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🌏 | Five members of the US House of Representatives blame Amazon management for possible false testimony to Congress


Five U.S. House Representatives Condemn Amazon Management to Parliament Possibility of False Testimony

If you write the contents roughly
Reuters launched a systematic campaign on Thursday, based on thousands of Amazon internal sources, where the company manufactures imitations in India and manipulates search results to boost its own private label. I reported that I was doing it.

[London, XNUMXth Reuters] – Five members of the US House of Representatives Judiciary Committee announced on the XNUMXth that e-commerce giant Amazon ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Private brand

Private brandIsretail store-WholesalerPlanned and uniquebrand(商標)soSaleToProducts.

Specifically, it is to sell products of its own brand, which are developed and produced in collaboration with manufacturers under the initiative of distributors, at low prices.National brand(NB)[Note 1]Antonym of.

PBAbbreviated as "Store brand, In Japanese "Independently planned productsIs translated into Japanese.


The type of product isFood-Daily necessities-clothing-Home appliancesThere are many foods and daily necessities that are consumed on a daily basis.[1].

Japan's oldest private brandDaimaru 1959 Men's clothing brand released inTrojanFor foodDaieiReleased in 1960 the following yearDaiei orangesIs[1].

1960 Major from aroundDepartment store,supermarket,Japan Consumers' Cooperative FederationHas started to make private brand products, but at that time it was cheaper than national brand products品質Although it became a boom when the economy was inferior and the economic situation was bad, it was not common.Full-scale rise1980 eraFrom the middle, originallySeiyuStarted as a private product of "MujiAs a symbol of independence and price destruction, Daiei's "SavingWith the introduction of products and other products, private products have gained a certain position.

2006 From aroundoilAnd soaring raw materials,Sub prime loanThe price of national brand products has risen due to the economic crisis triggered by the economy, and consumers have become more conscious of saving money.Nikkei Trendy"200830 best hit products"PB (private brand)" is in first placeNikkei MJ"2008Nikkei hit product numbering』West ofYokozunaPrivate brand "Seven Premium (Seven-Eleven) ”・“Top value(AEON group)[Note 2]Was elected. Since 2009, it has been reported that major distribution groups will increase the ratio of PB products to sales.The market size is estimated to be about 3 trillion yen (as of 2012)[1].

Product planning / production

Product planningChain store-Co-opBy retailers such asGSC-Full eclipse chain-Eight societyBy a joint purchasing organization by multiple chain stores, such asKokubu-Mitsubishi foodIt is roughly divided into three types by major wholesalers such as.

For the production and supply of products, when ordering and supplying from small and medium-sized manufacturers, when ordering and supplying from a manufacturer specializing in contract manufacturing, ordering from a major manufacturer with a national brand and ordering existing national brand productsOEMThere are cases where it is supplied (controlled label) and cases where it is produced and supplied in-house (chain brand).


Until the 1980s, it was often outsourced to small and medium-sized manufacturers with weak brand power.品質It was one of the causes of inferiority, but in recent years, it is often planned and produced jointly with major distribution groups and major national brand manufacturers.[Source required]..As a result, quality has become stable, leading to a PB product boom from the mid-2000s.[Source required].

Except for some companies, the seller (retail store) handles various inquiries about products, so the manufacturer (manufacturer) is not open to the public in principle.[Note 3][Source required]..However, it will be listed if the product (alcoholic beverages, dairy products, etc.) that the manufacturer is required to list by law or if it is published under the private brand policy.[Note 4][Source required]..In particular, the contents may be the same as those of major national brand products, or the product may be aimed at increasing the sense of security and bargain for consumers by knowing the manufacturer.[Note 5][Source required]..For foods that can be preservedAfter-Sales ServiceIn some cases, the manufacturer in charge of manufacturing may be the contact point for inquiries.[Source required].

However, it was discovered at the end of December 2013Acry Foods pesticide contamination caseThen, because the collection of the target product without the manufacturer's name was hindered, the coping method when a product requiring collection occurred became apparent as a problem.[2]..Because of that, from April 2015, 4Food Labeling LawWith the enforcement, including national brand productsUse of factory-specific symbols only when manufacturing the same product in multiple factoriesFor products manufactured in only one factory, it is necessary to display the manufacturer's name and the name and address of the manufacturing factory (1 year and 6 months for fresh foods and 5 years for processed foods).[3].


  • Consumer side
    • You can buy products of almost the same quality as national brands at a lower price.
    • You can purchase high quality and value-added products that are not found in national brands.
  • Sales side
    • Since the product specifications can be easily changed, it is possible to sell products that directly reflect the voices of retailers and consumers.
    • Since no advertising / operating costs or wholesalers are required, the gross profit margin is about 5 to 10 points higher than that of national brand products.[1], The selling price can be set freely (≒ ""EDLP)).
    • By specifying raw materials, manufacturing methods, and specifications, it is possible to add original value to products and improve the corporate and brand image.
  • Manufacturer side
    • By guaranteeing a certain amount of sales, it is possible to increase the factory utilization rate and efficiently produce even in the off-season, which makes it possible to reduce costs.
    • By stabilizing sales, the management of the manufacturer will be stable.
    • It can create the soil for national brand development and marketing.


