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🌏 | Former US Secretary of State Powell dies, Gulf War command 84 years old


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Former US Secretary of State Powell dies, Gulf War command 84 years old

 
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He served as National Security Adviser under the Reagan administration in 87-89, and commanded the Gulf War in 91 under the George Bush (father) administration as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
 

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] – The first black man in the United States to join the Joint Chiefs of Staff with the Secretary of State and the top of the military uniforms ... → Continue reading

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan(English: Ronald Wilson Reagan,1911 May 2 - 2004 May 6) IsThe United States of America Of政治家,An actor.. 40th generation of the countryPresident(Appointment: 1981 May 1 - 1989 May 1).Before thatCalifornia GovernorServed.At the time of election, he was the oldest person in history, and even as of November 2021, he was the third oldest person in history (11 years old, 3 days).[Annotation 1], Have a divorce history[1][Annotation 2]..Height 6 feet 1 inch (about 185 cm)[2]..In addition, in the former Japanese literature and reports about Reagan until the time of presidential inauguration, "ReganWas written (Later).Nickname for Japan is "Ron"[3].

Overview

He became governor of California from a film actor and later became president on January 1981, 1. In the first term, the policy goal was to recover the American economy.ReganomicsAlong with the economic recovery, we will implement a large tax cut and aggressive fiscal policy as represented byTwin deficitBrought.On the diplomatic side,Jimmy CarterIn the former presidential eraIran revolution,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAtSandinistaThe pro-US dictatorship has been lost due to the establishment of the administration, and Reagan has taken hard measures regarding diplomacy to recover from this lost land.Vietnam WarFull-scale sinceArmed invasion of foreign countriesTheグレナダImpressed "strong America"[3].

The third termIran-Contra caseReagan was hit by a number of scandals represented byDetantDenied,Soviet UnionToEvil empireI criticized it. "(English edition)By strategy the Soviet Union andCommunist campOn the other hand, advocating "Reagan Doctrine",The United Kingdom OfThatcherPrime Minister·Japan OfYasuhiro NakasonePrime Minister·West Germany OfcallClose ties with the leaders of allies such as the Prime Minister and around the worldAnti-communismSupporting the movement and happened shortly after the end of his termCold WarContributed to the end of.

He was 2 years old and November when he became president for the second term, and he expired his term of two terms and eight years despite the attempted assassination.William HarrisonWon1840 The so-called "President who was elected in a year divisible by 10 will die during his tenure," which has continued since October.Tecumseh's curseWas also put to an end.

Five years after his retirement on January 1989, 1, his ownAlzheimer's diseaseConfessed.Instead of going public, he began to concentrate on fighting illness. After 11 years of fighting illness, on June 2004, 6CaliforniaLos AngelesDied in his private residence. I was 93 years old.

history

Upbringing

August 1911, 2,IllinoisBorn in Tampico as the second son of his father John Henninger and his mother Nelle Wilson.After moving from town to town for several years1920 The familyIllinoisSettled in Dixon.

Irish descentFatherCatholic churchBelonged to,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe mother of the systemProtestant"Mainstream"ofDisciples ChurchRonald, an avid believer and influenced by his mother, was baptized at the church at the age of 11 and became a Protestant.My brother'sNeilChoosed the same Catholic as his father.My fatherAlcohol dependenceAnd the denomination to which my mother belongsProhibitionIt was a faction.As a child, Reagan often attended church and eventually began preaching in front of his followers, cultivating his speech skills in later years.My dad took the kids to the movie every Saturday, but because he hated racism, he was popular with his kid, Reagan, but in a black discriminatory movie ("Creation of the people") Is reportedly not shown[4].

1924 , Enrolled in Dixon High School in Dixon.1926 At the Rock River, which runs along Lowell Park, 5 kilometers north of Dixon.life guardThis was my first job. During the seven years of summer work, 7 people were saved from drowning.Reagan later joked, "Nine of them (rescued) didn't thank me."

Illinois(English edition)To1928 Enrolled in, majoring in economics and sociology,1932 Graduated to.

Radio announcer

He has a talent for speaking and acting since he was a child, and later developed it further.IllinoisChicago OfMajor Leagueteam·Chicago Cubs OfradioI became an announcer.

Based only on the outline of the game that can be seen from the paper tape of the ticker (automatic receiver that prints news etc. on paper tape), the live broadcast was performed using his own imagination and talent for speaking.1934 OfSt. Louis CardinalsIn the war, the broadcast line broke down during the Cubs' nine attacks, but fictitious live broadcasts were improvised and smoothed until the equipment was restored.

Movie actor

Then ReaganHollywoodHeading to 1937Warner brosContracted with and began his career as a movie actor.The movie's first appearance was "Love is On the Air" (1937), after which he established himself as a second actor and appeared in 1939 films by the end of 19.1940 In "Knute Rockne All American", he played the role of George Gipp (nickname: Gipper), a real college football star and a close friend of the protagonist Knute.From there Reagan got the nickname "Gipper".Around this time, "Gone with the windI also participated in the audition.

After his debut, he was expected to be the second star to represent the next generation of Hollywood, but at the same time he was involved in political activities from a young age, such as taking a key position in an actors' union.Just before the debut of the actor1935 ToUS ArmyBecame a reserve officer.

Many of Reagan's appearances have been released in Japan, and the appearance of a movie known in Japan is "Kansas Cavalry(April 1940),Murderers] (July 1964,Don SiegelDirector) and so on.According to Reagan himself, his best work is "(English edition)(1942, original title Kings Row).Reagan himself is second, not starring, but the movieAcademy AwardIt is a work that has been nominated for and has been highly evaluated by film critics and recognized for its ability.Other masterpieces include "Battle Town''(English edition), "This Is the Army", "Bedtime for Bonzo" and so on.

narratorThere are many jobs asAcademy Short Film AwardNominated for "(English edition)』(1939) is a representative work.Second World WarSometimes1941 May 12 OfAttack on Pearl HarborConvened after participating in the United States, but his eyesight was weak.US Army Air ForceFirst Motion Picture UnitAssigned to, for training and educational filmspropagandaMovie productionNarrationWas involved in.Army remaining in Hollywood until the end of the warCaptainWas promoted to.

after that1950 eraBy the end of the movie, he was less likely to appear in movies, but he made use of his name as a movie star and his skillful storytelling.tv setHe moved to TV, which was popular as the latest media at the time, such as hosting the show "General Electric Theater" and appearing in TV commercials.note that1955 Opened in my hometown of CaliforniaTokyo DisneylandHe has also appeared on a TV program commemorating the opening of.Although he became popular on television and appeared on various programs, he moved to the world of politics in earnest, and the moderator of "Death Valley Days" became Reagan's last job as an actor. February 1960,Los AngelesHollywood Boulevard No. 6374Hollywood Walk of FameWas set up with a star-shaped paving stone engraved with Reagan's name for contributing to the television broadcasting industry.

