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🌏 | NY Foreign Exchange Market = Japanese Yen and Swiss Franc Rise, Risk Off with New Mutant Stocks


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NY foreign exchange market = Japanese yen and Swiss franc rise, risk off with new mutant stocks

 
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In crypto assets (virtual currency), Bitcoin was temporarily at $ 5, the lowest since October 3524.
 

[New York XNUMXth Reuters] -The Japanese yen and the Swiss franc have risen in the late New York foreign exchange market ... → Continue reading

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Virtual currency

currency > Digital currency > Virtual currency

Virtual currency(CurrencyBritish: virtual currency, Virtual money)Digital currencyIs a type of, unregulated, published by the developer, usually controlled, and specificVirtual communityIt is accepted and used within.

In 2014European Banking Authority"Not issued by a central bank or public institutionFiat currencyIt may not be backed byNatural person(Individual)CorporationIt is accepted as a payment method and is electronically moved, stored and traded in an electronically valuable manner. "In contrast, digital currencies issued by central banksCentral Bank Digital CurrencyIt is called (CBDC).

Definition

2012 years,European Central BankThe (ECB) defines cryptocurrencies as "a type of digital currency that is unregulated, usually issued and managed by developers, and used and accepted by members of a particular virtual community." .. [1] : 13

2013 years,US TreasuryThe US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), in contrast to its regulatory definition of "real currency," "acts as a medium of exchange in some environments, like currency, but of real currency. It does not have all the attributes, "he said, especially that it does not have fiat currency status in any region (currently Bitcoin has fiat currency status, as in the case of El Salvador). .. [2]

2014 years,European Banking AuthorityCryptocurrencies are "issued by central banks and public institutions, not necessarily fiat-backed, but accepted by natural persons or legal entities as a digital representation of value and transferred electronically. It can be stored or traded. " [3]

In 2018, of the European Parliament and the Board of DirectorsDirective (EU),2018/843Defined to mean "a digital representation of value that is not issued or guaranteed by a central bank or public institution, is not necessarily associated with a legally established currency, and has no legal status in the currency." It can be accepted by a natural person or legal entity as an exchange medium and can be transferred, stored and traded electronically. " [4]

Therefore, the virtual currency may include in-game currency and the like.[5]

Term history

The term "virtual currency" is a digital currencysocial gameIt is said that it was built around 2009 in parallel with the development of. [6]

Originally,BitcoinThe correct classification of is "Digital currencyHowever, in the past, especially in the US government, the term "virtual currency" was preferred and adopted uniformly.Specifically, it started with FinCEN mentioned above, and in 2012FBI [7] General Accounting Bureau in 2013[8] , In the US Senate in November 2013BitcoinGovernment agency testified at a hearing aboutHomeland Securityetc),US Securities and Exchange Commission,Attorney GeneralUse examples can be seen in, etc. [9]

The concept itself was discussed at a 2013 US Congress hearing by an economist and former Fed chairman.Ben Bernanke"We see it as a form of'electronic money'or payment system technology that has evolved over the last two decades," he said. "Banking and financial services" about the "future of currencies" in 20. He mentioned that there was a discussion at the parliamentary hearing by the "Future Committee of Japan". [10]

Japan

in Japan,2016 May 6Established in2017 May 4Enforced in "RevisionFund settlement lawIn Article 2, Paragraph 5 of ""Cryptocurrency"(The original name was virtual currency) was defined as one of the following:[11][12]..Although the name has cryptography, it is a cryptographic asset even if cryptography is not used, and there is no need to be decentralized.

  1. When purchasing, borrowing, or receiving services, it can be used for unspecified persons to pay these prices, and it is purchased and sold to unspecified persons. A property value that can be transferred using an electronic information processing organization.
  2. Property value that can be exchanged with an unspecified person and can be transferred using an electronic information processing organization.

However, the following two requirements are required.