  • Consumer side
    • Even if it looks the same as a national brand, the raw materials, blending ratio, processing method, and content may be changed, which may affect the flavor and texture, and the quality may be appropriate for the price or higher.
    • Since retailers give priority to private brand products, the handling of national brand products may be reduced and the range of product choices may be narrowed.
    • Since there are many products with lower prices than national brands from the beginning, it is difficult to become a bargain product (Expiration SoonExcludes discounts on nearby foods).
    • Since most products do not list the manufacturer, it is difficult for consumers to directly convey their opinions to the manufacturer.
  • Sales side
    • Since it is a full purchase, it cannot be returned even if it is unsold, and it cannot be resold to other companies.In addition, if the timing of additional production is incorrect, the product will be out of stock for a long period of time, so inventory risk always occurs.
    • In the event of an accident such as food poisoning or foreign matter contamination, the manufacturer must take responsibility for handling complaints on behalf of the manufacturer.Also after the end of productionAfter-Sales ServiceMust also be done.
  • Manufacturer side
    • Sales of national brand products produced in parallel may decrease.
    • Depending on the product, the gross profit margin may be about 10 points lower than that of national brands.[1].
    • If there is a discrepancy with the standard pointed out by the seller, you may be refused receipt of the product.Especially in the case of food, it is not possible to refill the contents, let alone resell it, and it is necessary to hold a large amount of inventory or dispose of it as it is, and the cost that should be recoverable does not come in, which makes it difficult to raise funds.
    • If the dependence on contract production increases, the development and sales capabilities of national brands will decline, and the factory utilization rate will depend on the order quantity of the ordering party.

