Most OECD member countries to suspend export credit to coal-fired power plants
If you write the contents roughly
The agreement was reached with Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the European Union (EU), Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States.
[Paris XNUMXnd Reuters] -The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) announced on the XNUMXnd that most of its member countries will go to coal-fired power plants ... → Continue reading
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- European Union
- European Union Motto: In varietate concordia
(Latin: Unity in diversity)
- European Union song: Symphony No. 9 4th movement"Song of delight"
Official terminology Base city ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル
Member countries European CouncilChair
Charles Michel European ParliamentChair David Sassoli European CommissionChairman Ursula von der Lyen Establishment
- Roman TreatyEffective
- Maastricht TreatyEffective
1958 May 1
1993 May 11
- Grand total
-Water area rate
World No. 7
- 4,233,262 km2
- The population density
World No. 3
- Grand total
-20 trillion 366 billionUS dollar
- Grand total
currency Time zone UTC ±0 to +2
(STD: +1 to +3)
ccTLD . EU
- ^ The official names are those of the official languages of the European Union.
- ^ There are notations in each official language of the European Union, but hereLingua FrancaOnly Latin notation is used.
- ^ About the official language of the European UnionEuropean Union languagesSee.
- ^ a b Ranking when the European Union is counted as a single country.
- ^ "Population on 1st January by age, sex and type of projection". Eurostat. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. NovemberBrowse.
European Union(Let's learnEU; British: European Union,Buddha: European Union,alone: European Union) IsEuropeAround27 countriesIs an economic union to which..The total area is 4,233,255.3 square kilometers (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and the total population is estimated to be about 4 million. The EU has standardized these matters to apply to all Member States only if they agree to act together.Legal systemHas developed a single market within the region. EU policy ensures the free movement of people, goods, services and capital in the internal market., Enact laws relating to justice and domestic affairs, and trade,Agriculture:,Fishery:And to maintain a common policy on regional development.Schengen areaFor travel within, passport management has been abolished.Monetary unionWas established in 1999 and was fully enforced in 2002,Euro currencyUse19 EU member statesIt is composed of.
EU andEuropean citizenshipOf the 1993Maastricht TreatyEstablished by the enforcement of.. Its origins were established by the 1951 Paris Treaty and the 1957 Roman Treaty respectivelyEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) andEuropean Economic Community It is in (EEC).European Economic CommunityThe first members to become known as Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,West Germany6 countries. The community and its successors areJoining a new countryThe scale was expanded by adding the policy field to the authority, and the power was expanded. A recent major revision to the EU's constitutional foundationLisbon TreatyCame into effect in 2009.
The United KingdomIt is,2020 EU in JanuaryWithdrawalBecame the first member state to2016 referendumAfter that, he expressed his intention to leave and negotiated a leave agreement. The UK is in a transitional period, at least until 2020 December 12, during which it is subject to EU law and part of the EU Single Market and Customs Union. So far we have left the EU and its predecessor regionsFrench Algeria(1962, upon independence),Greenland(Result of referendum in 1985),Saint BarthelemyThere were only three countries / regions (2012).
The EU will account for about 2020% of the world's population in 5.8 and will be nominal in 2017 (including the United Kingdom).GDP (GDP) was about $ 20 trillion, accounting for about 25% of the world's nominal GDP.. Also,United Nations Development ProgramAccording to the EU countries, it is very highHuman development indexhave. 2012 EU won the Nobel Peace Prize.Common foreign and security policyThrough the EUForeign relationsとdefenseHas developed a role in.United Nations, World Trade Organization (WTO), G7,G20The European Union (EU), which has permanent overseas missions around the world and is global influential, is said to be an emerging superpower..
Basic Treaty of the European UnionThe full text of the European Union Treaty is written in 23 languages, so the official name of the European Union is written in 23 languages. As an abbreviation,EnglishTook the initials of the notation EU There,JapaneseAlso uses this abbreviation. HoweverFrench,Spanishな どadjectiveIn the language that follows UE Is used. AlsoIrishThen. AE,EstonianThen. EL,LatvianとLithuanianThen. ES,CyrillicuseBulgarianThen. EC,Greek scriptuseGreekThen. EU Becomes
However, in Japan,Soviet UnionSome Japanese researchers like the name problemArgues that it is inappropriate to use the translation "union" in Union. Was also the largest parliamentary member of the European ParliamentEuropean Socialist PartyHowever, once the Japanese researcher pointed out, I submitted a questionnaire about changing the Japanese notation to "European Union",, The side of the European CommissionResearch societyExamples of English-Japanese dictionaries, "United Kingdom (United Kingdom) "and"United Nations (United Nations) ”, he replied that there was no need to change.
Yusef PiustsukiThe intermarine (Intermarium) ,Richard Kudenhof-Kalergie OfInternational Pan-European Union,Nazi GermanyThe new europe (Das neue Europa) ,Winston ChurchillThere have been many attempts to integrate Europe, such as the United States Concept of Europe, but in common with them,USSRTheVirtual enemyAndAnti-communismwas there.
America was founded in 1948Has provided funding to promote European integration through. For example, in 1958, 53.5% of the funding of the European movement, which was the cornerstone of European integration, came from this commission..
Robert SchumannOn July 1950, 5Schumann DeclarationIn which the joint management of important resources in the economy and the military was raised,European Coal and Steel Community Establishment TreatyFormulated on July 1952, 7European Coal and Steel Community(British: ECSC) Was established.
The European Coal and Steel Community was established to promote integration in the economic sector and joint management in the energy sector in 1957.Roman TreatyWas signed the following yearMay 1ToEuropean Economic Community(British: EEC)WhenEuropean Nuclear Community(British: Euratom) Was established. Initially, these three communities were operating in separate institutions and frameworks, but in 3, in order to promote the integration of Europe by achieving each purpose under one operating institution.Brussels TreatyWas signed in 1967European Communities(British: EC), the three communities were put in one framework to deepen the integration.
Until January 1973, 1France,West Germany,イタリア, Netherlands,ベルギー,LuxembourgIn addition to 6 countries,The United Kingdom,アイルランド,デンマークJoins the European Communities. Also on January 1981, 1GreeceBut on January 1986, 1スペインとPortugalRespectively join the European Communities. During this time, the agenda was how to promote economic integration. Differences in policies and legal systems between member countries have hindered trade liberalization, which has become an obstacle to global market competition.Single marketThe establishment of is coming up. In 1984, he was a member of the European Parliament in Italy.Artiero SpinelliThe European Parliament's approval of the draft European Union Treaty submitted by.. To respond to thisDrroll CommitteeIn 1986Single European ProtocolWas signed, and the Treaty of Rome was significantly amended, and the European Economic Community will supervise the policy on economic fields in principle.Common marketThe establishment was raised. In addition, the Schengen Agreement was signed in 1985 in order to ensure freedom of movement of people, goods and services in the region, and it included the removal of barriers to borders between member states.
In 1989, Rettinger's latter half prophecy hit the mark.Democratization of PolandStarting with[Original research?][Source required],Eastern European countriesInPolitical changeThe iron curtains were drastically removed as they continued to appear on November 1989, 11.Berlin Wall Collapsed, October 10 of the following yearGermany reunifiedWas done. This timeEast GermanyThe five states that were revived in West Germany were transferred to West Germany, and the European Communities expanded the area to the former East Germany. Eastern European countriesCommunismThe collapse of the system also has a significant impact on European communities,Liberal campIt is expected that the European integration will strengthen cooperation in the field of politics. So on February 1992, 2European Union TreatyWas signed, and the European Union was established on November 11, the following year.