Marriage and divorce

January 1940actress OfJane Wymanとmarriagebottom.The eldest daughter with Wyman(English edition)(January 1941-August 1) and the eldest son who was adopted(English edition)(Born in March 1945). A daughter was born in June 3, but died the next day after a four-month premature birth.

Reagan's acting ability did not improve as he grew older, and as a result, his career as a movie actor was gradually declining, while his wife, Jane, lacked flashiness unlike Reagan, but her acting ability. He was able to improve his career at the height of.As a result, Reagan became impatient and jealous of Jane, and the marital relationship deteriorated.Academy Award for Best ActressThe award was the trigger, and in July of the same yeardivorce official[5]..Reagan is the first president to have a history of divorce (the second isDonald Trump).

1952 In March, a fledgling actressNancy DavisRemarried and settled in Pacific Palisades, California.The second daughter with Mrs. Nancy(English edition)(Born in October 1952) and the second son(English edition)(Born in May 1958). He co-starred with the couple in "Navy Hellcat" released in May 5.

Political career

Conservative

The anti-communist and anti-Soviet momentum that raged America in the late 1940s and 1950s strengthened Reagan's political image.ReaganFranklin RooseveltAnd hisNew Deal PolicyIn support ofliberalHe started his career as a sect, but laterConservatismTurned into a person.

Reagan is an actorMovie actors unionSenator while in the position of chairman of (SAG)Joseph McCarthy,Richard NixonLeadHouse Un-American Activities CommitteeIn cooperation with "HollywoodRed picking(=McCarthyism) Helped.But Reagan, unlike many anti-communists,American Communist PartyStrongly opposed the outlawing of.

An electrical equipment manufacturer that has many transactions with the governmentGeneral ElectricIt is said that the reason why he hosted the TV program "General Electric Theater" sponsored by the company was that he gave an anti-communist speech on the radio broadcast.

It was done after that1964 United States Presidential ElectionSo ReaganSmall governmentArizona SenatorBarry GoldwaterWas an ardent supporter of.After that, Reagan was paid by General Electric for the turbine.Tennessee River Basin Development CorporationIn opposition to, he was dismissed from the "General Electric Theater" personality.

California Governor

After that, Reagan ran for the Governor of California and was elected.1967 In January, he became the 1rd Governor of California.Reagan'sLiberalThis is clearly reflected in the policies he made during his time as governor of California.

For example, the state legislaturebikeWhen ridinghelmetReagan revoked it with Governor's authority when the bill, "Required to wear", was passed.The reason is, "A motorcycle rider should know how dangerous the act of riding a motorcycle is, so it should be left to the individual to wear a helmet, etc., and the state government is involved in it. You don't have to do it "(in California)1992 Helmets are obligatory).

In addition, there was a fierce battle at that timeVietnam WarRegarding "Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt should be burned down to make it a parking lot. "Reagan after the end of the Vietnam War1975 He was Governor of California until January.

United States presidential election

Past US presidential elections

Reagan1968 United States Presidential ElectionFor the first time, but also a former Vice President of CaliforniaRichard NixonTo the other partyPrimary electionAt this stage, the votes did not grow and he was eliminated.After that1972 United States Presidential ElectionThen,Vietnam WarNixon, who was actively moving toward withdrawal from the race, did not run because he kept the momentum.

1976 United States Presidential ElectionI also ran.At this time, the incumbent presidentGerald FordHe fought well, but lost to Reagan with 1187 votes against Ford's 1070 votes in the summer national republican convention.

1980 United States Presidential Election

However, I faced with full satisfaction1980 United States Presidential ElectionSo I won the official nomination for the Republican presidential candidate without difficulty.Election campaignDemocratic PartyHappened under the elected incumbent president Jimmy Carter's administrationIran American Embassy Hostage CaseCharacterized by the response to.This case remained unsolved for nearly a year without a breakthrough, with no effective negotiations with the Iranian government for the release of the hostages after the unsuccessful military operation to release the hostages. Because it was.

In addition, the incumbent Carter was forced to struggle due to the economic downturn.In the public debate in the presidential election, Carter refused to hold a public debate with Anderson, and only between Carter and Reagan and Reagan and Anderson.

Reagan, who is advancing the election campaign in an advantageous manner as Carter is criticized and the approval rating continues to decline, is anti-American and anti-Republican overseasMediaMade unfounded accusations that "the Reagan camp has entered into a secret deal with the Iranian government to keep the hostages detained until after the election."

In the end, Reagan won the electoral vote with a big difference of 489 to 49 from Carter, and also won the general vote with a difference of about 10 percent (50.7 percent vs. 41.0 percent).

Most analysts since then believed that Carter's helplessness and indecision in resolving the Iranian U.S. Embassy hostage case played a major role in Carter's defeat and Reagan's victory.[3].

In fact, at the time of this election, even Democrats overlooked the incumbent President Carter, and many voted for Reagan.They came to be called "Reagan Democrat".The acting ability and output cultivated during his time as an actor was also one of Reagan's powerful weapons.[3].

40rd President of the United States

Inauguration

On January 1981, 1, Reagan became the 21th President of the United States.The embassy staff who were held hostage in the hostage incident at the US Embassy in Iran on the day of their inauguration were released for the first time in 40 days.[3].

I was reelected again1984 United States Presidential ElectionBut the former Vice President of the Democratic candidateWalter MondaleWon an unprecedented landslide victory[6]..After that, he was in office until January 1989, 1.Dwight D. Eisenhower(The term of office is from January 1953, 1 to January 20, 1961), and became the President of the United States, who has completed his two-term eight-year term for the first time in a while.[3].