Major private brands

Originally developed products such as major distributors

  • TOPVALU(ion)-In 1994Top valueStarted selling as, in 2000Top valueChange to. Approximately 2011 items and sales of approximately 6,000 billion yen in FY5,273[1].. In FY2016, sales were 7,156 billion yen.[4].Inageya-Maruetsuな どionAlso handled by companies that have a capital and business alliance with.
    • TOPVALU Select-A slightly higher product with an emphasis on quality.
    • TOPVALU-Products in the normal price range.
    • TOPVALU Best Price-A second line that is even cheaper than regular TOPVALU products. Started selling in 2010.
    • TOPVALU Green Eye
  • HapYcom(Aeon) --Aeon's drugstores and Aeon's drug divisionOver-the-counter medicineBrand. Welcia was used until May 2009.
  • With your approval (Seiyu)- Great valueBorn after transitioning from. December 2012, 12 sales start[5].
  • Kihon no Ki (Seiyu)
  • Great value (Walmart) -Also handled by Seiyu, a subsidiary.
  • Seven Premium(Seven & i Holdings)-Started selling 2007 items in May 5.The manufacturer is specified for all products, and the contact point for inquiries is also the manufacturer.Seven-Eleven,Ito-Yokado,York-Benimaru,Sogo/SeibuNot only group companies such asTenmaya storeIt is also supplied to.About 75% of sales come from Seven-Eleven. Approximately 2011 items and sales of approximately 1,500 billion yen in FY4,200[1].. In FY2016, sales of 3,650 items were 1 billion yen.[6].
    • Seven Premium
    • Seven Premium Gold
    • Seven Premium Fresh
    • Seven Premium Lifestyle
  • Style One[7](Uni-Izumiya-Fuji)
    2009 OctoberToTokai regionWith UNY based onKinkiBased on Izumiya,Chugoku-Shikoku regionAnnounced the development of a joint private brand product by Fuji's three companies based onMay 6Announced that the brand name will be "Style One" in the three social studies.And 3May 8By the brand name of "Style One"Food90 itemsDaily necessitiesLaunched 10 items at the same time by 3 companiesionof"Top value"Seven & i Holdingsof"Seven PremiumIt was decided to oppose the "PB2 strength" of.The catch phrase is "My favorite.. "
    The above three companies involved in the development of "Style One" brand products[8] In addition to directly managed and affiliated stores ofSun rib"Marushok(BothSunrib Marshok Group)When"mini piago"(CurrentlyG-7 HoldingsIt is also available under the umbrella).Long time agoUNY Group Holdings(LaterUni Family Mart Holdings) Under the umbrellaconvenience store"Circle K(Only for stores in Japan. Also, for stores in JapanFamilyMartConverted to), "thanks"(FamilyMartIt was also available at stores (already converted to).
    Style one brandCup NoodleRegarding vertical cups (soy sauce ramen, etc.), UNY uses the flow from "e-price".Nissin FoodMade in Izumiya, the flow from "good-i"Ace cockThe "salty soy sauce ramen cup" was integrated into the one made by Nissin Foods by the fall of 2010, although it was different depending on the store, such as the one made by NISSIN FOODS.CurrentlySanyo food,Toyo SuisanMade-to-order products are also sold by stores.Bag noodles(Instant noodle) Is for each companyAkeboshi foodMade of products are on sale.[Source required]
    2011 October, Circle K Sunkus Co., Ltd. (later the second generation FamilyMart Co., Ltd.) developed a uniform 2 yenConfectionerySeries brand "Hogara KataimuAll products have been switched to the "Style One" brand.
    2016 May 9In addition, UNY Group Holdings, which was the parent company of UNY and Circle K Sunkus (first generation)FamilyMartCircle K Sunkus changed its trade name to (2nd generation) FamilyMart after the business integration with UNY FamilyMart Holdings Co., Ltd. was newly established.Even after the business integration, the Circle K Sunkus store continued to sell "Style One" brand products, but FamilyMart's private brand "Family mart collectionThe number of stores switching to "" is increasing, and FamilyMart also announced that it would like to complete the switch of all products by the spring of 2017 in order to bring out the results of the business integration as soon as possible.[9]..And the supply to the stores of Circle K Sunkus, which has not been converted to FamilyMart, ended at the end of February 2017.[10]..However, the supply of "Style One" brand products to Apita, Piago, and mini Piago (excluding collaboration stores with FamilyMart) will continue.
    2014 IzumiyaHankyu Hanshin Toho Group OfHXNUMXO RetailingAnd business integration[11].2018 FujiionCapital and business alliance with[12].2019 UnyDon Quixote Holdings(CurrentPan Pacific International Holdings) Became a subsidiary[13]..Individual private brand in each affiliated company[Note 6]The trend of "Style One" was attracting attention, but in 2019May 4Uny and Izumiya revealed that "Style One" will continue to exist in the future[14].. same yearMay 4Fuji has also announced that it will continue, and with the background of the industry reorganization mentioned above, Fuji has announced that it will lead product development and brand development in the future.[15].
    In February 2020, 2 Ichiba, which operates mini Piago, left the UNY Group, but Style One continues to be handled.
    In addition, the "good-i" brand of PB products developed by Izumiya isfor the time being[When?]In addition to continuing sales in parallel with "Style One," Fuji's PB product "Living Malt" is being switched to "Style One," focusing on groceries.[When?].
    Even before this "Style One" brand started2008 UNY has entered into a business alliance such as joint purchase with Izumiya, and some of UNY's (Apita Piago, etc.) PB products "e-price" are now available at Izumiya. It was.
  • Prime ONE[16](Uny Izumiya Fuji) -Style One's premium brand, which is attached to groceries and miscellaneous goods that are of higher quality and commitment than Style One.The price is a little higher than Style One.The catch phrase is "One level higher, satisfaction.. "
  • UUCS
  • e-price (Uny)
  • Good eye (Izumiya)
  • mykai (Rogers)
  • maruetsu365 [Maruetsu Sanrokugo] (Maruetsu)
  • Mandai selection (Many generations)
  • Professional specification (Meat Hanamasa)
  • V select, V Quality, V organic (Barrow)
  • Smile life (Life corporation)[17]
  • Life Premium (Life Corporation)[18]
  • Life Natural (Life Corporation)[19]
  • Star Select (Life Corporation ・Yaoko)[20]
  • Living (Sun rib-Marushok)
  • Tokyu Store Plus (Tokyu Store Plus)Tokyu store)- Long time agoTokyu ExcellentAndTokyu SelectI was calling myself.
  • Hankyu taste (Hankyu Oasis)
  • @HOME, CAINZ (Cainz)
  • D2 Original (Keio)
  • Passion price (Pan Pacific International Holdings Don Quixote,Nagasakiya)
  • Make a GOOD Choice !, Make a ECO Choice! (MrMAX)
  • EDLP [Everyday Low Price] (Kohnan)
  • SOUTHERN PORT (Kohnan)
  • PRO-TEC (Kohnan)
  • K +, Athena Life, Midorikan (Komeri)
  • Roy Valu (Royal Home Center)
  • M's one (M's one)Tsuruha)
  • Basic (Yakuodo)
  • MK CUSTOMER (Matsumotokiyoshi)
  • Algeran (Matsumotokiyoshi)
  • Lunta (Matsumotokiyoshi)
  • Melano Science (Matsumotokiyoshi)
  • Japanese supplement (Matsumotokiyoshi)
  • HJB (CFS Corporation)
  • S Select (Cedar pharmacy)-Sold by the companyMedicine,Daily necessitiesPart of.
    • S Unique-A part of the daily necessities that the company sells.
    • S. Lumier-Cosmetics sold by the company.
  • WELL-US (Giraffe)
  • The power of Daikoku (Daikoku Drug)
  • ON365 [Onsan Rokugo] (Cosmos drug)
  • green label relaxing (United arrows)
  • Viva Life (Viva Home)
  • BIG-A (Big-A)
  • IGNIO(Alpine)
  • Y's select (Yamada Denki) -Transition from herbal relaxation.
  • ELSONIC (Nojima)
  • CLOSSHI (Shimamura)
  • joyful DAYS (Joyful Honda)
  • Daiso Select (Daiso)-Some of the groceries and daily necessities that the company sells.
  • Do! STARS (Cando)
  • Watts Select (Watts)
  • AUTOBACS quality (AUTOBACS Seven)
  • D-PRICE (D-PRICE)Daikoku Tensan)
  • mykai (Hokushin Shoji)