In the European UnionTransnational personalityhaveEuropean CommunityIn addition to the framework of common foreign and security policies,Judicial and internal cooperationA new framework for cooperation between member nation governments calledThree pillarsUnder the structure, further integration of Europe was achieved, and the European Community Convention and the European Union Treaty, which were renamed from the European Economic Community Convention, came into effect in 1999.Amsterdam TreatyEffective in 2003Nice TreatyWas revised and integrated, and the integration was deepened.
1995 May 1Toオーストリア,スウェーデン,フィンランドBut,2004 May 5In 10 countries, including the Eastern European countries of the former socialist camp,2007 May 1ToルーマニアとブルガリアJoin the European Union..Regarding future expansionNorthern Macedonia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euJoined in 2005, etc.スロベニアAnd joined in 2013クロアチアOther than oldYugoslaviaMember countries andアルバニア,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,ウクライナSuch asロシアEastern European countries distant from the country, part of the country belongs to EuropeトルコAt the same time, discussions on the pros and cons of membership and practical negotiations for actual membership are under way.
In the field of economics,Currency integrationIs advanced,1998 May 5ToEuropean Central BankLaunched on January 1, the following year, a single currencyEuroWill be introduced. In the field of foreign affairs, under the common foreign and security policy,North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationIn cooperation withYugoslavia conflictI have dealt with such as. further2000 Has issued the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights.
In such a situation, the European Union is required to establish a system for accepting new member states, whilemechanismAs a result, the efficiency of the organization has decreased due to the bloat of the organization.European Constitution TreatyWas signed and the treaty was signed on October 2004, 10. However, the fear that the sovereignty of individual member states might be threatened by the transnational nature of the European Constitution TreatyEuropean skepticismHappens and treatyApproveAs a result of the referendum asking whether or not the NetherlandsThe intention to oppose ratification was shown.
The referendum, which asks citizens of each country what to do, was interrupted in response to the rejection of the European Constitution Treaty. Meanwhile, it was agreed to create a new basic treaty to take over the contents of the European Constitution Treaty, and in December 2007Lisbon TreatyWas signed as
The Lisbon Treaty is undergoing ratification procedures in its member countries with the aim of entering into force in January 2009, but asks whether the constitutional amendment necessary to accept the Lisbon Treaty, which was carried out in Ireland in June 1, is required. The result of the referendum was that the negative votes exceeded the positive votes. Immediately after the Lisbon Treaty, which requires ratification by all member states for its entry into forceEuropean CouncilWhile it was confirmed that ratification procedures would proceed in other Member States, France, which chaired the country in the latter half of 2008, called on Ireland to re-enforce the referendum. Subsequently, at a meeting of the European Council held in December 2008, Ireland announced that it would hold another referendum by the fall of 12.In response, the European Council aims for the Lisbon Treaty to come into effect by the end of 2009. It was agreed to proceed with the remaining procedures. In October 2009, Ireland again voted in favor of the referendum, which was again held in October 2009. The constitution was amended and the treaty was ratified. The Member States, which had not completed the ratification procedure, also completed the necessary procedures by November of the same year, and the Lisbon Treaty came into effect on December 10, of the same year.
This Lisbon TreatyPresident of the European CouncilTo redefineEU President). Since December 2009, 12ベルギー OfHermann van RompauWas appointed as the first chairman. Hometown of Sikorski and Rettinger since 2014 December 12ポーランド OfDonald TuskWas appointed as the second chairman.
August 2016, 6,National referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European UnionThe majority of the withdrawal support votes in. As a result, the United Kingdom notified the European Council of withdrawal on March 2017, 3, and commenced the withdrawal procedure for a period of two years.
ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル
|European Communities (EC)||European Union (EU) Three pillar structure|
|European Nuclear Community||→|
|European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)||Expired in 2002, community disappeared||European Union (EU)|
|European Economic Community (EEC)||European Community (EC)|
|Judicial and internal cooperation|
|Police/criminal justice cooperation||←|
|European political cooperation||→||Common foreign and security policy||←|
|Organization not established||Western Union|
|Suspension of treaty in 2010|
European Union history history
If the history of the European Union's integration is divided by time, it can be divided as follows.
- 1945-1949 year
European Economic Cooperation Organization(OEEC),North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO),European CouncilThe era of organizing the international cooperation system in Europe, as symbolized by the establishment of the (Council of Europe). The United States led this move.
- 1950-1958 year
The age of consolidation and frustration. In 1952European Coal and Steel Community(ECSC) is born, Which has started the movement of international sector integration. On the contrary,European Defense Community(EDC) andEuropean Political CommunityWas proposed, but neither came to fruition. However, the Messina Conference/Spark Report restarted the integration,European Economic Community(EEC) andEuropean Nuclear Community(EURATOM) was established.
- 1958-1969 year
FrenchCharles de GaulleAn era when the influence of the president is great. An era in which the United Nations character of European integration was strengthened.
- 1970-1985 year
1970 yearsEuropean political cooperationInauguration of (EPC),Economic and Monetary Union(EMU) trial, 1979European currency systemEstablishment of (EMS)European currency unit(ECU), etc.Oil crisisThere was also a time when each European nation was inward.
- 1985-2005 year
The Internal Market White Paper was adopted in 1985, and the Single European Protocol was signed in 1986. The removal of non-tariff barriers created a huge market, and free competition in a huge market appeared in Europe. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty came into effect, creating the European Union.
- 2005-present[Note 2]
Rejection of the European Constitution Treaty in France on May 2005, 5 and June 29, 2016Leaving Victory in the European Union Withdrawal Referendum in the United KingdomThe age of questioning the quality of expanding European integration as seen in.
The European Union, the predecessor of the European Union, was initially established in six countries. Since then, the number of member countries has increased, and with the addition of Croatia in July 6, the number of member states of the European Union has grown to 2013.2020 Britain has left, and now 27 countries are members of the European Union.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs not included.スイスAlsoNeutralNot affiliated to keep.AlsoGreen lineIs not fixed.GreenlandLeft in 1985.Faroe IslandsIs not included in the European Union in principle.In addition to the above, there are places in overseas territories that have special positions.Special territories of European Union member statesSee.
Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty states that the country wishing to join the European Union is a European country,自由,Democracy,human rightsRespect for theRule of lawIt is mentioned that they respect such an idea. In practice, it was shown in 1993.Copenhagen standardNeed to meet. Besides thisAki communaireIt is required that legislation is in place to acceptEuropean CommissionHas conducted a survey of countries wishing to join the group to meet these criteria and submitted its report to the European Council. Based on the report, the European Council decides whether to hold concrete consultations as a candidate country. If it becomes a member, the signatory countries sign the signing treaty with the existing member states, not with the European Union, and formally join when the treaty comes into effect.