  1. Prescribed in Article 2, Paragraph 3 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange ActElectronic record transfer rightExcept.
  2. Property values ​​are limited to those recorded electronically on electronic devices and other objects, and exclude Japanese yen and foreign currencies and currency-denominated assets.

Traditional cryptocurrency names are confusing with existing fiat currencies and exclude currency-denominated assets, which can be misleading, so at the 2018 international conferenceCryptocurrency(British: crypto asset) Was used, and on May 2019, 5, the Diet passed a revised law on the Funds Settlement Law and the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law, which included a change in the name to crypto assets.[13][14]..It is a crypto asset without using crypto, and it is confusing.

Rather than being cryptographicWhether it is electronic information processing is a requirementIs.Since it excludes currency-denominated assets, those with stable value in legal tender are excluded.

Bitcoin(BTC) andOrtho coinEtc.Cryptocurrency(Cryptocurrency), which is a type of virtual currency and is a Japanese legal "cryptocurrency"CryptocurrencyIt is also a kind of.

El SalvadorIn, the "Bitcoin Law" was enacted on June 2021, 6.BitcoinBecomes the national legal tender[15], Enforced on September 2021, 9[16]. "Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade LawIf it falls under the foreign currency stipulated in Article 6, "Fund settlement lawIt no longer falls under the crypto assets specified in Article 2, Paragraph 5, Item 1, but whether it falls under foreign currencyForced powerThe standard is whether or not to have.[17], In Article 7 of the "Bitcoin Law" of El Salvador,BitcoinAlthough it is stipulated that it has compulsory power, Article 12 is exempted for those who cannot access Bitcoin.[18], The Government of Japan responded on June 2021, 6BitcoinDoes not correspond to the foreign currency of El Salvador,BitcoinTakes a stance of interpretation that is included in crypto assets[19].


Currency classification table

Digital currencyIs a currency that has a specific form of being transferred and stored electronically, and is different from a currency that has a physical entity such as coins or banknotes.According to the European Central Bank, cryptocurrencies are "generally digital" but their pioneers with a long history.CouponIs physical.[1]

CryptocurrencyIs a digital currency that uses cryptography to protect transactions and control the creation of new currency units.[20] Not all cryptocurrencies use cryptography, soDoes not mean that all cryptocurrencies are cryptocurrencies.

Definition of the European Central Bank[1]: 11based oncurrencyClassification table (the range with a green background is the virtual currency)
Form of money
Physicalデ ジ タ ル
CipherDoes not depend onCipherDepends on orCryptocurrencyIs
Legal positionNo regulationCentralizedCouponInternet coupon
Mobile coupon
Local currencyIn-game virtual currency, centralized virtual currency
DistributedphysicallyReal moneyDecentralized virtual currencyCryptocurrency
Be regulatedbill,coin,cashElectronic money (so-called Japanese meaning)
bankDeposits inDeposit currency)

World virtual currency

The total number of virtual currencies in the world tends to increase year by year. In the edition of "Encyclopedia Nipponica" (Nipponica) edited around 2016, it was stated that "there are more than 600 types of virtual currencies" and "the estimated market capitalization of them is about 2016 as of April 4." 80 million dollars "[21].. In the Asahi Shimbun's "Keywords" article published on January 2018, 1, it was explained that "there are more than 27 types in the world, and the total market capitalization reaches about 59 trillion yen."[22].