In addition, major100 Yen shopThen, in many cases, we order from a major famous NB manufacturer as our own product.

convenience store

  • Famimaru (FamilyMart)-Started selling under the name of "FamilyMart Collection" in October 2012, and gradually transitioned from the old brand.There are two types, the "regular line" in the white package and the "platinum line" in the brown package targeting middle-aged and older people. In 10, we will handle about 2 items, aiming for sales of 2012 billion yen.[1].. Due to the management integration of FamilyMart and UNY Group Holdings in September 2016Circle K,thanksAt the stores in Japan, "Style One" was gradually replaced by the FamilyMart collection. From October 2021, 10, the name will be changed to "Famimaru" by integrating with the lunch and side dish brand "Mother's Cafeteria", and the old brand will be gradually transferred.[21].
  • Lawson ――For all brands, about 2011 items and sales of about 1,500 billion yen in FY1,000[1].
    • Value line (Lawson,Lawson Store 100) --Started nationwide expansion in 2008.
    • Lawson Select --Launched in 2010.Has a business and capital tie-up with LawsonpoplarBut some products are available.
    • Uchi Cafe-Dessert.
    • Around the snack. --Sweets.
  • Secoma (formerly Seiko Fresh) (Seicomart)
  • 100 good tastes (Daily Yamazaki) --Basically, it's a private brand of Daily Yamazaki,Super yamazaki,Homac NicotteIt may also be sold at some stores.

Originally developed products of foreign-affiliated distribution industry

  • Great value (Walmart)-Introduced by Seiyu in 2005 in Japan.
  • Carrefour brand (Carrefour)
    • Rufre de France (Carrefour)
    • Carrefour Discount (Carrefour)
    • NO.1 (commonly known as "N1", Carrefour)
  • Tesco brand (Tesco, Mainly in JapanTsurukame LandHandling at)
    • Tesco Value (Tesco, mainly handled at Tsurukame Land in Japan)
  • Kirkland Signature (Costco)

Voluntary chain jointly developed product


Private brand that once existed

  • Saving, BUBU, Cortina, I want to eat deliciously! , Living 88, Salib, Attachment specifications, FIT (Daiei)
    When joining the AEON Group, it was integrated with TOPVALU and disappeared.
  • Green eye (ion)
    1993 Debut.2000 Integrated as "TOPVALU Green Eye"[25].
  • Hoodex, Homex (Maruetsu)
  • Fine Select (Seiyu)
  • Life support super price (Mycal)
    It was mainly developed for food and daily consumables, but in the process of bankruptcy in 2001 and business restructuring sponsored by Aeon, it was gradually replaced by TOPVALU and abolished.Sold by Jess Mac of Mycal Group.
  • Muji(Seiyu)
    Originally1980 It was Seiyu's private brand that was born in1983 ToAoyamaAfter opening a directly managed store in1989 Independently changed the company name to "Ryohin Keikaku".It still exists as a brand in a broad sense.
  • Cut price (Ito-Yokado)
  • Living malt (Fuji)
    StyleOneDisappeared in the transition to.

Private label in bankruptcy or integrated retail

  • Hundred years old ()
    mainlyMiyazakiAt the discount store inside2004 Bankruptcy. To CMBatten ArakawaWas performing.
  • OffPrice (Yanagen)
    He joined the Heiwado Group from around September 2005, but around March 9.Nichiryu GroupAbolished due to switching to the private brand "Kurashi Moa".

Fact-finding survey by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

2009 year 8 month,Ministry of AgricultureAs a subsidized project, the incorporated association started a fact-finding survey on the planning, development, manufacturing, and distribution of PB products targeting food manufacturers and supermarkets, and announced the survey results on April 2010, 4.[26].


注 釈

  1. ^ In the case of home appliances, national brand products are referred to as private brand products.Proper productsOften called.
  2. ^ The eastern yokozuna is a further evolution of the private brand.Manufacturing and retailingIs,UNIQLO-H&M.
  3. ^ As a sellerion,Japan Consumers' Cooperative FederationAs a distributor company, the manufacturer and the manufacturing factoryFactory-specific codeIt is replaced by.
  4. ^ Called a double chop, or double brand.
  5. ^ The term "co-development" is often used to promote such products.
  6. ^ Uny Brothers CompanyDon QuixoteIs "passion price", of the Izumiya brothersHankyu OasisIs developing "Hankyu no Aji", and Fuji's partner Aeon is developing "TOPVALU".