|Country||capital||Membership date||Population (2019)||area||The population density||European ParliamentQuantity|
|オーストリア||Vienna||November||8,858,775||83,855 km 2||106 / km 2||19|
|ベルギー||ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル||Founder||11,467,923||30,528 km 2||376 / km 2||21|
|ブルガリア||Sophia||November||7,000,039||110,994 km 2||63 / km 2||17|
|クロアチア||Zagreb||November||4,076,246||56,594 km 2||72 / km 2||12|
|Cyprus||Nicosia||November||875,898||9,251 km 2||95 / km 2||6|
|チ ェ コ||Prague||November||10,649,800||78,866 km 2||135 / km 2||21|
|デンマーク||Copenhagen||November||5,806,081||43,075 km 2||135 / km 2||14|
|エストニア||Tallinn||November||1,324,820||45,227 km 2||29 / km 2||7|
|フィンランド||Helsinki||November||5,517,919||338,424 km 2||16 / km 2||14|
|France||Paris||Founder||67,028,048||640,679 km 2||105 / km 2||79|
|Germany||Berlin||Founder||83,019,214||357,021 km 2||233 / km 2||96|
|Greece||Athens||November||10,722,287||131,990 km 2||81 / km 2||21|
|ハンガリー||Budapest||November||9,797,561||93,030 km 2||105 / km 2||21|
|アイルランド||Dublin||November||4,904,226||70,273 km 2||70 / km 2||13|
|イタリア||Rome||Founder||60,359,546||301,338 km 2||200 / km 2||76|
|ラトビア||Riga||November||1,919,968||64,589 km 2||30 / km 2||8|
|リトアニア||Vilnius||November||2,794,184||65,200 km 2||43 / km 2||11|
|Luxembourg||Luxembourg City||Founder||613,894||2,586 km 2||237 / km 2||6|
|マルタ||Valletta||November||493,559||316 km 2||1,562 / km 2||6|
|Netherlands||Amsterdam||Founder||17,282,163||41,543 km 2||416 / km 2||29|
|ポーランド||Warsaw||November||37,972,812||312,685 km 2||121 / km 2||52|
|Portugal||Lisbon||November||10,276,617||92,390 km 2||111 / km 2||21|
|ルーマニア||Bucharest||November||19,401,658||238,391 km 2||81 / km 2||33|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||Bratislava||November||5,450,421||49,035 km 2||111 / km 2||14|
|スロベニア||リ ュ ブ リ ャ ナ||November||2,080,908||20,273 km 2||103 / km 2||8|
|スペイン||Madrid||November||46,934,632||504,030 km 2||93 / km 2||59|
|スウェーデン||Stockholm||November||10,230,185||449,964 km 2||23 / km 2||21|
|Total 27||446,834,579||4,233,262 km 2||106 / km 2||705|
Also until 2020The United KingdomWas also a member, but withdrew.
European Union politics
The highest decision-making body of the European UnionHead of governmentとEuropean Commission Chair, And equivalent to the presidentPermanent chairbyEuropean CouncilIs. The European Council convenes at least four formal meetings a year and occasional informal meetings, where it decides on the European Union's policies and policy outlook. The permanent chair, together with the chairman of the European Commission, represents the European Union externally. On the other hand, it is the ministers of the member states that determine the details of individual and concrete policies.European Union Council(Also called the Council of Ministers, or simply the Council). The Council of the European Union is divided into policies in each field and is attended by the ministers in charge.
The policy proposals put together by the Council of the European Union areEuropean ParliamentTo be consulted. The European Parliament is once every five years by European Union citizensDirect election(General election) Selected by[Note 3]It consists of members of the Diet. Effective in 2009Lisbon TreatyBy the European ParliamentJoint decision procedureWill be applied to almost all policy areas with some exceptions. However, in some areasAdvisory procedureIs applied. Moreover, the European Parliament has not onlyEuropean Union budgetYou will also gain new general authority.
In some areas, decision-making procedures consist of representatives of local governments.Regional committeeAnd representatives of various business groups and labor organizationsEconomic and Social CouncilIs required to be involved.
Responsible for policy enforcement in the European UnionEuropean CommissionIs. The European Commission is made up of one member from each member country, and is assigned responsibility for each policy area. AlsoChairmanAttended the Council of Europe and represented the European Union externally.Major countries summitAlso attended as an observer. The European Commission has an organization equivalent to the ministry of the domestic government called the Directorate General in each policy area.
European Court of JusticeIs an organization that determines the interpretation and application of basic treaties and EU law. The European Court of Justice decides on the sanctions against default by treaties of the member states and the failure to comply with EU law,Court of first instanceHe is also involved in the appeals trial. The Court of First Instance deals mainly with complaints against corporations and individuals against the actions of European Union institutions. In addition, it deals with disputes between European Union institutions and their staff.European Union Civil Service CourtThere was, but it was closed in 2016.
European Accounting AuditorIs responsible for auditing the appropriate execution of the work and budget of European Union institutions.
The Lisbon TreatyThree pillarsThe structure has been abolished. This allowsCommon foreign and security policyHas also been abolished. Under the Lisbon Treaty, the Common Higher Representative of Foreign and Security Policy and the European Commission's Foreign Relations and European Neighbor Policy Commissioners have been integrated.EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security PolicyWas newly established,European External Action ServiceIs to be led.
In addition to the ones mentioned above, specialized institutions have been set up and are functioning to achieve the objectives of the Basic Treaty of the European Union.
IMFAccording to the 2010 European UnionGDPIs $16 billion (about 1068 trillion yen).AmericaSlightly above GDP, accounting for about 26% of the world total.. In the European Union, the Roman Convention, the Single European Protocol, and the Schengen Agreement will eliminate barriers such as border control and institutional differences between member states, ensuring freedom of movement of workers, goods, services, and capital in the region. ing. Also based on the Treaty of RomeUnique competition law systemHas been maintained. Also aimed at securing a stable supply of foodCommon agricultural policyWill allow the European Union tobudgetSpends most of the. Such economic measures are led by the European Commission, which requires the governments of the Member States to follow the decisions of the European Commission. furtherCurrency integrationIs being promoted, and the single currency euro was introduced in 1999, and by January 2014Euro areaHas spread to 18 countries. The monetary policy of the European Union is responsible forEuropean Central BankAnd of the member countriesCentral BankConsists ofEuropean Central Bank SystemIs. Regarding the currency of countries that have not introduced the euroEuropean exchange rate mechanismAs a result, the fluctuation range of the exchange rate against the euro is limited within a certain range. In addition to this, we are promoting measures to counter global warming, and in 2005Internal emissions trading systemWas introduced.
In terms of trade, exports to the outside of the region in 2005 amounted to US$1 trillion, including machinery, automobiles and aircraft. The main export destination is the United States,スイス,ロシア,ChugokuIs mentioned. On the other hand, the import value into the region is US$1 billion, and the main import destinations are the United States, China, Russia,JapanHas become.
On the other hand, in the European Union, disparities within the region are also noticeable. The per capita GDP (PPP) of the member states, which was US$2007 in 32,300 as a whole, was US$1 in Luxembourg and US$80,500 in Ireland, while US$43,100 in Romania and Bulgaria. Is US$11,300, and all countries that have joined since 11,400 are below the figures for the European Union as a whole... In terms of real economic growth, Slovakia recorded 10.40%, while Hungary remained at 1.30% and the European Union as a whole at 3.00%..
Burden on EU budget and policy spending of each country
The table shows the contribution from each country to the overall EU budget and the amount of expenditure to each country by executing the budget. The amount of policy spending corresponds to a "subsidy" to eliminate the EU regional disparity Includes (EU Structural Funds).
After Lehman shock
2008 yearsLehman shockSince then, the unemployment rate in EU member states has been significantly worse, and the average unemployment rate in the EU has exceeded 2012% since 10. The unemployment rate in non-EU countries such as Norway and Switzerland is much lower than in the EU. Iceland became the default in 2008 and the unemployment rate worsened, but the unemployment rate has improved as the currency crash has helped the economy recover with increased exports.. The unemployment rate in Iceland in 2014 is much lower than in the EU.
In the United States, unemployment rose to nearly 10%,Ben BernankeLed the Fed, which has carried out large-scale monetary easing and gradually improved the unemployment rate. .. The unemployment rate in the United States in 2014 was about 6%, higher than Norway and Switzerland but lower than the EU. 2013, SwissWorld Economic ForumAtAngela MerkelExpressed concern that the US and Japan are using monetary policy as a means to boost economic competitiveness. Merkel said, "We believe that the central bank does not exist to dispel political mistakes or boost competitiveness.".. Two years after this statement, the ECB will begin quantitative easing.
