AMD in the US, strong demand for semiconductors exceeds expectations for fourth-quarter sales forecast
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Lisa Su, CEO, said in a telephone interview that data center sales were very strong.
[Reuters] – US semiconductor giant Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) announced on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading
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Data center (British: data center) And variousComputer(main frame,Mini computer,serverEtc.) ordata communicationA general term for facilities that specialize in installing and operating equipment such as.
Telecommunications carrier OfOptical fiberAnd metal wire etc.Communication lineBecause it uses a lot ofoffice buildingSo many compared to etc.Optical cableEtc. have already been pulled in (and usually the services of multiple telecommunications carriers are available).In addition, to cope with heat generation from a large amount of computersAir conditioning equipmentEtc. have been strengthened.In addition, the building itself has an earthquake-resistant structure so that the provision of services will not be hindered as much as possible even in the event of a disaster.Power supply from electric power companies is also multiple systems (substationIn addition to receiving from different systems at the same time, it has a large capacity in case the power supply is interrupted.Storage battery,Private power generationEquipped with equipment and the like.
Even if a fire breaks out on the premises, do not damage the equipment installed inside as much as possible.WedNormal to useSprinkler equipmentnotcarbon dioxide (CO2) AndHalongIt is common to have a fire extinguishing system using gas.
Generally, the user side is a computer server orRouter,Switching hubEtc. are installed and used.As a general rule, each user contracts with a telecommunications carrier for communication lines.However, there are many cases where the data center operator installs these devices in advance and rents them to the user.Services in which the data center installs and manages routers, servers, etc. are particularly called "managed services."In the case of iDC, iDC side in advanceInternet service provider After concluding a contract with (ISP) to secure bandwidth (there are many cases where the ISP also works as an iDC), it is common for users to receive resale from the iDC.
From the viewpoint of protecting the security of the equipment installed inside the data center, the entry and exit of people to the floor is strictly controlled, and many facilities require prior application for admission.Also, the equipment that can be brought to the floor may be limited (Mobile phone/SmartphoneMobile devices and cameras, such asUSB memoryThere are many places where it is prohibited to bring in metal detectors), and in severe places, metal detectors may be checked at the doorway.Furthermore, from the same security point of view, there are many businesses that do not disclose the exact location of the data center to the general public, such as not listing it on the website.By taking out customer information one after anotherInformation leakageDue to the importance of countermeasures, the demand for data centers equipped with security equipment is increasing.
In recent years, in Japan, the risk of a large earthquake in the Kanto region,August 2006, 8 Metropolitan area blackoutAgainst the risk of large-scale power outages revealed inBusiness continuity plan (BCP), as a disaster risk diversification measure for large data centersThree major metropolitan areasThe move from is attracting attention.Also, a large data centerHokkaidoBy moving to a cool place such as, it is expected that the power required for cooling will be reduced.
Since the 1960s, large companies and financial institutions have introduced information systems using large general-purpose computers, so that information processing service providers will build computer centers with sufficient load capacity and air conditioning equipment and power equipment. became..This computer center is considered to be the predecessor of the data center.
In the 1990s, the Internet data center appeared due to the spread of Internet connection services and the formation of the Internet Exchange (IX)...Furthermore, in the latter half of the 2000s, the introduction of business systems such as ERP systems progressed, and the cost of operation and maintenance increased at each company, so system outsourcing came to be used, and the location of the data center was also in the suburbs where sufficient space could be secured. Became the center.
- 1985/4 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public CorporationIs privatizedNippon Telegraph and Telephone CorporationWhat.Telecommunications Business LawTo the system by.
- December 1992, 12-Internet Initiative Japan Inc. (currently)IIJ) Established.Start of commercial internet in Japan.
- October 2007, 11- Japan Anniversary AssociationDecided December 12st as "Data Center Day".Softbank IDCIs a registration application.From the acronym DC of Data Center, "December (December)" is combined with "12 day", which indicates that the safety and security first of server equipment operation is the basis of business.