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Special feature: Behind the scenes of PB products", "Weekly Toyo Keizai" December 2012, 12 issue, Toyo Keizai Inc., December 22,ISSN 0918-5755 .
  2. ^ Other companies' PB pitfalls Acry pesticide detection Some products are not listed by the manufacturer --January 2014, 1 Tokyo Shimbun
  3. ^ How will it change with the enforcement of the Food Labeling Law?Food labeling
  4. ^ Aeon Co., Ltd. Financial Results Supplement for FY2017 / 2 (92nd Term) --AEON Co., Ltd.
  5. ^ Seiyu announces new private brand "Everyone's endorsement" --Seiyu Press Release (December 2912, 12)
  6. ^ Seven & i Holdings Co., Ltd. Financial Results for the Fiscal Year Ending February 2017 --Seven & i Holdings Co., Ltd.
  7. ^ Style one
  8. ^ Logistics Partner Co., Ltd. “Uny, Izumiya, Fuji / 3 companies collaborate PB "Style One" continues". Distribution News. OctoberBrowse.
  9. ^ Unify Circle K, Sunkus, and FamilyMart products by next spring --Asahi Shimbun Digital Article dated September 2016, 9
  10. ^ Product integration of FamilyMart Circle K Sunkus is complete! -Famima's popular products can also be purchased at Circle K Sunkus nationwide! | News Release | FamilyMart --FamilyMart February 2017, 02
  11. ^ "Notice of business integration through share exchange between HXNUMXO Retailing Corporation and Izumiya Co., Ltd.”. H2014O Retailing Corporation, Izumiya Co., Ltd. (created on January 1, 31). OctoberBrowse.
  12. ^ "Notice of capital and business alliance between Fuji Co., Ltd. and Aeon Co., Ltd.”. Fuji Aeon Co., Ltd. (created on October 2018, 10). OctoberBrowse.
  13. ^ "Notice regarding the completion of the acquisition of shares of UNY Co., Ltd. (making it a wholly owned subsidiary)”. Don Quijote Holdings Co., Ltd. (created on January 2019, 1). OctoberBrowse.
  14. ^ "Uny, Izumiya, Fuji / 3 companies collaborate PB "Style One" continues”. Distribution News (created on September 2019, 4). OctoberBrowse.
  15. ^ "Reasons why Fuji, which has a capital and business alliance with Aeon, keeps a distance from TOPVALU”. Diamond Chain Store (created April 2019, 4). OctoberBrowse.
  16. ^ Prime One
  17. ^ "Smile life”. Life Corporation. OctoberBrowse.
  18. ^ "Life premium”. Life Corporation. OctoberBrowse.
  19. ^ "Life natural”. Life Corporation. OctoberBrowse.
  20. ^ "Star select”. Life Corporation. OctoberBrowse.
  21. ^ "Famima changes brand from" Mom's dining room "to" Famimaru "". Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2021, 10). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASPBL5R8HPBLULFA006.html OctoberBrowse. 
  22. ^ Confex Group
  23. ^ Official website of Confectionery Technology Center
  24. ^ ELFINDOLL | Nishimatsuya
  25. ^ TOPVALU Green Eye
  26. ^ Current status and issues of PB efforts in food companies

Reference site


  • Kaori Fujino "Hit! Mechanism of PB product planning, development and sales ”Tongwen Guan Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 2009.ISBN 978-4-495-58501-3.OctoberBrowse.
  • "The back side of PB products", "Weekly Toyo Keizai" December 2012, 12 issue, Toyo Keizai, December 22,ISSN 0918-5755 .

Related item

Search engine

Search engine(Kensaku engine,British: search engine) Is in a narrow senseインターネットInformation that exists in (Web page,Website,imageFile,Net newsEtc.)Search ProductsToFeaturesAnd thatProgram.. In the early days of the spread of the Internet, websites that provided only search functions were called search engines, but now various services have been added.Portal siteDue to the increasing popularity, websites that offer search as one of their services are no longer simply called search sites. In a broad sense, it includes all systems that search information without being limited to the Internet.

A narrowly defined search engine isRobot search engine,Directory type search engine,Meta search engineEtc. As a search engine in a broad sense, it is registered within a certain websitetextOf informationFull-text searchWith featuressoftware(Full-text search system) Etc.

The search engine issearch windowSearch is performed by inputting a keyword in a box called "." There are some that allow full-text search and some that do not. Although a search site is generally called a "search engine", strictly speaking, the search site itself is not a search engine.

Search engine (narrow sense)

Robot search engine

According to the given search formula,Web pageEtc.Search ProductsA server or system to be used. In the simplest case, the search expression is only a character string that is a keyword,AND ("Katsu", logical product),OR (“or”, logical sum)Many can be specified by combining logical conditions such as.

As one of the main features of robot type search engine,Crawler(Robot spider) is used. By this,WWWEfficiently collect a lot of information above (JapaneseCopyright lawThen you can duplicate). Large-scale search engines can search from over 80 billion pages.

The collected page information is analyzed in advance and index information (index) (Edited under Japanese copyright law).JapaneseIn languages ​​such asNatural language processingThe function affects the quality of the generated index. For this reason,MultilingualA compatible search engine will enable more accurate searches.