High unemployment rate
Nobel Prize economistJames MeadIt is,Central BankArgues that price stability should not be the goal of total demand management.Indirect taxThis is because the central bank's price stability policy reduces the wages of workers to zero when prices are rising due to tax increases and negative shocks to trade conditions... Since labor demand is inelastic in the short term, it is thought that unemployment will occur in all industrial fields due to price stability policies in that phase.
- Unemployment Statistics for Each Country in Q2013 4
- Unemployment rate (%)
- Number of unemployed people
According to Mead's analysis,European Central BankMember States are high due to price stability policiesUnemployment rateIs recorded. For example, the unemployment rate in Spain was 2014% in 25, and it is predicted that the unemployment rate of 20% or more will continue until 2017... Spain's youth unemployment rate for the same period was 53.8%.. The unemployment rate in Greece in June 2014 was 6%, and it is expected to remain around 27% by 2016 according to the OECD economic forecast... Eurozone unemployment rate was 2014% in July 7.
Citizens of member countries
|言语||ネ イ テ ィ ブ||Total|
|キ リ ス ト 教||72|
|Other Christian Schools||6|
In 2015, about 17% of European Union people reported discomfort with working with Asians, and about 31% reported discomfort when their children began to love Asians..
When it comes to reporting discrimination cases, 55% of Europeans contact the police first, 35% contact the equality agency, and 27% contact the trade union..
European Union member statesDiplomatic cooperation between1957 OfcommunityAt the time of establishment, it began with the fact that member states conducted international trade negotiations as one under the common commercial policy of the European Union...For broader collaboration in diplomatic relations1970 ToEuropean political cooperationWas established, establishing an informal consultation process between member states aimed at forming a common foreign policy.1987 ,Single European ProtocolFormally introduced European Political Co-operation, the Single European ActMaastricht TreatyByCommon foreign and security policyWas renamed.
The purpose of the Common Foreign and Security Policy is to promote both the interests of the European Union itself and the interests of the international community as a whole, including international cooperation, respect for human rights, democracy and the promotion of the rule of law...The Common Foreign and Security Policy requires that all member states unanimously take appropriate policies on any issue.Under the Common Foreign and Security Policy, unanimous and difficult issues are dealt with.Iraq warThere may be disagreements such as.
The Coordinator and Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy in the European UnionHigh Representative for Common Foreign and Security PolicyHe speaks on behalf of the European Union on foreign policy and defense issues, and is tasked with clarifying the positions expressed by Member States in these policy areas as a common coordinating matter.The senior representative is the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.2010 May 12It is a division unique to the European Union that has been officially implemented and operated byEuropean External Action ServiceIs in charge of..The European External Action Service serves as the European Union's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic corps...The international influence of the European Union can be seen through expansion as well as international policy.The benefits of becoming a member state of the European Union are considered to be an important factor contributing to the reforms of the former communist countries of Europe, acting as an incentive for political and economic reforms of countries wishing to meet the accession criteria. Have been..Such influence on the internal affairs of other countries is a military "Hard powerUnlike "", generally "Soft power"It is called.
In addition,2009 Permanent talks aimed at strengthening relations with Eastern European countries in MayEastern partnershipWas founded.The target country isアルメニア,アゼルバイジャン,ベ ラ ル ー シ,Georgia (former Georgia),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ウクライナIs.
スイスHas an agreement with the European Union on the free movement of people2020 I was asked to vote if it would end in September. But,Swiss National Party"Restoration of immigration control" was rejected by voters.
Security and defense
The predecessor of the European Union is for defense purposesNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationWas not conceived as a military alliance because was considered appropriate and sufficient...21 of the European Union member states are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The rest of the member statesNeutral policyIs taking.1948 SigningBrussels TreatyWas a military alliance founded in Japan with a mutual defense clauseWestern UnionBecause its role has moved to the European Union2010 Disbanded in.
Since the departure of EnglandFranceIs officiallynuclear weaponsIt is the only member country recognized as a country andUnited Nations Security Council OfPermanent memberBut also.France, which has the largest army of the European Union and the largest national defense budget,, The only European Union country to have the ability to project power outside Europe.
1999 OfKosovo conflictIn response, the European Council said, "The European Union has the ability to act autonomously, backed by credible military power, to respond to international crises without harming the actions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, its use. You must have the means to decide, and the preparation for it. "To this end, various efforts have been made to increase the military power of the European Union, especially the Helsinki target.After a lot of discussion, the most concrete result wasEU BattlegroupIt is a concept and is planned to quickly deploy about 1500 people..European Union forcesIt is,Central part-North africaFrom westBalkan Peninsula,West AsiaDispatched to peacekeeping missions..The military activities of the European UnionEuropean Defense Agency,European Union Satellite Center,European Union Military StaffSupported by many organizations.FrontexProtects the European Union's foreign bordersBorder guardEstablished to manage the cooperation system ofEuropean Union specialized agencies.Illegal immigration,Human trafficking,terroristThe purpose is to detect and prevent the intrusion of.2015 ToEuropean CommissionIs a new with stronger roles and powers, along with national border control authoritiesEuropean Border and Coast GuardAnnounced the proposal. In the European Union, which consists of 27 countries, substantive security and defense cooperation is increasingly dependent on the cooperation of all member states..
Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, European Commission, Commonly known as "ECHO", from the European Union to developing countriesHumanitarian aidIt is carried out. Budget for 2012 is 8 millionEuroAnd 51% of themAfrica, 20%Asia,Latin America,Caribbean,The Pacific OceanRegion, 20%Middle Eastと地中海Assigned to a region.
Humanitarian aid is directly funded by the budget (70%) as part of the financial means for foreign activities, as well asEuropean Development Fund(30%) is covered..External activity funding is divided into "geographical" and "thematic" means.. By "geographical" means, 95% of the budgetOfficial development assistanceAssistance is provided through Development Assistance (DCI, € 169 billion, 2007-2013), which must be spent on Official Development Assistance (ODA), and the European Neighboring Partnerships (ENPI), which includes several related programs...The European Development Fund (EDF, 2008-2013 € 227 billion, 2014-2020 € 305 billion) is made up of voluntary contributions from Member States, but in line with the 0.7% target. There is pressure to integrate the European Development Fund into budgetary resources to encourage growth and strengthen European Parliament oversight... In 2016, the average of European Union countries was 0.4%,デンマーク,Germany,Luxembourg,スウェーデン,The United Kingdom5 countries achieved or exceeded the 0.7% target..European Union member states are considered to be the largest foreign aid countries in the world.
International cooperation and development partnership
European UnionEuropean neighborhood policyAttempts to connect countries located east and south of European territory into a coalition using diplomatic means such as..These countries are primarily developing countries, including those seeking to become members of the European Union someday and those seeking closer integration with the European Union. ing.The European Union provides financial support as long as its European neighbors meet the stringent requirements for government reform, economic reform and other positive changes.This process is usuallyブ リ ュ ッ セ ルSupported by an action plan agreed upon by both sides of the target country.
International recognition that sustainable development is an important factor is steadily rising.Its role is1992 ToBrazil OfRio de JaneiroHeld inUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) ",2002 ToSouth Africa OfJohannesburgThe World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Japan and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012, three major UNs on sustainable development. Recognized at the summit.
Other important global agreements areParis Agreementと2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development(2015, United Nations).Sustainable development goalsIt is,(I.e.To tackle the global challenges that are essential to our survival, all nations are in the next key areas of "people" and "people".地球""prosperity""平和""partnershipWe recognize that we must arouse action in.
The development activities of the European Union2005 May 12Based on the "European Consensus on Development" approved by the Member States of the European Union, the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission...This agreement has been approved by Member States, Parliaments and Commissions.Potential approachIt is based on the principles of a human rights-based development approach.