- 2008 May 12, "Japan Data Center Council" (abbreviation: JDCC) was established as an industry group.To the chairmanHyogo Prefectural University教授 OfIsao ShirakawaIs appointed.
Data center equipment
- Earthquake countermeasure equipment
- By the data centerShockproof-Seismic control-Seismic isolationIt has a structure.
- ラ ッ ク
- EIAspecification19 inch rackIs often provided in full rack units.Depending on the operator, it may be provided in units of 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 racks.
- Uninterruptible power supply
- Uninterruptible power system (UPS),Private power generationIt is equipped with equipment.In the event of a power outage from the power company, the private power generator will start automatically, but since power cannot be supplied immediately, the UPS will supply power until then.In addition, the power receiving device and private power generation device need to be inspected regularly, and power is supplied from the UPS when power outage work is required.Therefore, the power supply time of the UPS is designed to include inspection work, and is generally about 10 to 90 minutes.Power outage accident due to damage to Edogawa special high voltage transmission line in 2006In such a case, there is a case where the private power generation device of the data center did not start automatically and the power supply of the UPS was cut off, causing a server failure.
- EuropeIn one of the data centers in Japan, the priority of receiving fuel for private power generation is the third highest after the military and hospitals, which shows the importance of the data center..
- Fire prevention and extinguishing equipment
- It has a fireproof compartment, a smoke detector, and a gas fire extinguisher.
- Entry / exit management, personal authentication,Prepaid CardAuthentication /Biometrics-Surveillance camera-lockingIt has security equipment such as.
- Internet connectivity
- In general, it is possible to pull in a high-speed internet line at a lower cost than pulling in to the company's own building.
- We often have the following equipment as air conditioning equipment to process the heat of the server:
- Introduce cold outside airAir duct,slit.
- For passing the cooling medium through a place with a large amount of heat generationRefrigerantPiping
- The server takes in cold outside air from the front and discharges it from the back, so be careful not to interfere with this.In particular
- A passage that introduces cold air from air conditioning equipment in order to efficiently release heat from the computer (Cold aisle) And the passage that discharges heat from the computer (Hot Isle) Separate
- Place it between the servers in the rack to prevent the heat released from the back of the server from wrapping around to the front of the server.Blank panel.
Data center services
The content of services provided varies greatly depending on the data center.
- Monitor resources and ports such as servers and NW devices, SNMP-TRAP, logs, etc.
- Failure correspondence
- Performs failure isolation, equipment replacement, manufacturer arrangements, etc.
- backupPerform work on your behalf.
- AccountPerform management, performance management, etc.
Global warmingFrom the perspective of prevention, attention has been focused on the amount of power consumed by data centers, and the IT infrastructure power saving movement (so-called ""Green ITAs part of (), power saving in data centers has been promoted since around 2007.
As specific measures to realize green IT, multiple measures have been taken as listed below.
DC power supply
Currently, it is carried out between commercial power supply → uninterruptible power supply (UPS) → equipment such as servers.Alternating current (AC) →DC In order to avoid power conversion such as (DC) → AC → DC, the power receiving equipment in the data center collectively converts to DC, and the distribution in the center is performed with DC suitable for the operation of equipment such as servers. ".
Power loss occurs due to the conversion of AC and DC, and about 20% of the power is lost as heat. Therefore, the efficiency of power use is improved by reducing the number of times of this conversion as much as possible.
The number of servers can be reduced and the power consumption of the server itself can be reduced by grouping multiple old servers with low processing power and services that do not require so much processing power into a small number of high-performance servers at once. In addition to reducing the amount of services, reducing the area of the data center compared to the amount of services in operation can also reduce the power consumption required for air conditioning and water cooling.