The order in which the search results are displayed is the most important part for the quality of the search engine. This is because if the page that the user expects cannot be displayed at the top of the search results, the user will leave. Therefore, many search engines determine the display order.algorithmIs closed to the public and competes for its performance.Search engine optimizationThe existence of vendors is also a factor that does not disclose the algorithm.GoogleIs part of that algorithmPageRankAlthough it is open to the public, again, many parts are private. In the case of Google, one part of the algorithm in the early days of its founding can be found in the paper published by the founder himself. Reference English original[1]Japanese commentary[2]

You can use the information of the update time of the web page to search for only new information and search results.CategoryThere are also movements to install unique features such as those that can be displayed in a digitized form and to optimize search results for users.

More than just a search engine that searches traditional web pages,Internet shoppingDevelopment of search engines specialized in specific fields, such as dedicated search engines, is also occasionally seen. In product search, the largest price comparison service in JapanPrice.comOr developed by a venture companyQOOPIEAnd so on. Also,Occupation search engineasCraigslistand so on. Google,Yahoo!,Info seek,Technorati,MARS FLAG,Altavista,Mooter,Alltheweb,,,Inktomi,SAGOOL,Yahoo! JAPAN (2005.10~) etc.

Directory type search engine

Built by handWeb directoryA server or system that searches inside.

High quality because it is built by handWebsiteCan be searched. Since the outline is manually entered, it is easy to find the target site from the list of search results.CategoryBecause they are divided, it is easy to find a site limited to a specific field or district.

However, there is a drawback that the number of sites to be searched cannot be increased because the sites to be searched are manually input.

In the early days (1990s) when the Internet became popular, the directory type was the mainstream, but with the explosive expansion of the WWW, virtually any website can be immediately reflected in the directory. Become impossible,It is no longer mainstream[When?].For this reason, many directory-type search engines are combined-type, such as displaying the results using a robot-type search engine when there is no site that hits the search.[When?].

Hitachi International Business Hole-in-One (- November 2004), Yahoo! JAPANYahoo! category(- March 2018[3]),LookSmart Japan(- March 2006[4]),gooGoo Category Search for (- August 2019[5]), Open Directory ProjectDMOZ(- March 2017) etc.

Distributed search engine

P2PA search system that distributes the index of web contents to many peers through communication and shares the index of each peer across the P2P network.

Each peer crawls the web independently, and the indexer creates the RWI (Reverse Word Index). Some of the indexes created areDHTIt is distributed to other peers as (Distributed Hash Table).

The search can be performed by sending a request from the terminal of one's peer to another peer on the P2P network.

As an example of a distributed search engineYaCyThere is. YaCy advocates "people's web search for the people," and says that decentralization can prevent censorship.[6]

Meta search engine

Searching for one search word with multiple search engines is called meta search (sometimes called cross-search engine).Startpage.comEtc. are classified into this.Detail is"Meta search engine"checking.

Search engine (broad sense)

Full-text search system

From a given document group, using a search formula (keyword, etc.)Full-text searchA generic term for software and systems that provide functions,Web serverOften used by incorporating.Stand aloneSome are for personal use in the environment, especially called "desktop search".Within the companyfile server,Corporate portalThe target is "Enterprise searchIs called.


Western history

Search engine1994 ToStanford University OfJerry YangとDavid FiroDeveloped byYahoo!Is[7].. Yahoo!Directory typePlayed a major role in the spread of the Internet with search engines[7].

Later, a program called a robot or crawler was developed to automatically search information on the Web and organize the information as an index.[7].. Among robot type search enginesLarry PageとSergey BrinDeveloped byGoogle searchHas jumped to the top of search engines because it excels in ranking search results and fast searches.[7].

2009 ToMicrosoftAnnounces Bing as a new search engine[7].

History in Japan


The search engines that have existed since the early days of the spread of the Internet in Japan include the following. In the early days,Toyohashi University of TechnologyCreated by students in Yahho[8]AndTokyo UniversityCreated by studentsOdin,Waseda UniversityCreated by studentsclairvoyanceThose created by individual students preceded commercial (both1995 Created inNippon Telegraph and Telephone CorporationOf Cyber ​​Space Japan (currentlyWeb impact) Is1994 Created in). These were not only open to the public for experiments, but were used by many people, and were well known and practical for the early users. Also, like Mondou,Kyoto University) Was also created in.

Yahoo! JAPAN alone

January 1995SoftbankPurchased a portion of Yahoo! shares in the United States and localized it to the Japanese version from April of the following yearYahoo! JAPANStarted service. At the exhibition Interop in July of the same year, it was about to start as a department of Softbank with the strength of exhibiting at a small booth with about two desks lined up, but the original name of Yahoo! Increased population of Internet users in the latter half of the 7s, added robot type search that was only directory type search, cooperation with Yahoo! Internet Guide (SoftBank Creative Publishing) that introduces some websites registered, Yahoo! Japan With the news of rising stock prices, people who do not use the Internet are well known, and various positive factors and management strategies have been brilliantly solidified, and the company has become the top search site. With the ability of the search site to attract customers, it has begun to run alone as a portal site that includes services other than search services such as news and auctions.