Attempted assassination

The Reagan administration's departure follows the release of the hostages in the Iranian US Embassy hostage incident.Attempted assassinationIt was a shocking thing to be hit by.On March 69, 1981, 3 days after taking officeAmerican Labor Union/Industry Union Conference(AFL-CIO) After the speech at the conferenceWashington DC OfHilton HotelReagan who left the back doorJohn HinckleySnipered.

Six bullets were fired in three seconds, and the presidential spokesman beside ReaganJames Brady,secret ServiceTimothy McCarthy and Thomas Delahanti, a Washington police officer, were hit and collapsed on the spot.

Reagan by Secret Service Jerry ParrPresidential state carI was pushed into my chest, but then I had a pain in my chest.However, no bleeding was observed, so he thought that he might have hurt somewhere due to the momentum when he was pushed into the car.However, during a conversation with Par, he suddenly coughed and spit out bubbling fresh blood.Par, who saw this, was hit by the president and was hit by ammunition.lungJudging that there was a hole in the driver, he instructed the driver to rush to the nearest hospital.In fact, the bullet grabbed the president's heart and stopped deep in his lungs, causing considerable internal bleeding.By the time he arrived at the emergency ward, he had difficulty breathing, and Reagan, who walked into the hospital, collapsed shortly afterwards.

Still, Reagan's consciousness was solid, and despite the concerns of his surroundings, he slammed the doctors before the emergency surgery to remove the bullet, saying, "I hope you are all Republicans."The surgeon was a Democrat, but he pleased Reagan by replying, "President, we are all Republicans all day today."SurgeryGeneral anesthesiaIt became a large-scale one that required.However, during surgeryTemporary transfer of presidential authorityThe procedure was not underway and the situation was so urgent (for delegation of authority, "HealthSee section). In addition, it should be notedCold WarBelow "CountrySafety Reasons "(Actually Immediately After the Shooting Incident"USSR OfsubmarineIs American大西洋Reagan's detailed condition was also shot and seriously injured by Deputy Press Secretary Larry Speakes on behalf of Brady.MediaIt was revealed after Reagan was discharged from the hospital.

Reagan recovered at an alarming rate for a 70-year-old, and was discharged on April 10, about 4 days after the incident.He was shot during his tenure and became the first president to escape death while being hit by ammunition.

Reagan told his wife Nancy, "I forgot to avoid it (I forgot to avoid it) while I was in the hospital.Honey, I forgot to duck.) ”, And continued to show a cheerful side.This line is from 1926,boxingHeavyweightChampion in the title matchJack DempseyIs a challengerGene TunneyThis is a quote from the famous "excuse" he said to his wife when he suffered an unexpected defeat.Even after returning to public service, when the decorative balloons at the venue burst during the speech and the venue became turbulent for a while, he said, "He messed up again," and laughed and applauded the venue.

Reagan's wisdom and playfulness, which he had shown since the presidential election, captivated the United States and helped bring Reagan the greatest landslide victory in history, which will change over the next eight years. There wasn't.No matter how much the White House was hit by policy failures or scandals, Reagan's relatively high approval rating never plummeted, largely due to Reagan's "unhateable personality."[3].

In response to this incident, it was enacted to confirm the suitability of the purchaser when purchasing firearms by civilians.Brady method(The name of this law comes from a seriously injured spokesman.)This law2005 ToNational Rifle AssociationDue to resistance such as, the effect extension procedure has not been completed and it has expired.

Domestic affairs

Economic policy

The purpose was to strengthen supply capacity, not the demand center until then after the inauguration of the presidentSupply-side economicsbased onReganomicsA series of so-called (also known as Reaganomics)Economic policyannounced.Specifically, in addition to expanding military spending, stimulating supply through tax cuts,inflationIt was a policy that advocated the restraint of.Also the first for AmericaFree trade agreementIs(English edition)Theイ ス ラ エ ルConclude with[7],Free tradeWas pushed forward.on the other handUS-Japan trade frictionThen.Protection tradeA principled attitude, made in JapanPersonal computerとtv setIn some cases, 100% tariffs were levied on such items.[8][9].

War with drugs

Reagan's "War on DrugsThe policy isdrugPromoted criminal imprisonment.

Racism measures

RacismContinue to take a positive attitude towards solving the problem,1988 During World War II, which was a long-standing issue after the warDetention of NikkeiHe apologized to him and paid $ 1 in damages per person.again,Martin Luther King Jr.It was also during the Reagan administration that the pastor's birthday became a national holiday (1983 ).

AIDS measures

Case reported in 1981Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), The "pandemic" of this new infectious disease failed to "contain" because it did not take effective measures despite being warned by many medical professionals.As a result, the number of infected people increased explosively in just 10 years, which became a big social problem.

Labor union measures

On August 1981, 8, Reagan dismissed 5 air traffic controllers who ignored the return to work order.Ironically, PATCO (Air Traffic Controllers' Union) was one of the few unions that supported Reagan in the election nine months ago.

外交

Intensification and mitigation of the Cold War

As a result of continued military buildup, the Soviet Union's military power had grown to surpass that of the United States by the early 1980s.Until then, the U.S. armament was inferior to the Soviet Union in number, but in terms of technology it continued to hold cutting-edge technology that kept the Soviet Union away, which could be a "quality threat" to the Soviet Union, but the Soviet Union in the 1980s. Advances in science and technology have narrowed the gap between the two as never before.

What was given to that spear ballDetantwas.The Reagan administration denied Detente as "not only helping to maintain the balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union, but not solving the Cold War itself, but also causing it to be unnecessarily prolonged." , Condemned the Soviet Union by name as "Evil Empire".Instead, he chose to face the Soviet Union head-on with a series of diplomatic strategies called "peace through power."The outline is as follows.

  1. Significantly increase the defense budgetStar wars planOne-sidedly promote
  2. The Soviet Union is forced to do more because it tries to catch up with this
  3. as a resultInvasion of AfghanistanThe Soviet Union's national finances, which are already tight due to the stagnation of the Soviet Union, collapse and the social security system is paralyzed.
  4. The Soviet Union will collapse if the Soviet people see such a communist regime

It was a scenario.