Partnership / cooperation agreements refer to bilateral agreements with non-member countries.
|Non-EU member states||PCA name||Signing||Agreement Priority|
|アルメニア||EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Strengthening Partnership Agreement||2018||EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (1999)|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||EU-Kyrgyzstan's Strengthened Partnership and Cooperation Agreement||2019||-|
European Union2008 Currently, it is the world's largest exporter and at the same time the largest importer of goods and services...Domestic trade between member states is facilitated by removing trade barriers such as tariffs and border controls..Euro areaSo, most member states have no currency difference, which helps trade..
The European Union's Union Agreement does the same for a wider range of countries, some of which are so-called soft approaches to influence the politics of those countries.European UnionWorld Trade OrganizationHe represents all Member States in the (WTO) and acts on behalf of Member States in all conflicts.If the European Union negotiates trade-related agreements outside the framework of the World Trade Organization, subsequent agreements must be approved by the governments of each European Union member state..
Oneness and diversity
About the May 5th, when the Schumann Declaration was announced, in 9MilanAt the European Council held inEurope DayWas decided. AlsoEuropean CouncilIn 1955, he painted a flag depicting a ring of twelve stars shining golden on the blue (Reflex Blue).European flag", And promoted the use of this flag as a symbol for institutions in Europe. In 1983, the European Parliament responded, and in 1985 the European Council of Milan adopted it as the "flag of the European Union".At this time at the same timeBeethoven Symphony No. 9 4th Movement"Song of delight"ToEuropean Union songIt was also agreed to.
Euro banknotes have a unified design..European-style buildings and maps of Europe are drawn.Euro coinThe surface of the is also unified in design, and all have a map of Europe...Also issued in European Union member statespassportAlso, the notation meaning the European Union is printed in the official language of the issuing country. In the European UnionEuropean Capital of CultureThrough activities such as the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights,European Union citizensThe concept of "" is being established.
On the other hand, in the European Union In varietate concordiaWith the slogan "Latin for "unity in diversity", this phrase is expressed in 23 languages, which are official languages in the European Union. As can be seen from this slogan, cultural and linguistic diversity is treated as respectable even in the European Union, which has a population of about 5 million people. In addition, related organizations in the European Union produce documents and websites in multiple languages.
With the addition of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Croatia in 2013, the European Union has reached 28 member states. In the conventional system of the basic treaty, the members of the European Commission were supposed to be one member from each member state and not to be an appointee, so the number of members increased to 1 and the division of responsibility was repeated. .. As a result, among the departments of the European Commission whose organization has grownSectionalismBecame intensified and business efficiency declined. In order to overcome the criticism that the decision-making process of the European Union Council is advantageous in large countries in legislative proceedings, and the difficulty that decision-making takes time because there are many target areas that require unanimous agreement, Reforms were needed to strengthen the involvement of the European Parliament in key policy decisions. It was the European Constitution Treaty signed in Rome in November 2004 that incorporated such reforms, but its transnational nature was shunned and ratification was rejected in the French and Dutch referendums. After all, the treaty was abandoned. Then, in December 11, the Lisbon Treaty, which inherits the contents of the European Constitution Treaty, was signed, and the Lisbon Treaty came into effect on December 2007, 12.
Since the conventional basic treaty assumed that the upper limit of the number of member states would be 27, the Lisbon Treaty also included the purpose of developing a system for accepting new members in the future. In 2005, the European CouncilトルコHas been decided as a candidate country for membership, and discussions have been started towards membership. Accession negotiations between Croatia and the EU ended in June 2011, with Croatia becoming the 6th member state in 2013.
Nordicアイス ランドApplied formal membership on July 2009, 7 and was approved as a candidate country.. Although accession negotiations were in progress, the government announced that it would freeze accession negotiations until the EU referendum in fall 2014. In the end, no referendum was held, and Iceland withdrew its application for membership on March 2015, 3..
I wondered if I could share the values of the European Union with Turkey,Northern Cyprus problem,Armenian massacre problemThere is. On June 2013, 6, it was decided to resume accession negotiations for the first time in about three years, but due to concerns about the government's continued hard-line stance against citizens' anti-government demonstrations, it will be postponed from October onwards. Announced the postponement of its membership negotiations.
North Macedonia became a candidate country for membership in 2006 (the name of the country at that time was "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia").For a long time with neighboring GreeceCountry name change problemHowever, the country name was changed on June 2018, 6.Northern MacedoniaAnd agreed with Greece, Renamed effective February 2019, 2 after approval by both countries' parliament.. March 2020, 3, EU agrees to start accession negotiations with Northern Macedonia.
Montenegro was approved as a candidate for membership in December 2010, and full-fledged accession negotiations began in October 12... Applicable as of June 2020Aki communaireNegotiations have begun in all 33 of 33 fields, of which three have been tentatively completed.Therefore, it can be said that the negotiation is the most advanced among the five candidate countries.
SerbiaBosnia and Herzegovina Civil WarIs a big war criminalLatco MladicとDespite the appreciation of the government's detention, the improvement of relations with the government of Kosovo, which unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, and the progress of political dialogue are conditions for the initiation of accession negotiations.Was not recognized as a candidate country from December 2009, 12, when the formal application was filed to February 22Was approved by the EU Summit on March 2012, 3 as an official candidate country.Agreed to normalize relations with Kosovo on April 2013, 4 and began accession negotiations on January 22, 2014.
Albania applied for membership in the EU on April 2009, 4 and was approved as a candidate for membership on June 28, 2014.. On March 2020, 3, the EU agreed to start accession negotiations with Albania.
The EU positions countries that have clear prospects for future EU accession but have not yet been officially recognized as candidates for accession as potential candidates.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euと(I.e..
Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for accession to the EU on 2016 February 2.
Kosovo with EU on April 2016, 4Stabilization/federation processThe agreement came into effect.. However, regarding the national recognition of Kosovo, the response is divided among the existing member countries.
EU membership of Western Balkans
As of March 2020, all candidate countries and potential member countries except Turkey have signed and entered into force the Stabilisaion and Association Agreement (SAA).This SAA is in the westBalkanIt is an agreement that provides countries with a vision for EU accession, support for it, and calls for necessary reforms, and is generally regarded as the first step towards EU accession..
2018 May 2,European Commission TheOld YugoslaviaAnnounced a policy to strengthen support for EU accession to the six West Balkan regions, centered on the member countries. The six target countries are the candidate countries for membership.Northern Macedonia(The country name at that time was "Former Republic of Macedonia, Yugoslavia"),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,アルバニアAnd potential candidate countriesEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euと(I.e.Is. He also showed that Serbia and Montenegro are targeting accession in 2025 at the earliest..
At the EU summit meeting held on October 2021, 10, the policy of accession of Balkan countries was "reconfirmed", butEuropean Refugee Crisis 2015Anxious about the return ofGermany, NetherlandsIn consideration of each country, the leaders' declaration did not list a specific target year, which had been set for 2025 to 2030, and effectively postponed the membership issue...On the other hand, about the Balkan countriesCharles MichelPresident of the European CouncilStates as a region of "strategic importance"Ursula von der LyenEuropean Commission ChairAlso described as a "family", and many EU member state leadersDeveloping countriesWhile wary of the return of the European refugee crisis due to EU accession of many Balkan countries, trade and infrastructure investmentロシア,People's Republic of ChinaNot only does it increase its influence on the Balkan countries, but it is also strongly concerned about the current situation where its influence is spreading to the current EU member states..
Turkey's EU membership
August 2015, 11,Angela MerkelHosted a pre-summit between the EU and Turkey, proposing to accept many Syrian refugees into the EU. The EU then reached an agreement to open a path for Turkey to join the EU in exchange for measures to limit the number of immigrants from Turkey. Turkish Prime MinisterAhmed DoubtallSaid it was the historic beginning of a new relationship between Turkey and the EU.