Group of people

1997 Since then, WWW (World Wide Web), the Yahoo! web directory, which was only a directory type, rapidly became obsolete. These days,infoseek,gooRobot type search engine represented byYahoo! JAPANHas adopted the goo robot search engine, and has entered an era of group division.

The rise of Google

Google 1998 ActivatedGoogle searchIs a traditional search enginePortal siteIt is a simple screen that goes backwards to the trend toward specialization, specializes in original search technology, and eliminates banner advertisements.2000 Its popularity with Yahoo!'s robotic search engine has rapidly increased. Someday[Needs verification]It is said to have jumped to the top of the world share of web page search. Also in Japan, using search engines such as Google and Yahoo! = "Guguru"Net slangWas born. Yahoo!, which has caused a sense of crisis in this situation,2004 Robot-type search engine proprietary technology (acquired by Yahoo!InktomiWhen,OvertureAcquired byAltavista,AllthewebIntegrating technologies such as). In the same year, Ask Jeeves (currently a search engine that uses Teoma that is said to be comparable to Google and Yahoo! engines)Ask.com) Was born in Australia in 2005 as "Ask.jp"MooterEntered the Japanese market and started a search service.

Diversification of search engines

As the act of searching has become popular, search engines diversified according to various purposes have appeared. Search specialized for blog informationTechnoratiAnd specialized in searching product informationProduct search site, Search by the appearance of the siteMARS FLAG, Music search, video search, file search, uploader search, etc., new search engine is born one after another.

In addition, we manually requested a search under abstract conditions that cannot be determined by a search engine.OKWave,Human power search HatenaSuch as "human power search" "Knowledge communityA service called "" has also appeared.

In recent years, not only personal computers but also mobile phonesPortable game consoleWebsites are getting more and more popular, and mobile phones such as Google and Yahoo! have appeared and are booming.

Diversification of compatible terminals

Softbank-Yahoo! JAPAN VodafoneAcquired,KDDIThe search engine battle is intensifying in the field of mobile phones, such as the partnership with Google. The field of mobile search has long beenOfficial WebsiteSince the world called ``has been enclosed by users, it has rarely been in the limelight.

Legal risk

Deep web

Web search engines such as Google do not search many database results. Dynamic pages like thisDeep webIt is called "invisible web" or "hidden web". There are 500 times as many static pages and many are said to be free. The deep web must find a database or the like from a general search engine or the like, or directly access it and then perform a search again from each search function. Also, the search engine used when searching the dark web.AhmiaAlso exists.

Relationship with copyright

Robot search engineIn principle, content on the InternetcopyAnd save it in a form suitable for storage for search purposes, and in some casescacheMay be saved in a form that can be provided as.CopyrightTo use the website for browsingTermsThere is a site, etc. that prohibits any kind of copying, and has been a topic of discussion for a long time.[9].

In addition, in November 2006, at the 11rd Planning WG of the Content Expert Study Group of Japan's Intellectual Property Strategy HeadquartersCopyright lawAbove, duplication and editing requires permission of the right holder,Yahoo!,GoogleCurrently, the servers of major search systems are located overseas. "[10]And received thisMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAnnounced that it will work on revision of the copyright law and development of search engines so that search engine services can be legally provided in Japan.[Source required], The January 2010 revision made copying legal.

There is a controversy that this is an expanded interpretation, that companies like Google did not grow up in Japan because of copyright law, and that it was the law that prevented Internet search in Japan. Seen in (Fair useAlthough it has been pointed out that there are no regulations, etc.), before this WG report, there is no story that the Internet search business was hindered by the copyright law (The rise of the Internet search engine was 2006. 10 years back from the year, in the middle of the 1990s, similar attempts were started at the same time, such as "Clairvoyance" in Japan and "AltaVista" in the US (As mentioned above, copyright is released to the shield. Certainly, there were people who argued that they refused to use the information, but there was no legal ground for ordinary thinking, such as precedent, at that time). Even the service started last century[11]Is).

Various ads on search engines

2006 From around that time in JapanURLA TV that displays search keywords such as company name and product name without displaying (address) and allows search engines to searchcommercialSuch asAdsExpressions are increasing rapidly. Most of the time, a search form and buttons with keywords written are displayed to encourage mouse clicks. Although the reason why such changes have occurred is unknown, the increase in the number of access is easier than the changes in advertising standards of each media and displaying URLs in commercials. However, since information that is inconvenient for the company may appear in the search results,Google eight minutesIt is possible that the search result is operated as follows.

Currently, the mainstream advertising method is to expose ads after user search results.Search-linked advertisementAnd analyze the inside of the site and deliver advertisements that match the siteContent-linked advertisementIs the mainstream.

English-speaking countriesBut from around 2013 like "#wikipedia"Number signIs engaged in advertising activities.

Search engine issues and problems

Challenges of multilingualization

The so-called "ratio of the Internet population in terms of the language used" isInternet ArchiveUsingEuro MarketingとGlobal ReachSince the past monthly materials have been organized, the following trends are being followed.