As you read, as early as the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union's budget deficit grew and its budget fell into a crisis. In 1984 Reagan excluded the Soviet Union and its allies1984 Los Angeles OlympicsTo show off the unity of the Western nations.Also in 1985GorbachevWhen he became general secretary, he said,GlasnostThe crisis situation of the Soviet Union became clear to the West, and the United States succeeded in drawing significant concessions from the Soviet Union in all aspects of nuclear troops, conventional troops, and policies toward Eastern European countries.Japan, which is a member of Western countries1% defense cost frameWas abolished in 1987 and the defense budget was temporarily increased.

Reagan, who saw this softening of the Soviet Union's attitude as a sign of change, corrected his hard-line diplomatic line and urged Gorbachev to evaluate the reforms so far and to carry out further reforms.

Reagan with GorbachevGeneva(November 1985) ・Reykjavik(October 1986) ・ Washington DC (December 10) ・Moscow(June 1988) and four summit meetings have been held.The main agenda items were disarmament and Eastern Europe, but the first meeting was meaningful for the US-Soviet leaders to meet for the first time in six and a half years, and the second was a farewell, but Gorbachev deserves negotiations. I was able to get confirmation that it was.In the first place, Reagan decided to visit Gorbachev in the United States at the third Washington Conference.If the Soviet people, who are suffering from the endless recession and the unprecedented social security system, have a chance to get a closer look at the reality of the booming American society, they will question the current system and will eventually be dissatisfied. Was well foreseen that it would explode.And it didn't take long for this "internal pressure" by its own people to become a much stronger force than the "external pressure" by the United States and actually begin to shake the Gorbachev administration and the Soviet Communist Party from the ground up.

The Soviet media welcomed Reagan, who visited Moscow the following year, as if he were a Hollywood star.When asked by a journalist if he still considers the Soviet Union to be an "evil empire," Reagan replied "no," "that's another time, another era." I didn't forget to add "I was talking about another time, another era.") ".To such Reagan, GorbachevMoscow State UniversityI even asked him to give a special lecture on the free trade market.

Later memoir "An American LifeReagan was optimistic about the new direction the Soviet Union was taking at the time, and felt extremely intimate with Gorbachev, who became a familiar ally until he could have a hungry conversation. It describes what he had, and the consequences of the Gorbachev administration, which rapidly undertook large-scale reforms, and that he was seriously worried about his life.Also, at that time, referring to the intimate relationship between the two, "Rega-ChevEven a newspaper that read "(Legarcheb)" appeared.Also, jokinglyalienGorbachev sometimes talks about the end of the Cold War and the possibility of US-Soviet cooperation assuming the invasion of[10][11], This metaphor was also used in the 1987 UN speech for disarmament.[12].

Anti-Eastern Europe that has been steadily supported by the "Reagan Doctrine" after the resignation of the presidentCommunismThe movement began in August 1989, when the Moscow backbone began to sway.ハンガリーGovernment authorities have about 1000 peopleEast GermanyCitizens via their own countryオーストリアTo help you escape toPicnic caseIn November, in GermanyBerlin Wall CollapsedThen,CzechoslovakiaThen.Velvet revolutionAbolished the one-party dictatorship by the Communist Party in DecemberブルガリアCommunist Party government collapsed,ルーマニアThen.Chow SheskEastern European countries struck an avalanche and democratized, including giving the dictatorship to a blood festival, and Reagan's successors George HW Bush and GorbachevMalta talksWas held and the Cold War was over.Soviet Union dismantledIt was two years later.

In 1980United NationsAdopted byConvention on Certain Conventional WeaponsSigned in 1982[13].

Policy toward Latin America

The Reagan Doctrine gradually made the United States gradually, in contrast to the former Carter administration, which was tolerant of Latin American socialist regimes.Latin America OfSocialismAgainst the administration and dissident guerrillasHawkBegin to take a diplomatic stance.To the regime that was viewed as hostile in this waySandinista National Liberation FrontEtc. neverUSSR,キ ュ ー バThere were many governments that did not advocate communism like this, but all such circumstances were ignored and "Anti-communityWas crushed under the idea of ​​".

But this is1960 eraThe American "double standard" that has been repeatedly criticized byPro-riceIt also highlighted again (that he took the opposite attitude in diplomacy depending on whether he was anti-communist or not).

"El Salvador Death Guard"Central AmericaIn the basic policy of diplomacy,Central American ConflictThen in NicaraguaContra,El Salvador Army,,as well asFar rightmilitiaSupport the organization and use the CIA for national troopsDeath squadby"Dirty warAs a resultNicaragua Civil War,El Salvador Civil War,Guatemalan Civil WarIntensified, creating a factor that caused hundreds of thousands of casualties and millions of asylum seekers in the area.From this attitude, "Reagan is openly anti-communist.GuerrillaSome have accused them of supporting the war. "[3].

Nicaragua leaderDaniel OrtegaIntensifiesSecond Nicaragua Civil WarIn the middle of, he said:

Nicaragua has never carried out or supported terrorism.Isn't it terrorism to support guerrillas (Contra) who interfere with independent nations or try to overthrow the government?Who laid mines in the port of Nicaragua?Who blew up the oil tank, who bombed the airport, and who made the guerrilla strategy textbook.Who on earth is a true terrorist?[14]

On the other hand1982 Was technically cooperating on issues such as the Central American issue and the crackdown on domestic left-wing guerrillas.アルゼンチンPro-US military governmentFalkland conflictWhen it causedThe United KingdomFully cooperated with.Furthermore, in 1983 ReaganCaribbeanAfter a coup d'etat within the socialist regime in the small island nation of Grenada, officially ordered an invasion of the army (Grenada invasion).This Grenada invasion operation was actually well prepared from the beginning of his inauguration, and he tried to destroy the People's Revolutionary Government by Grenada from the beginning of his inauguration.プ エ ル ト リ コ OfViequesI was repeating military exercises at.

Reagan is stationed not only against Grenada, but also against the sympathetic Nicaragua Sandinista administration, which he called "cancer in the Western Hemisphere."ホンジュラスIt seems that it was aiming for direct intervention (invasion) in Nicaragua by strengthening the US Army, but the failure of Lebanon intervention in 1984 made the invasion of Nicaragua impossible.