This agreement will make TurkeyAegean seaWill strengthen crackdowns on patrolling and human trafficking gangs and return immigrants denied acceptance by EU member states to Turkey. In return, the EU has agreed to provide Turkey with €30 billion in funding and to open a summit for public negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU... EU leaders have made clear that Turkey has no shortcut to joining the EU, but have vowed to work hard to enable Turkish citizens to go to the EU without a visa. "During Turkey's EU accession will accelerate in 2016 and will become a reality in the near future," said Doubtall..
Doubtall is calling on the EU to provide additional funding as € 30bn is not enough to address the refugee crisis. Doubtall said more sessions on funding should be held if the EU is serious about sharing the pain of the refugee crisis..
Eastern partnership countries
2009 May 5, EUFormer Soviet Union6 countries that made up (アルメニア,アゼルバイジャン,ベ ラ ル ー シ,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ウクライナ)Eastern partnershipCreated a framework called. This aims to promote regional stabilization while strengthening regional cooperation and promoting value sharing with the EU..
Of the six countries listed above, the three countries that have the particular goal of joining the EU in the future are Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia.2014 May 6, EU and Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have signed the Association Agreement (AA), which includes the establishment of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA).. afterwards,2016 May 7Moldova and Georgia2017 May 9Ukraine has entered into a federation agreement..Union agreements strengthen political, trade, socio-cultural and security ties between the EU and non-EU countries. As part of the Union Agreement, the DCFTA, in addition to the original task of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) to eliminate tariff barriers, instills EU rules in trade and economic activities between the two sides and activates the movement of people, goods and money. Is what you are trying to do.
As of 2020, Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are not recognized as potential EU member states[Note 4]Although the conclusion of the Union Agreement itself does not directly lead to future EU accession or observer participation, it may be the first step towards EU accession.
The United Kingdom
Held in the United Kingdom on June 2016, 6National referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European UnionThe "Brexit" won by a small margin.EU in the backgroundpolicyDistrust of Britain againstImmigrationInflow problem (en) Is said to be..This made Britain the first Brexit country.This referendum was in the 2013 general electionDavid CameronIt was the one that the prime minister had pledged.Cameron himself was a remnant of the EU, but he held a referendum in response to rising public opinion advocating Brexit.Britain is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany, and its withdrawal was expected to "decrease the EU's economic power" and "the UK would also have a negative impact on the economy."There are voices from countries outside the EU asking for these to remain as "causing turmoil in the international economy", and the G2Ise Shima SummitBut it was discussed.
The EU remnants claimed that the prosperity of Britain was brought about by free economic activity within the EU, and that it was a member of the EU. On the other hand, EU defectors argued for disadvantages such as large contributions and increased immigrants. Both sides antagonized and were in an unpredictable situation until the voting date, but both countries and markets expected that the realistic result of "residual victory, maintaining the status quo" would come out, but the result was a departure victory Met. Following this, Prime Minister Cameron announced his resignation. July 7 of the same yearTheresa MayInterior phaseBecame the new prime minister and decided to carry out a "long divorce procedure" called "procedure for leaving the EU."Mei Cabinet(Conservative party) Among MinistersMinister of Foreign AffairsWas one of the representatives of the EU secessionistBoris Johnson前UKThe mayor was appointed. Also,EU Leaving Minister(First generation:David Michael Davis) A new ministerial postAdministrative agencyAsEU secessionWas newly established.
EU leadersBerlinWe gathered in and confirmed unity. To EnglandLisbon TreatyTherefore, he demanded to give a "notification of departure" early. This is because I am afraid that a new leaving country will appear if the procedure is confused. European skeptics in EU member states have gained momentum with the departure of Britain. On the other hand, the "residuals" were predominant in Scotland and Northern Ireland, which are the constituent countries of England. for that reasonEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNikola SturgeonThe prime ministerScotland is independentAnd suggested joining the EU. AlsoNorthern IrelandIndependently of EU member statesアイルランド"Integration with"Shin FeinProposed by
Although the Lisbon Treaty has provisions for leaving the EU, there is no detailed description of the specific procedures to be followed, which makes Britain's departure a leading case.
以降、2019年3月29日のEU離脱に向けてイギリスとEUは協議を続けたが、北アイルランドの国境管理問題に決着がつかないなどの理由から、4月12日、10月31日、2020年1月31日と、離脱期限は3回もの延長を繰り返した。最終的には2019 British General ElectionThe Conservative Party, which sought to leave the country, won the victory at midnight on February 2020, 2 (Belgian time, British time January 1, 0:1 pm).
ノルウェーIs a distance from the EU. Norway signed the Treaty of Accession to the European Union (European Communities) during its expansion in 1973 and 1995, respectively, and ratified them.ReferendumHowever, the number of votes against them all exceeded, and they did not actually join the European Union (European Communities). Also, on June 1992, 6, a referendum was held in Denmark to ratify the Maastricht Treaty, but the vote against ratification exceeded by a small margin, and further ratification was rejected by Parliament in the United Kingdom. In addition, ratification of the Nice Treaty, which amends the conventional treaty, was rejected in Ireland, where the constitution requires a referendum to amend the treaty. All of these have been dealt with by, for example, setting special cases in subsequent discussions, and ratification has been consulted and approved again.
According to a 2015 survey, about 7% of Norwegian voters oppose joining the EU... If you join the EU, EU claims and laws (Common agricultural policy, Common criminal law, etc.) are required. So Norway exercises its sovereignty to the maximum extent, not the EU,European Free Trade UnionIs a member of. EFTAPer capita income in member countries is about 1.5 times that in the EU.
In 2015, Iceland no longer wanted to join the European UnionEuropean CommissionAnd notified the EU President.. Home currencyIceland KronaThe Iceland, which has a sovereignty, has enjoyed a favorable recovery from its default in 2008, benefiting from the currency crash and increasing exports. In 2007 it was CNY 1/60 Iceland, but after default, it crashed to CNY 1/125 Iceland. The depreciation of the currency has given a tailwind to Iceland's export industry, such as tourism, attracting 2011 tourists in 56, and the country as a whole recorded economic growth of over 3% due to the export-led economic recovery... In 2012, it improved the unemployment rate to 4.5%. This number is well below the EU's average unemployment rate.
スイスApplied for EU accession in 1992, butEEESwiss citizens choose not to join the EEA in a referendum on whether to join the.. Since then, negotiations to join the EU have stopped. afterwardsSwiss National PartyThe Swiss House of Representatives made a decision to withdraw the EU membership application. And in June 2016, the Swiss Senate officially declined to join the EU after the Swiss Senate decided to revoke the 6 application for membership..
Criticism / skepticism
As Europe's integration progresses, criticisms and doubts that the sovereignty of member states and the powers of the European Union are superior or inferior and that the benefits enjoyed under the system of the European Union are unequal among the member states. Also exists. For integration in the political fieldEuropean Political CommunityThe concept of installation of theEuropean Defense CommunityWork was underway to establish the company. However, ratification of the establishment treaty in FranceNational Assembly, But the National Assembly rejected it.
In October 2004, the European Constitution Treaty was signed, which included improving the acceptance system for future expansion, streamlining the bloated mechanism, and simplifying policy-making procedures. ”And “Song of the European Union” were included, and it had the character of making the European Union a nation. On the other hand, the people of the member nations began to view the European Constitution Treaty as dangerous because of the fear that their nation would be replaced by the European Union. The result of a referendum asking whether to ratify is that the number of negative votes exceeds the number of positive votes. The leaders of the European Union, which was promoting the European integration in this situation, were upset, and some leaders began to question and criticize the way the European Union should be.