Centralized virtual currency

Decentralized cryptocurrency

  • AAVE
  • ADA (Cardano)- Cardano (blockchain)See.
  • ADX (AdEx)
  • AE (Aeternity)
  • AION (Aion, Aion)
  • AMB (Ambrosus)
  • ARK (Ark)
  • AST (Air Swap, AirSwap)
  • BAT (Basic Attention Token)
  • BCD (Bitcoin Diamond)
  • BCH (Bitcoin cash, Bitcoin Cash)
  • BCPT (Blockmason Credit Protocol)
  • BNB (Binance Coin)
  • BNT (Bancor)
  • BRD (Bread)
  • BTC (Bitcoin[21], Bitcoin)
  • BTG (医 、 医, Bitcoin Gold)
  • BVS (Bitcoin Silver)
  • CDT (Blox, Blokus)
  • CND (Cindicator)
  • CMT (CyberMiles)
  • DASH (Dash)-Can be used like cash and has strong anonymity.
  • DNT (District Zero X, district0x)
  • DGD (DigixDAO)
  • DOGE (Dogecoin)
  • DOT (Polkadot)
  • EDO (Eidoo)
  • ENG (Eniguma)- Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCryptographic assets (virtual currency) from the origin.
  • ENJ (Engine Coin, Enjin Coin)
  • ELF (elf)
  • EOS (EOS, EOS)
  • ETH (Ethereum[21] , Ethereum)- Real estate,trustUsed for[21].
  • EVX (Everex)
  • FIL (Filecoin)
  • FUEL (Etherparty)
  • FUN (FunFair)
  • GAS (Gas)
  • GTO (gift, Gift)
  • GVT (Genesis Vision)
  • GXS (GXChain)-A virtual currency originating in China. It was closed by Chinese police in 2019.
  • HSR (Hshare, Hshare)
  • ICN (Iconomi)
  • ICX (icon, ICON)
  • INS (INS Ecosystem)
  • IOST (IOS token)
  • KMD (Komodo)
  • KNC (Kyber Network)
  • LED (Etherend, ETHLend)
  • LINK (Chainlink)
  • LN (LINK, LINK)- LINECryptocurrency and crypto assets issued by the group.
  • LRC (Loopring)
  • LSK (risk,Lisk)
  • LTC (Litecoin[21] , Litecoin) -Derived from BitcoinCryptocurrency.
  • LUN (Lunyr)
  • LUNA (Terra, Terra)
  • MANA (Decentraland)
  • MCO (Monaco, MONACO)
  • MOD (Modum)
  • MONA (Monacoin [21], MonaCoin)-originating in JapanCryptocurrency.
  • MTH (Monetha)
  • MTL (Metal)
  • NANO (Nano)
  • NAV (NavCoin)
  • NBNG (NOBUNAGA) -originating in JapanCryptocurrency.
  • NCASH (Nucleus Vision)
  • NEM (Nem,NEM) --A virtual currency that does not have a mechanism for new issuance.[23]
  • NEO (NEO)-Called the Chinese version of Ethereum.
  • NEBL (Neblio)
  • NULS (Nuls)
  • OMG (Omisego)
  • PIVX (Pivx, PIVX)-Anonymous cryptocurrency based on Bitcoin and DASH.
  • POE (Po.et)
  • PPT (populous)
  • QTUM (Qtum)
  • RCN (Ripio Credit Network)
  • RDN (Raiden Network)
  • RPX (Red Pulse)
  • RYO (Koban, c0ban) --Cryptocurrency assets originating in Japan.
  • RLC (iExec RLC)
  • SALT (Salt, SALT)
  • SNGLS (SingularDTV)
  • SNM (SONM)
  • SNT (Status, Status)
  • STEEM (Steam, Steam, Steem)
  • STORJ (storage, Storj)
  • STORM (Storm)
  • STRAT (Stratis)
  • SUB (Substratum)
  • Symbol-NEM's big update blockchain
  • THETA
  • TNB (Time New Bank)
  • TNT (Tierion)
  • TRIG (Triggers)
  • TRX (TRON, TRON)- Virtual currency TRONSee.
  • VET (VeChain)
  • VIB (Viberate)
  • VIBE (VIBE)
  • WABI (WaBi)
  • WAVES (Waves)
  • WTC (Waltonchain)
  • XLM (Stellar lumen, Stellar Lumens)
  • XMR (Monero,Monero)
  • XRP (Ripple[21], Ripple)
  • XVG (Verge, Verge)
  • XZC (Zcoin, Zcoin)
  • ZEC (G-Cash, G-Cash,Zcash)
  • ZIL (Zilliqa)
  • ZRX (Zero X, 0x)

Regulation

Chugoku

2021 May 9,People's Bank of ChinaProhibited the act of providing virtual currency (cryptographic assets) services in Japan, and made the use of virtual currency illegal.It also prohibited overseas exchanges from providing services to residents of mainland China.[24].