Reagan was also supported by the United States in 1973.Chile coupBecame president by, and since then has maintained a military dictatorshipチリ OfAugust PinochetCalling the shogun "friends among friends"CarterIt lifted the economic sanctions against Chile that had been imposed during the administration due to human rights issues, and supported the extension of the life of the Pinochet administration.

Latin American nations, which became unreliable in this attitude, formed and set out to resolve the Central American dispute on their own.In the midst of this conflict, he resisted the United States and removed the base of Contra's faction ARDE, especially working to solve the problem.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe president ofOscar Arias SanchezToNobel Peace PrizeWas awarded.

At the end of that term, the transition to democracy in Latin American countries, where concerns about the spread of communism disappeared as the Cold War came to an end, such as giving economic assistance to countries holding free elections. Began to support, but still during Reagan's termチリ-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThen, the violence by the military dictatorship that advocated "anti-communism" supported by the United States did not stop.

Iran-Contra case

In 1986Iran-Contra caseKnown as(I.e.とEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere was a scandal and investigation of secret military aid to the Sandinista administration.

1985 January,U.S. ForcesSoldiersLebanon(During the civil war) During activitiesIslamShiitesystemMilitantsIsHezbollahI was detained by and became a hostage.To rescue the hostages, the Reagan administration contacted Iran, the backing of Hezbollah, on an informal route.Iran-Iraq Warで(I.e.I promised to secretly export weapons to Iran, which was inferior although it was fighting against.But America at that timeIran revolutionAfter1979 Occurred inIran American Embassy Hostage CaseThis has cut off diplomatic relations with Iran, and of course officially banned arms exports to Iran, as well as official negotiations with the country's government by politicians, bureaucrats, and military personnel.

Not only did he secretly export weapons to Iran with Reagan's direct approval, but also with National Security Adviser John Poindexter.National Security CouncilDeputy Director of Military Administration and U.S. Marine CorpsOliver NorthLieutenant colonelThe profits from the sale of weapons to Iran are being turned to the left.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn the anti-government war (Contra War)I doAnti-communityGuerrilla"ContraWas given to.

However, the actions of exporting arms to Iran and diverting funds to anti-communist guerrillas did not have the congressional consent that was originally necessary, and at that timeDemocratic PartyWas completely against the vote of the majority of the parliament.At this time, the contact point for negotiations between Iran and Contra in the United States was said to have been Vice President Bush in the Reagan administration, and Bush's involvement was under the later Democratic Party administration.CongressIt was taken up at a hearing in.

Eventually, however, Reagan was guilty only of poor control over his staff, ending the case.The scandal was one of Reagan's greatest in office, but did little damage to his political life.Rep. Patricia Schroeder ridiculed that the scandal did not damage Reagan's reputation, likening Reagan to a scratch-resistant pot.TeflonI called him "President".

Lebanese peacekeeping forces

Since 1982Lebanese Civil WarAs a peacekeeperUS Marine Corpsas well as the US NavyWas dispatched to Lebanon. The barracks were opened on October 1983, 10.IslamBy militiaSelf-destruct truck attackAs a result, 241 Marines were killed.(I.e.Following a violent attack on the army, Reagan withdrew the Marines from Lebanon in February 1984.

Relationship with the leaders of each country

Reagan had friendly relations with the leaders of each country, but among themWestern countriesHe maintained an intimate relationship with the leaders of the Summit country.BritishMargaret ThatcherPrime Minister,カナダ OfBrian MulroneyPrime Minister,Japan OfYasuhiro NakasonePrime Minister,イタリア OfAmintre FanfaniProclaiming that he is "good friends" with the prime minister, etc.憚(Stupid)It is the president's "official private space"Camp DavidHe also invited them to a ranch owned by Reagan in California.

SuchFirst nameEven the leaders of allies who do not have a culture to call each other have their first names to create intimacy.Shortened typeDiplomacy by proposing to call inprotocolIt was only the friendly Reagan that revolutionized the world.Reagan and Nakasone also call each other "Ron" and "Yasu", and this is a precedent for many US and Japanese leaders to follow this "first name base".

Relationship with Japan

Japan was not only an ally of the United States, but also the only developed country in Asia with one of the world's leading economic powers, and at the same time, the only country in Asia at that time where stable democratic politics was established.And under the Cold WarLiberal campとSocialist campWith the progress of the polarization of Japan, Japan's strategic importance, which has a US military base in the Asia-Pacific region and is in a position to suppress the superpower Soviet Union from the Pacific side, has become more and more important.

Against the trade friction with Japan that surfaced in the 1970s, he continued to take a tough stance under pressure from conservatives in the United States and large companies and unions, but continued to confront the Cold War head-on. It was no wonder that the Reagan administration emphasized Japan as an indispensable "partner" for American security.

Reagan's hard-line route to the Soviet Union also affected US-Japan relations.Korean aircraft shooting down case,Levchenko caseIn addition to coordinating with Japan in the incidents that occurred in Northeast Asia during the Cold War, in order to increase the military presence in Far East Asia, Aomori PrefectureMisawa Air BaseWas a state-of-the-art fighter at that timeF-16 fighterWith a total of 14 troops in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in Far East Asia, including Japan.

Especially with Yasuhiro Nakasone, who was known as a conservative in the same age group, Nakasone was nicknamed "Yasu" and Reagan was nicknamed "Ron".Ron Yas"WhenNicknameされてお互い交流を結んだ。そうした背景からレーガンは1983年11月9日から12日・1986年5月4日から・1989年5月2日から7日と、現職のアメリカ合衆国大統領としては最多の3度に渡り日本を公式訪問している。この間に東京をOffshore marketTurned into

On my first visit to JapanEmperor Showa(At the timeEmperor Imakami) And Nakasone, and Nakasone was invited to Camp David on November 11th.TokyoNishitama CountyHinode Town OfVillaIsHinode SansoIt became a big topic to have a lunch handmade by Mrs. Tsutako.The day before visiting Hinode Sanso,Meiji Jinguでhorseback archeryAt that time, he said, "I want to do it myself," and bothered the people around me.When he explained the necessity of world peace and Japan-US cooperation in the future at the Diet, he quoted a haiku ("Is it the credit of flowers of various grasses?"), Which was praised by both the ruling and opposition parties.[15].. Nakasone, who was 2004 years old at the time, attended the 86 Reagan state funeral with a wish and missed the deceased.