January 2007Berlin DeclarationWas reaffirmed, and it was reaffirmed that the integration of the European Union will be promoted. After that, it was agreed to remove the transnational element from the European Constitution Treaty and to establish a new basic treaty to promote the reform of the European Union. Positioned as the "Reform Treaty", the treaty was signed as the Lisbon Treaty in December 2007. However, even with respect to this treaty, it was criticized that it was difficult for citizens to understand the need for institutional reform, and in a referendum in Ireland held in June 12, a political party critical of the European Union was "not understood. As a result, the negative vote was 2008%, the positive vote was 6% (voting rate 53.4%), the European integration was once again deadlocked, and the leaders of the countries that have promoted the Lisbon Treaty are European Union. I was once again keenly aware of the existence of the harsh view of citizens. Furthermore, in Poland and the Czech Republic, the President continued to refuse to sign the Lisbon Treaty, which was ratified by the Parliament.
In the latter half of the 1990s to the 2000s, the United Kingdom took part in the introduction of the euro with the participation of the European exchange rate mechanism in 1990, despite the fact that it was willing to integrate Europe under the European Union.Pound crisisThe negative attitude is seen from the experience. This negative attitude of Britain led to the departure from the EU in 2016. In addition, Sweden, which is obliged to introduce the euro in the basic treaty, voted for accession to the European Union in 1994, although 53% of the people voted for membership. Declaring the shelving of the government, and then a referendum on the introduction of the euro in 2003 showed that opposition accounted for 56%.
EconomistPaul KrugmanCriticizes Germany for adversely affecting the European Union's economic policy as follows. According to Krugman, Germany, the largest economic power in the European Union, hates inflation, and the European Central Bank has adopted a policy strongly influenced by Germany., Is the source of low inflation in Europe. Southern European countries such as Spain and Portugal are forced to reduce wages in order to bridge the labor cost gap with large countries such as Germany. Of course, the gap can be closed if Germany allows high labor costs, that is, high inflation... But Germany, which does not favor inflation, does not allow it. As a result, unemployment rates in those Southern European countries will remain high due to the downward rigidity of nominal wages. In addition, Germany tends to impose Germany's 1990s economic values on other EU Member States and impose austerity policies on them, Krugman said.. Also,European ParliamentIs not authorized toEuropean CommissionThe European Union becauseFourth EmpireSometimes
Opposition to the ECB
BritishLabor PartyBelongingJeremy CorbinAlsoEuroI thought it would impose a "bankers' Europe" on member states. 1993Maastricht TreatyPrior to coming into effect, CorbinECBThe establishment predicted that the European state would weaken its ability to take its own policies.
"At the heart of the Maastricht Treaty is the establishment of the ECB. The ECB, which is independent of the nation and the national economy, is run by bankers and only price stability is the ECB's policy. The Maastricht Treaty will guide member states in the opposite direction, rather than on the road to a federal government like the United States. The Commission will impose foreign policy on Member States and fight for them.".
Nobel Peace Prize
Efforts to stabilize and coordinate routes in the European region were highly evaluated andNobel Peace PrizeAward.
Second World WarIt is thought that the EEC, EC, and EU have maintained peace in Europe since then, but in the Cold War era, it was actually due to the nuclear forces deployed in both East and West camps.Nuclear deterrenceHas prevented armed conflict. In 1948Berlin blockade, In 1953East Berlin Riot, In 1956Hungarian uprisingThe EEC did not exist yet when the happened. In 1968Spring in pragueThere was an EC when theCommon agricultural policyWas only established.
- ^ "Junior High School Society Geography Area Manabu" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Kyoiku Shuppan Co., Ltd. Certified on March 23, 3. Printed on January 30, 27. January 1 Published on March 10. 27 Education Geography 1) p 20 states, "On the contrary, there are some places like the European Union (EU) that are aiming for regional integration." "New Social Citizens" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Tokyo Shoseki Co., Ltd. Certified on March 17, 722. Printed on January 10, 23. February 3, 30 Issued .27 Tosho Citizens 1) p 20 states, "The European Union (EU) was established in 27, and European countries are strengthening their ties with each other."I am using the European Union.However, "History of Junior High School Students in Social Studies: History of Japan and Movements in the World" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Teikoku Shoin Co., Ltd. Certified on March 2, 10. January 2 Printed on 921th. Published on January 154, 1993. 23 Imperial History 3) p 30 states, "The European Union (EU), which was established in 27, tried to lower the barrier of its nation and cooperate with each other in East Europe. It has been expanded to ".", Using the European Union.Therefore, textbooks may use either the European Union or the European Union.
- ^ However, the fact that 2005 is regarded as one break is according to Toshiro Tanaka (2007) p.17.
- ^ As a provisional measure following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, 2009 parliamentarians and 6 observers were elected in the June 736 elections. Eighteen observers formally become lawmakers after taking necessary measures. As a result, the European Parliament will consist of 18 members, up to the limit set by the Basic Convention until the expiration of their terms in 18.
- ^ The EU is focusing its current expansion policy on the Western Balkans that have signed and entered into SAA. The potential candidate countries that the EU positions are those of the Western Balkans that are not yet candidates, so Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia, which have signed and entered into the Union Agreement, do not usually fall under this.
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- ^ "CSDP structures and instruments". Europa web portal.As of August 2013, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Reactions to the Russo-Georgian War: towards a European Great Power Concert --DIIS". Diis.dk.As of August 2011, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection". ec.europa.eu. European Commission.As of August 2013, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b c d "Financing European development cooperation: the Financial Perspectives 2014-2020 --Resources --Overseas Development Institute (ODI)". Overseas Development Institute.As of August 2011, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Cristea, Alexandru (June 2019, 6). “Where we work" (English). International Partnerships --European Commission. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Development aid rises again in 2016". Economic Cooperation Development Organization. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2014" (English). Development Initiatives. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Aid to developing countries rebounds in 2013 to reach an all-time high --OECD". Economic Cooperation Development Organization. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b Anonymous (June 2016, 12). “European Neighborhood Policy" (English). European Neighborhood Policy And Enlargement Negotiations --European Commission. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Center, UNESCO World Heritage. “World Heritage and Sustainable Development" (English). UNESCO World Heritage Center. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Ministry of the Environment_XNUMX Agenda for Sustainable Development / SDGs". Ministry of the Environment. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "The Sustainable Development Goals in 2019: People, Planet, Prosperity in Focus" (English). unfoundation.org (September 2019, 7). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "The European Consensus on Development". ec.europa.eu.As of August 2011, 8オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Partnership and cooperation agreement (PCA) --EU monitor". www.eumonitor.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "EUR-Lex – 22018A0126 (01) – EN – EUR-Lex". thumb up. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement". EU External Services. European Commission. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “EU and Kyrgyz Republic initial Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement”. European Commission
- ^ "The World Fact Book". Central Intelligence Agency.As of August 2011, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "World Trade Report 2009". World Trade Organization. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "EU position in world trade --Trade --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b "EU-Korea FTA Will Be a Long Process: Greek Ambassador" (English). Korea Times (September 2009, 7). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Access2Markets Welcome to Access2Markets to Trade Helpdesk users". trade.ec.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Negotiations and agreements --Trade --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Wong, Audrye (May 2021, 5). “How Not to Win Allies and Influence Geopolitics” (English). ISSN 0015-7120 NovemberBrowse.