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1995 According to the previous Internet Society, English accounted for 85% of the languages ​​used on the Internet.ITAs shown in the table above, due to the progress of2000 At the end of the year, the English and non-English language populations reversed, and that trend continues.

As of February 2005, 2, Google, which is a representative WWW search engine, has registered over 2 billion 80 web pages. Search engine users tend to assume that they can easily get the information they want from over 8,058,044,651 billion web pages, but for example, it is not easy to search Japanese sites using terminals such as computers that cannot input Japanese. Absent. Similarly, searching between non-English languages ​​is difficult unless a translation engine is used in the middle.

Assuming that the multilingualization of the Internet will continue to increase, how to overcome the barriers between languages ​​can be cited as one of the issues facing future search engines.

Search engine danger

While search engines are convenient, there are also references and materials regarding the dangers and damage examples. Regarding the research report on the safety of search engines, McAfee, a security vendor that provides anti-virus software, announced on June 2007, 6, "Survey reports on the safety of search engines," saying "Search engines are dangerous. Yes, if you enter a keyword into a search engine and check the risk of sites that appear in the top, sites displayed as advertisements are 4 times as dangerous as sites that are not.”[12][13].

Also, according to a research report released on May 2006, 05, search engine keyword search results have dangerous links, so don't assume that search engines will protect you. On the contrary, search result rankings often don't reflect the safety of the site, and warn users that they are at high risk, especially when visiting search engine ads.[14].. In addition, in a survey report on the risk of search engine sites, McAfee announced the "Search Engine Safety Survey" and stated that "the most dangerous results are in Yahoo."[15].

Main search engine sites

  • Ask.com - English,Japanese.. Withdraw as the Ask.jp brand
  • Bing-MSN -Supports Japanese and other languages.
  • DuckDuckGo -English, some Japanese. Privacy-focused search engine
  • goo -Japanese. The original version is the search
  • Google -Supports Japanese and other languages.
  • Indeed -Job search only. Supports Japanese and other languages.
  • Lycos -English, Japanese, etc.
  • Qwant --Privacy-focused search engine from France
  • SPYSEE -Personal information, Japanese.
  • Startpage.com --English, some Japanese.Privacy-orientedMeta search engine.. Usability similar to Google.
  • Yahoo! JAPAN(Japanese)/ Yahoo!(English) Google is for the Japanese version, Bing is for the English version, and the original search is only part of the real time.
  • Yandex - Russian, English, etc., multilingual support.One of the web searches that does not support Japanese but has many users.
  • Baidu -Chinese. Japanese search ends
  • Everyone's voice.jp -Japanese blog search

The main search engine sites that have terminated the service



[How to use footnotes]


  1. ^ The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine(English, Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, Computer Science Department, Stanford University)
  2. ^ Google's Search Ranking-The Algorithm
  3. ^ "To the end of "Yahoo! Category" "End role". ITmedia(July 2017, 6). http://www.itmedia.co.jp/business/articles/1706/29/news079.html OctoberBrowse. 
  4. ^ Takahiro Watanabe (June 2006, 6). “Value Commerce Closes "Looksmart"”. SEM Research. OctoberBrowse.
  5. ^ "Notice of end of goo category search service". goo (September 2019, 7). OctoberBrowse.
  6. ^ Internet Watch article "Privacy-protected distributed search engine "YaCy"-steady development continues"
  7. ^ a b c d e Shoichi Tokimi, Izumi Tsuzuki, Natsuo Onodera, "Knowledge and Techniques for New Retrieval of Information Retrieval, 3rd Edition", Japan Society for Information Science and Technology, 2010, p. 58.
  8. ^ "3/3 There was a search engine called Yahho [Company IT utilization All About] ”. OctoberBrowse.
  9. ^ For example Is Search Engine Cache Infringing?(2002.3 Slash dot・See Japan etc.
  10. ^ Issues surrounding content (reference materials) (PDF) (2006.11 Specialized content research group Planning Working Group (XNUMXrd) -Intellectual Property Strategy Headquarters)
  11. ^ http://internet.watch.impress.co.jp/www/article/2000/0803/google.htm
  12. ^ Internet ArchiveIs the advertising site appearing on search engines 2.4 times more dangerous? -Work style-nikkei BPnet
  13. ^ Internet ArchiveMcAfee Releases Third Report on "Search Engine Safety Survey Report"-Over 3 Million Searches A Month Direct Users to Dangerous Sites---McAfee, Inc.
  14. ^ ITmedia EnterpriseSearch engine full of dangerous links-McAfee reports
  15. ^ INTERNET WatchSearch engine with many dangerous search results is Yahoo!
  16. ^ OCN navi (Search Engine Registration Guide)
  17. ^ Mondou site at the time(2004.10.14 Collection,Web archive)
  18. ^ Directory service "NTT DIRECTORY" (Research and development history)(NTT)
  19. ^ Hole in One-Multimedia/Internet Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Excite acquires search directory "Hole-in-One"(1998.7 internet watch)
  21. ^ CSJ INDEX site at the time (1999.2.18 Collection, Web Archive)

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