Relationship with Korea

Shortly after taking office, the President of South Korea in February 1981ZentoTo the Soviet Union and North Korea by inviting him to the White House as the first state guest and expressing his intention to emphasize the anti-communist military alliance by appealing a good relationship with all who advocate anti-communism like Reagan. I gave pressure.On the other hand, the Reagan camp cautiously worked on the South Korean government, which had been a military dictatorship since the transition period, and was sentenced to death. The leader of (who was cracking down by force)Kim Dae JungIs urging you to releaseAkira MurataLikens Reagan's predecessor Jimmy Carter to human rights diplomacy, which he describes as "Reagan's quiet human rights diplomacy."[16].

Health

It was formed in Reagan's large intestine in the summer of 1985.polyp Biological tissue examinationThe result ofMalignantReagan was immediately required to undergo polypectomy.After being diagnosed by a group of doctors that surgery requires general anesthesia, Cheong Wa Dae received the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 and the Presidential Succession Act of 1967.25th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionIt was decided to make a temporary transfer of presidential authority for the first time in accordance with the provisions of.The surgery began in the morning of July 7, with Vice President George HW Bush acting for about eight hours during this time.

September 1987, 1Prostate cancerI have also undergone surgery to remove it, but in this caseLocal anesthesiaNo delegation of authority was carried out because it was possible to complete the procedure.However, at that time, Reagan was nearly 76 years old, and there was widespread concern throughout the United States that he would be okay with two more years left in his term.

After thatDeaf, I was hit by a phenomenon peculiar to aging, such as a dull answer.Reagan has been deaf for some time and is the first incumbent president as early as the year after taking office.hearing aidHowever, the degree of this progressed from the beginning of the second term, and Mrs. Nancy, who was by her side at the public seat, began to listen to her every time.This scene was described by the American media as "First Lady's politics", So Mrs. Nancy was hit by a secret such as" President Nancy Reagan "later.Anyway, when he left the White House on January 8, 1989, the oldest president in history at 1 years and 20 months, many media said, "This may have been the third term. I gave a compliment such as "I can't do it."

On the other hand, it is often pointed out that the illness has hindered the administration.Reagan's working hours were clearly reduced towards the end of his administration, especially in the last two years when he wasn't involved in policy details.[17].

Cabinet

job titleNameTerm
PresidentRonald Reagan1981 - 1989
Vice PresidentGeorge HW Bush1981 - 1989
Secretary of StateAlexander Haig1981 - 1982
George Schultz1982 - 1989
Treasury SecretaryDonald Regan1981 - 1985
James Baker1985 - 1988
Nicholas Brady1988 - 1989
Secretary of DefenseCasper Wine Burger1981 - 1987
Frank Carlucci1987 - 1989
Attorney General(English edition)1981 - 1985
(English edition)1985 - 1988
(English edition)1988 - 1989
Secretary of the Interior(English edition)1981 - 1983
William Clark1983 - 1985
(English edition)1985 - 1989
Secretary of Commerce(English edition)1981 - 1987
(English edition)1987 - 1989
Secretary of Labor(English edition)1981 - 1985
(English edition)1985 - 1987
(English edition)1987 - 1989
Secretary of AgricultureJohn Rusling Block1981 - 1986
Richard Edmund Lyng1986 - 1989
Health and Welfare Secretary(English edition)1981 - 1983
(English edition)1983 - 1985
(English edition)1985 - 1989
Education SecretaryTerrel Howard Bell1981 - 1984
William john benett1985 - 1988
Lauro Cavazos1988 - 1989
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development(English edition)1981 - 1989
Secretary of Transportation(English edition)1981 - 1982
Elizabeth Dole1983 - 1987
(English edition)1987 - 1989
Energy Secretary(English edition)1981 - 1982
(English edition)1982 - 1985
(English edition)1985 - 1989

Retirement

On January 1989, 1, Reagan left the White House with a high approval rating, giving up his position to George HW Bush, also a Republican. It was the one who completed the term of two terms and eight yearsDwight D. EisenhowerSince then.I came to Japan in the same yearTokyo DomeAt1989 Japan SeriesIn the first matchOpening ceremonyIt is carried out.

Reagan made a contribution to the end of the Cold War in Britain.Elizabeth IIqueenからOrder of the British EmpireReceived Night Grand Cross (GBE)ナ イ トHowever, in accordance with the convention that "United States citizens may receive honors from abroad but do not give their name", the name is "GBE".Post-nominal LettersI never put it on.

Alzheimer's disease

Reagan left the White House in 4, four years later.Alzheimer's diseaseWas diagnosed.The illness progressed year by year, forcing him to spend the rest of his life in a quiet and private environment without appearing in public.His wife, Nancy, recreated the White House's office at home, where Reagan stopped the progression of symptoms by doing "work", such as reading newspapers, for several hours each day.1994 OctoberDied inNixonI attended the funeral, but this was the last day I appeared in public.same yearMay 11, He published the condition of Alzheimer's disease in the form of a letter to the public.

Reagan's final message, "I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life.(I'm now on a journey to the twilight of my life) ”impressed many people deeply.

2001 To南 カ リ フ ォ ル ニ アAfter I fell down at home and broke my hips and was almost bedridden, my health became even more unstable.

There are various theories about when Reagan actually developed Alzheimer's disease, and there is a theory that he had already suffered from it during his tenure.The second son, Ron, was the former Vice President of 2011 in a memoir published in 1984.Walter MondaleHe points out that he noticed the incident of his father, Ronald, at the debate.Meanwhile, the attending physicians and aides during his tenure, as well as the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation, said there were no signs of illness during his tenure.[18]..However, Mondale, the other party, said that he felt something wrong like Ron at that time.The White House staff also witnessed a smoke-filled room at all during a fire and saw it as a "eccentricity."[19].