- ^ EUROPA-The EU at a glance(English and 22 other languages)
- ^ a b c Takashi Uemura. “Cross-border bills Euro banknotes (pdf) ”. Banknote and Postage Stamp Museum. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Croatia joins EU, expands to 28-nation system for the first time in 6 and a half years”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2013, 7). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Iceland applies for EU membership”(Japanese). Japan Local Government Center (JLGC): London. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Iceland cancels EU accession negotiations”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2015, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Candidate Countries --Enlargement --Environment --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Agreement to change Macedonian country name, resolution of conflict in the quarter century”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2018, 6). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ ""North Macedonia" renamed effective”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2019, 2). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b "EU to expand again without UK”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2020, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “EU to initiate accession negotiations with Macedonia and Albania". NHK News. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b “European Council Approves Start of Accession Negotiations between Albania and Northern Macedonia”Japan External Trade Organization. (March 2020, 3) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b Joint statement of the Members of the European Council, Europian Union, (2020-3-26) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b Recommendation to start EU accession negotiations with Montenegro European Commission Nihon Keizai Shimbun November
- ^ "Fifth meeting of the Accession Conference with Montenegro at Deputy level, Brussels, 30 June 2020" (English). www.consilium.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Forgotten the approval of EU and Serbia candidate countries”. Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2011, 12) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Serbia Approved by EU Summit Sankei Shimbun November
- ^ a b c "European Union”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. NovemberBrowse.
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- ^ "EU: New policy for early accession of six Western Balkan countries-Mainichi Shimbun" (Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b “West Balkan accession, reconfirmation of support EU summit meeting, target time not shown”. Current affairs dot com. Current events (ク ラ ー ニ(スロベニア): Jiji Press Inc.). (November 2021, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b “EU leaders promise to join six Balkan countries, no deadline set”.Bourde (スロベニア): Reuters(July 2021, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b c European Union Reaches Deal With Turkey on MigrationL. Norman, The Wall Street Journal, 29 Nov 2015
- ^ Turkey wants more money from EU after € 3 bn migration deal, Turkish PM saysR. Akkoc, The Daily Telegraph, 22 Jan 2016
- ^ "10th Anniversary of Eastern Partnership with EU, Temperature Differences in Each Country (EU, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova) | Business Brief-JETRO". www.jetro.go.jp. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b "Signing of Union Agreement including DCFTA of Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova and EU (Interview with Foreign Press Secretary)”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b "EU joins three former Soviet Union nations to support economic development”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2014, 6). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "EU Signs Union Agreement with Three Former Soviet Unions-Including FTA-European Council also Summarizes Ukraine-(EU, Ukraine, Albania, Georgia, Moldova) | Business Brief-JETRO". www.jetro.go.jp. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "EU-Ukraine alliance agreement goes into full force in September”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2017, 7). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Press corner" (English). European Commission-European Commission. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Georgia-Trade-European Commission". ec.europa.eu. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Britain decides to leave by EU referendum NEWSWEEK Japanese edition June 2016, 6
- ^ “European parliament approves UK/EU exit plan.. AFPBB News. French news agency(July 2020, 1) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b Dear Britain, there is life outside the EUT. Aeschi and G. Thor Thordarson, The Daily Telegraph, News, 10 Jul 2015
- ^ Iceland drops EU membership bid BBC, News, 12 Mar 2015
- ^ In European crisis, Iceland emerges as an island of recovery Wall Streat Journal May 2012, 5
- ^ Iceland starts torecover its voice after financial crisis The Guardian, World, 23 Nov 2012
- ^ a b Switzerland withdraws longstanding application to join EU RT, 16 Jun 2016
- ^ Joseph Stiglitz: Austerity not the way to go for Europe BBC News, 4 Oct 2011
- ^ Revenge of the Optimum Currency Area P. Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal 24 Jun 2014
- ^ DNWR in the EAP. Krugman, The Concsience of a Liberal, 13 Apr 2014
- ^ Germany's sinP. Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal, The New York Times, 29 Aug 2014
- ^ a b Jeremy Corbyn predicted that the Euro would lead to'the imposition of a bankers' Europe'J. Stone, The Independent, 18 Sep 2015
- ^ Comment osez-vous être contre l'Europe puisque l'Europe c'est la paix? November
- ^ I fought for Britain and I know how the EU weakens our defenses MGJ Thompson, The Daily Telegraph, 29 Feb 2016
- Kumiko Haba"63 chapters to know the EU (European Union)"Akashi bookstore, 2013.ISBN 978-4-7503-3900-9.
- Yoshihiro Fujii "Knowledge of the EU"Nihon Keizai Shimbun〈Nikkei Library>, 2005, 14th edition.ISBN-978 4532110796.
- Yukio Sato, Kazu Takahashi, Yoichiro Usui, Shintaro Namioka "Enlarged EU Dictionary"Shogakukan, 2006.ISBN-978 4095043371.
- "Political History of European Integration-Ayumi Seen Through People" Teruo Kanamaru,Yuhikaku, 1996.ISBN-978 4641049598.
- Takuji Shimano,Toshiro Tanaka-Okamura"Introduction to the EU-From birth to politics, law and economy" Yuhikaku, 2000.ISBN-978 4641049758.
- "Comprehensive Survey Expanding EU -Mechanism, Policy, Issues-] Kazuo Matsuhashi,National Diet Library, 2007.NovemberBrowse.
- Tamio Nakamura"New horizons of EU studies-approach to an unprecedented regime"Minerva Shobo, 2005.ISBN-978 4623042975.
- Kengo Nakamura "European Integration and Transformation of the Modern State: EU Multidimensional Network Governance"Showa-do, 2007.ISBN-978 4812205310.
- Western part"A blow to the rumor epidemic (157) The EU will inevitably collapse", VERDAD, August 2012, Best Book Co., Ltd., pp. 8-38.
- Kiyuki Wakisaka "Era of Great Europe-A Report from Brussels"Iwanami Shoten〈Iwanami Shinsho New Red Edition>, 2006.ISBN-978 4004309970.
- Kumiko Haba “Challenge of Expanding Europe: Will it be a Pluralistic Power Same as America”Central public opinion new company〈Chuko Shinsho>,2004.ISBN-978 4121017512.
- Koji Kobayashi, Masaaki Kureha "EU Expansion and New Europe"Hara Shobo, 2007.ISBN-978 4562091218.
- Tom Reed, "The identity of "Europe", translated by Nobuko Kaneko,Shinchosha Co., Ltd., 2005.ISBN-978 4105458010.
- Toyodamitu Sakata, “Where the European Monetary Union Works-Can the Euro Survive?” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005.ISBN-978 4121017802.
- Kumiko HabaAkio Komorita-Mika Tanaka"Europe's Eastern Expansion", Iwanami Shoten, 2006.ISBN-4 00-025453-7.
- Yuichi MoriiIn addition, "Expanding EU in International Relations", published by Shinzansha, 2005.ISBN-978 4797233377.
- Hix, Simon (2008). Whats Wrong with the European Union and How to Fix it. Polity Press. ISBN-978 0745642055
- Masami Kodama"Revisiting the Japanese Notation Problem of the" European Union ": Problems of Language and Recognition in EU Studies", Doshisha University Worldwide Business Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 3-27, two:10.14988 / re.2017.0000015849, ISSN 1880-6198 , NOT 110006238384,NovemberBrowse. Materials published in the magazine Masami Kodama "A written questionnaire from the European Parliament" and "Answer from the European Commission" requesting the suspension of the use of "European Union" as the Japanese notation of the EU and the change to the "European Union", and notation problems Letter from Deputy Secretary-General of the European Socialists, R. Corbett, and its history, "Doshisha University Worldwide Business Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 3-116, two:10.14988 / re.2017.0000015851, ISSN 1880-6198 , NOT 110006238389.See also
- In between
- Richard Kudenhof-Kalergie
- Big 4
- European Council
- European Community
- European integration
- Delegation of the European Union to Japan
- European Union portal site "EUROPA"(Table of contents in the 23 official languages of the European Union)
- Delegation of the European Union to Japan(Japanese)(English)
- Delegation of the European Union to Japan (@EUinJapan)- Twitter(Japanese)