In some cases, the data center itself is installed in a cold region with the main purpose of reducing the power consumption of air conditioning equipment, which accounts for a large proportion of the power consumption of the data center."Outside air cooling" that uses the outside air for cooling, "Snow cooling" that stores winter snow and uses it for cooling from spring to summerSnow heat coolingAdopt an air conditioning system that consumes relatively little power, such asWhite data centerAlso exists.
in JapanPortus HokkaidoKushiroThe data center opened in Japan is cooled by the outside air.Kushiro City is possible because it has 0 midsummer days and an average of 5.5 days per year, which is one of the leading summer resorts in Japan.Cherry blossom internet 2011 In HokkaidoIshikari cityOpened inIshikari Data CenterThe company has adopted outside air cooling on a large scale, and the company says that "the air conditioning cost can be reduced by about 4%" by adopting outside air cooling.. AlsoSnow cooling・ For snow heat cooling, Hokkaido / Sorachi regionBibai City White data centerHas a track record of conducting demonstration experiments.
Power efficiency index
The Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) has been established as an indicator of how efficiently the power used by data centers is being used.United States Environmental Protection Agency Recommended by (EPA) and others.
This reduces the power consumption of the entire data center,ITIt is an index divided by the power used by the equipment, and the lower the number, the more efficient it is, and 1.0 indicates that it is the most efficient data center in theory.
In the past, data centers were generally installed in dedicated buildings that meet the requirements for seismic / disaster prevention performance and power / communication lines, but from around the latter half of the 2000s.Marine containerA refurbished data center based on this is now appearing.
Because container-based data centers are container-basedtrailer,ShipIt is easy to transport by etc., and even after moving, it can be used as a data center immediately by connecting an external power supply or communication line, and since all the functions as a data center including air conditioning equipment are packaged. It has the advantage that it can be easily expanded as needed.On the other hand, there are some parts that are inferior to conventional data centers, depending on the installation conditions such as earthquake resistance and disaster prevention performance.
In general2006 ToSun MicrosystemsAnnounced "Project Blackbox" (currentlySun modular datacenter) Was the forerunner of container-type data centers, Actually before that2005 ToGoogleHad put a container-type data center into practical use.. After the announcement of "Project Blackbox," rival companies have entered container-type data centers one after another, and many major IT vendors are now launching similar solutions.
in JapanBuilding Standards LawIt has been said that it is difficult to use container-type data centers due to regulations imposed by the government.2011 Regulations were relaxed in March, and container-type data centers that normally operate unattendedBuildingBecause it was decided not to treat as, In the same yearInternet initiative(IIJ)Shimane MatsueIn addition to opening a container-type data center in,NTT FacilitiesAlsoKanagawaAtsugiSet up a container-type data center at NTT Atsugi Research and Development Center, etc., The use of container-type data centers is gradually gaining momentum in Japan as well.
By cooling with seawater, the electricity bill for air conditioning can be suppressed, and there is an advantage that the accident rate is lower than the ground because humans do not enter inside..
- ^ a b c d "Data Center Industry Report-Data Center Industry Trends and Data Centers as New Assets-”(Japanese). Development Bank of Japan. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ It is explained around 4:57 in the video."Video data center”. World of Warships (May 2016, 5). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “[Data Center Thermal Management] Do not leave a gap between servers”. IT Pro (Nikkei BP). (November 2008, 11) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Opened Ishikari Data Center using Sakura Internet and outside air conditioning -Internet Watch · October 2011, 11
- ^ Sites for attracting data centers that propose the use of natural energy --ASCII.jp ・ May 2011, 5
- ^ Sun turns data center into a container-Project Blackbox -Mynavi News June 2006, 10
- ^ History of container data centers --Togetter
- ^ Google unveils in-house designed server-focus on efficiency in data centers Sentence: Stephen Shankland (CNET News.com) Translation Proofreading: Kawamura International April 2009, 4
- ^ Handling of Building Standards Law for container type data centers --March 2011, 3, Director, Building Guidance Division, Housing Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- ^ IIJ Opens Outside Air Cooling Container Data Center in Matsue City, Starts Private HaaS --ITPro ・ April 2011, 4
- ^ About the start of provision of cell modular data center --NTT Facilities, May 2011, 5
- ^ "Data center underwater / Microsoft / Close to urban areas / low disaster risk ..." "Underwater data center proposed by Navy graduates / Infrastructure for next-generation technology""Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun』November 2018, 11 (global side) Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- ^ Microsoft withdraws data center submerged in the sea - CNN