Aircraft carrier "Ronald Reagan"

1998 On February 2, the National Airport in Washington, DC said, "Ronald Reagan Washington National AirportWas renamed.MoreoverNimitz-class aircraft carrierThe 9th ship of the ship was released on March 2001, 3.Ronald Reagan(USS Ronald Reagan, CVN-76) ".2003 May 7Mrs. Nancy attended the commissioning ceremony in place of Reagan himself, who was fighting illness.

Die

4th longevity in history

At 2004:6 pm on June 5, 1, Reagan, who had been undergoing medical treatment at home for some time, is a high-class residential area near Los Angeles. (Bel AirAt homepneumoniaDied because of.

レーガンは妻のナンシー及び子供のマイケル、パティ・デイビス及びロンに支えられ闘病生活を続けたが、家族にベッドを囲まれて93歳120日の生涯を閉じた。死去時、歴代アメリカ合衆国大統領の中で最長寿だったが、2021年11月現在では存命中であるジミー・カーター(97歳)、2018年11月30日に94歳171日で死去したジョージ・H・W・ブッシュ、2006年12月26日に93歳165日で死去したGerald FordIt is the fourth longevity in history.

Funeral

Reagan's funeral1973 OfLindon johnsonSinceNational funeral[Annotation 3] As 2004May 6Was done in.At the state funeral at the National Cathedral, the then presidentGeorge W. Bush, Former President George HW Bush, Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and others made condolences.

In addition, many of the current and past government leaders who had exchanges during the presidential era, such as Yasuhiro Nakasone, the Japanese prime minister who had a close relationship with Reagan, and Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, attended from all over the world. It was reported all over the world through the media such as TV and newspapers.

Local California at sunset on the evening of the funeral daySimi ValleyThe body was placed in a graveyard on the grounds of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Tokyo.

Former communist country

In 2011, Hungary celebrated the 100th anniversary of Reagan's birth.Budapest,Poland'sWarsaw,Gdansk,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ OfTbilisiEven in cities in the former East European region, which were satellite states of the Soviet Union, there is a boom in the construction of statues praising Reagan, who brought freedom to his country by leading the Cold War to the victory of the United States. In 2017, Ukraine and Romania are also evaluated as promoting the construction of Reagan's statue in the country with the will to freedom.[20].

Anecdote

From "Reagan" to "Reagan"

The original pronunciation of "Reagan" in English is close to "Reagan".Reagan himself was also "Ronald Reagan" from his time as a Hollywood actor to the 1980 presidential primary.LeeHe called himself "Cancer".However, when he was nominated by the Republican Party as a party presidential candidate, his roots came to him.アイルランドIt is a systemIrishThen, since the pronunciation of "Rea" at the beginning of the word is pronounced "Rei" instead of "Lee", it was announced that it will be called "Ronald Reagan" from now on.The case was reported surprisingly, as no presidential candidate ever made such an announcement during the election.

However, in the United States, which is a multi-ethnic country, emphasis is placed on inheriting the traditions of the people and pride in their own history.[Needs verification]..Irish-Americans are veterans who systematically immigrated from Europe to the United States and have established a strong position in American society with strong national consciousness and horizontal solidarity.Some subsequent European immigrants changed their surnames to English to make life in the New World a little easier, but those who have roots in proud Irish Americans. There were many.Due to these factors, Reagan's attitude led to an increase in his liking for him.

Another reason is the former who was an adviser to financial issues in the Reagan camp.Merrill LynchChairman'sDonald Regan(Donald Regan) Was present.Reagan was Reagan's aide, and it was certain that Reagan would be appointed Secretary of the Treasury if he was elected.The pronunciation of the surname is the same, and the first name is different only in the first letter.The two names are so confusing that the American press also changed their pronunciation in line with Reagan's statement, and Regan decided to keep it as it was.Today, when the name Reagan has permeated, "Reagan" is often mistaken for "Reagan."[Source required]

In response to this, the notation in the Japanese media reports was "ReganFrom "Reagan[Annotation 4]However, in some cases, both notations were mixed for a while after the inauguration ceremony after the presidential election.Around spring, the US Embassy sent a letter to the Japanese press requesting that the notation be changed to the appropriate one.Such a request from a foreign embassy was unheard of, and the matter became a hot topic in Japan.[When?]

Back to the future

Reagan's favorite movie1985 PublicAmerican movies"Back to the future"so,White HouseIt is said that he saw it many times in the dedicated screening room inside.

In this movieTime Machine30 years ago1955 Totime slipThe main character, Marty McFly, meets the scientist who made this time machine, Dr. Emmett Brown (Doc) when he was young, and tells him that he is from the future.Doc, who doesn't believe that at all, said, "In 1985.President of the United StatesWhen asked "Who is it?", Marty replies "Ronald Reagan", but Doc is amazed (judging that he is telling him to leave) and "Ronald Reagan?" An actorIf youVice PresidentWho is (comedian)Jerry Lewismosquito?First lady TheJane Wyman[Annotation 5] でTreasury Secretary TheJack Bennymosquito? ", SmallfoolThere is a scene to laugh[21](Shortly before that scene, as a performer, the movie "Buffalo Plains (Buffalo Plains)" with Reagan's nameCattle Queen of Montana) ”Poster is reflected).

1986 May 2 OfGeneral textbook speechSo, Reagan conversely quoted the last line of "Back to the Future",

As I said in the movie Back to the Future, our destination doesn't have to have roads.
English: As they said in the film "Back to the Future", Where we're going, We don't need roads.
—Ronald Reagan

Insert the passage,United States CongressIs being praised.

In addition, "Reds], Etc., and I was watching it in the screening room inside the White House.

The bombing begins in 5 minutes

Reagan's playfulness and sophisticated jokes fascinated the United States, but if he made a mistake, he could lead to diplomatic problems, or if he wasn't good enough, he would be totally disappointed.Nuclear war,World War IIIIn some cases, I have created a situation that could be a situation.

