The cost of this work is lower than usual.Not only is the time required to complete the work shortened, but the work subject is a machine rather than a human being.

If you follow these steps, the number of fields you can capture is limited only by the amount of metadata attached to the file.The main fields used in eDiscovery are destinations, senders, copy destinations, and blind copy (Bcc) There are destination, message sending date and time, subject, text, document creator, document date, document creation date, latest version creation date, etc.

Usually, a litigation support company is appointed when eDiscovery is required.The vendor gives advice on how to handle the best results from the data, etc.softwareUse to capture the required information from the file.Such software may be developed independently by the vendor, or it may use commercially available software such as EnCase, I-Pro, DiscoverE, Z-print, and Discovery Cracker.

Load file (using information captured from raw dataload file) Or the database is built.This load file or database can be created by software orApplication service providerProcessed through.

Storage of electronic messages

Submission of evidence is often delayed or impossible due to reasons such as inaccessibility of data.The backup tape may not be found, or its contents may be discarded or overwritten.This situation has had serious consequences in the Zubulake vs. UBS Warburg LLC case.In this case, plaintiffs consistently claimed that the evidence needed to support her allegations was stored on UBS's computer system. UBS was unable to find the email it was asked to submit, and some emails had already been discarded.The court then determined that such an email was likely to have existed.According to the court, UBS's Legal Department has been instructed to preserve evidence that could be subject to disclosure, including e-mail, but not necessarily those who are subject to that instruction. I didn't follow it.Under these judgments, the court imposed strict sanctions on UBS.

Federal Supreme CourtAmends the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in 2006, for the first time in history, email and IM chat records are also within the scope of electronic records that must be saved and submitted if relevant to the proceedings. It was clearly illustrated as a thing.2005から2007In the meantime, IM suddenly emerged as a means of communication in business (Section on business use of IM(See), it has become universally used in business as well as email.This has forced companies to consider taking steps to store and retrieve IM chat records as well as email.

Searching for e-mail and IM chat records in eDiscovery would be a relatively simple task if both e-mail and IM could be stored electronically.Some information storage systems can ensure that they are genuine by attaching a code specific to the message or chat.These systems allow you to modify the original message, delete the message, and prevent unauthorized persons from accessing the message.

Another important factor in the disclosure of electronic records is the timely disclosure of information.2000In March,Al Gore(Al Gore) There was a Federal Justice Department investigation into the then-Vice President's political funding.In this caseWhite HouseBeth Norton, a lawyer at the company, said it would take about six months to find the information he needed from the 625-volume backup tape.Since then, there has been debate about how to force the timely disclosure of electronic records, but the 6 revision of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure is the fruit of these discussions and considerations. ..

Modern message storage systems enable lawyers and technology professionals to effectively store and retrieve electronic messages in a timely manner.


  1. ^ A method of organizing documents by assigning serial numbers or combinations of letters and numbers to each page of related documents.
  2. ^ Supporting Japanese companies fighting international proceedings-UBIC opens a dedicated eDiscovery lab Cloud Watch January 2014, 1

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