August 1984, 8, in a microphone test before the regular radio speech, a cliché "Testing, testing, one, two, three." Instead of saying, "I have a happy report to all the people. I am now.Soviet Socialist RepublicSigned a bill to bury him forever.The bombing begins after 5 minutes (My fellow Americans, I am pleased to tell you I just signed legislation which outlaws Russia forever. The bombing begins in five minutes.) ”.The message was not broadcast at that time, but was subsequently leaked and controversial.SovietTas communication"Protests the unparalleled hostility of the President of the United States" "Keeps the fate of manyNuclear powersIt is not an appropriate statement as the top of the group. "

Bronze statue

2011 On June 6, in honor of Reagan's achievements in democratizing Eastern Europe, Hungary celebrated its 29th birthday.BudapestThe Reagan statue was unveiled at.American at the unveiling ceremonyCondoleezza Rice前Secretary of StateAnd in HungaryAlburn victorThe prime ministers attended.The Reagan statue is 2.2 meters high.Former Soviet Union monument (former Soviet Union1945 It is near the monument erected to show off the "Liberation of Hungary".

July 2011, 7, in England to commemorate Reagan's 4th birthdayUKThe Reagan statue was unveiled at.British at the unveiling ceremonyWilliam hagueForeign Minister, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and others attended.BritishMargaret ThatcherThe congratulatory message of the former Prime Minister was read aloud. 

Major appearances as an actor

  • Holy Forest Hotel Hollywood Hotel (1937) No credit
  • Crime doctor The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (1938) Voice only, no credit
  • Victory of love Dark Victory (1939)
  • Kansas Cavalry Santa Fe Trail (1940)
  • Looting the wilderness The Bad Man (1941)
  • Naguri fighter corps International Squadron (1941)
  • Storm youth Kings Row (1942)
  • A man who runs the battlefield Desperate Journey (1942)
  • Lieutenant of the Army of This Is the Army This Is the Army (1943)
  • Stallion Highway Stallion Road (1947)
  • Battle of love John Loves Mary (1949)
  • The secret of darkness Night Unto Night (1949)
  • Midsummer curvaceous beauty The Girl from Jones Beach (1949)
  • As long as there is a life The Hasty Heart (1949)
  • witness Storm Warning (1951)
  • last stand The Last Outpost (1951)
  • Deathfight of paradise Hong Kong (1952)
  • Duel of paradise Tropic Zone (1953)
  • Battle Town Law and Order (1953)
  • Ford Television Theater The Ford Television Theater (1953-1954) TV drama
  • Buffalo Plain Cattle Queen of Montana (1954)
  • General Electric Theater General Electric Theater (1954-1962) TV drama
  • A moment of confrontation Tennessee's Partner (1955)
  • Dive to victory Hellcats of the Navy (1957)
  • Murderers The Killers (1964)
  • Death Valley Days Death Valley Days (1965) TV drama

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Inaugurated as President on January 2017, 1Donald TrumpIs elected at 70 years old and 220 days beyond that. Inaugurated as President on January 2021, 1Joe BidenIs an election at 78 years and 61 days, which greatly exceeds that.
  2. ^ The divorce is not in office, but more than 30 years before the inauguration of the president.
  3. ^ 1994 Died inRichard NixonWas not held at the state funeral because of his resignation for the first time in American history and his will.Also, as mentioned above, this Nixon funeral was the last day Reagan appeared in public.
  4. ^ In Japanese, like "ei"DiphthongA phenomenon in which the notation is often pronounced as "A [eː]" (Call)Long soundThe notation to replace with was the mainstream in transliteration of foreign and loanwords at that time, but "Reagan" is an example of this being established until now.
  5. ^ Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman were once really married, but they were divorced in 1948, and by the time the young Doc was alive in 1955, Reagan was (historically the first lady). Is remarried to Nancy Davis.

Source

  1. ^ THE CEO'S SECOND WIFE Yes, she's typically younger than the first. Often she has a career of her own. But her primary job is remaking his life. Sometimes the change he undergoes even results in his becoming a more considerate manager. FORTUNE Magazine, August 28, 1989
  2. ^ The height differences between all the US presidents and first ladies Business Insider
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "55 Photo Life" p26-27 (2017, Diapress)
  4. ^ "Reagan" Chuko Shinsho
  5. ^ Jane Wyman
  6. ^ "1984 Presidential General Election Data – National". NovemberBrowse.
  7. ^ "Israel Free Trade Agreement". Office of the US Trade Representative. NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ "What about the "US-China Trade & High-Tech War"? Looking back on "US-Japan semiconductor friction"”. Electronic Device Sangyo Press (May 2018, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ "[US-China Trade War] Two reasons why China came out hard at the last minute --- China is ready for endurance war". Business insider (September 2019, 5). NovemberBrowse.
  10. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3045894/How-Ronald-Reagan-asked-Soviet-rival-Mikhail-Gorbachev-help-fighting-alien-invasion.html How Ronald Reagan asked Soviet rival Mikhail Gorbachev for help fighting alien invasion
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Address to the 42d Session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, New York
  13. ^ The United Nations Office of Geneva> The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons> States parties and signatories> United States
  14. ^ Quoted from Michio Takimoto, "Central American Guerrilla War," Mainichi Newspapers, 1988, pp.194-195.
  15. ^ Akira Mochizuki, "Kyokubunshu Kyukei," p. 52, published March 2007, 3
  16. ^ Koji Murata "Reagan" Chuko Shinsho 2011 pp180.
  17. ^ Mr. Trump's daily timetable BBC September 2018, 1
  18. ^ "Former President Reagan, signs of dementia during his tenure, son claims" (Japanese). CNN.co.jp (CNN). (November 2011, 1). http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/30001521.html NovemberBrowse. [Broken link]
  19. ^ "White House Seen by Servants" by Kate Andersen Brower Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd. 2016 p336
  20. ^ [Column] Shouldn't we build a statue of a leader who has a mistake? Chosun Ilbo
  21. ^ Dr. Brown: Then tell me, "Future Boy", who's President in the United States in 1985?
    Marty: Ronald Reagan.
    Dr. Brown: Ronald Reagan? The actor? Then who's VICE-President? Jerry Lewis ??

References

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外部 リンク

Public office
Predecessor:
Jimmy Carter
United States flag President of the United States
40th generation: March 1981, 1 – March 20, 1989
Next generation:
George HW Bush
Predecessor:
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33th generation: March 1967, 1 – March 2, 1975
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Party position
Predecessor:
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(November)
United States flag United States presidential election
Republican PartyCandidate

November
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Diplomacy
Predecessor:
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