Mining

New issuance of virtual currency is done by a method called "mining" (mining).A virtual currency is an advanced calculation program.Trading the cryptocurrency requires more complex and sophisticated calculations.Therefore, a mechanism has been created in which miners around the world cooperate with the computer calculation work of the virtual currency and obtain a newly issued virtual currency as a reward for its success.One computer is enough to mine cryptocurrencies, and now there are individual miners all over the world who are working hard to mine cryptocurrencies as a business.

tax

The profit obtained by buying and selling virtual currency is "Other incomeCorresponds toComprehensive taxationWill be.Comprehensive taxation is a mechanism in which the tax rate changes by adding it to other income, and the higher the amount of income, the higher the tax rate.Progressive taxationIs.Currently, the maximum income tax rate in Japan is45%, And residence tax10%Is also added, so it is the best for the profits made with virtual currency55%Tax will be levied.Investors who make an annual profit of 20 yen or more with virtual currency need to find out which tax rate is applied when filing a tax return.

footnote

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ a b c European Central Bank (October 2012). "1". Virtual Currency Schemes. Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank. P. 5. ISBN 978-92-899-0862-7. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2012-11-06.. https://web.archive.org/web/20121106053452/http://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/other/virtualcurrencyschemes201210en.pdf 
  2. ^ "FIN-2013-G001: Application of FinCEN's Regulations to Persons Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies”. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Pp. 6 (March 2013, 3). As of February 18, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/5/29Browse.
  3. ^ "EBA Opinion on'virtual currencies”. European Banking Authority. Pp. 46 (July 2014, 7). 2014/7/8Browse.
  4. ^ (English) Directive (EU) 2018/843 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive (EU) 2015/849 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing, and amending Directives 2009/138 / EC and 2013/36 / EU (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L, (2018-06-19), http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2018/843/oj/eng 2019/9/18Browse. 
  5. ^ Hitoshi Okada, Ikuo Takahashi, Shigeichiro Yamazaki "Cryptocurrency: Technology, Law, System" Toyo Keizai Inc., 2015, p.10
  6. ^ Sutter, John D. (May 2009, 5). “Virtual currencies power social networks, online games”. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/05/18/online.currency/index.html?eref=rss_tech 
  7. ^ "Bitcoins Virtual Currency: Unique Features Present Challenges for Deterring Illicit Activity". Cyber ​​Intelligence Section and Criminal Intelligence Section. FBI (April 2012, 4). 2014/5/27Browse.
  8. ^ (June 2013). “Virtual Economies and currencies: Additional IRS guidance could reduce tax compliance risks". GAO Report GAO-13-516Report to the Committee on Finance, US Senate. As of June 2013, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.27 May 201Browse.
  9. ^ Raskind, Max (November 2013, 11). “US Agencies to Say Bitcoins Offer Legitimate Benefits”. Bloomberg. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20131119023830/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-18/u-s-agencies-to-say-bitcoins-offer-legitimate-benefits.html 
  10. ^ SUBCOMMITTEE ON DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY POLICY. “The Future of Money". Congressional Hearing.Internet Archive. 2014/5/27Browse.
  11. ^ Financial Services Agency-related bill at the 190th Diet: Financial Services Agency
  12. ^ Kenji Hayashi (January 2017, 1). “Outline of amendment of fund settlement law regarding virtual currency (cryptocurrency) by active attorneys”. Blockchain Business Study Group. 2018/2/4Browse.
  13. ^ "Renamed from" Cryptocurrency "to" Cryptocurrency "Revised Funds Settlement Law passed". Engadget Japanese version. Engadget(July 2019, 5). https://japanese.engadget.com/2019/05/31/bitcoin/ 2019/6/1Browse. 
  14. ^ "Cryptocurrency is renamed to" crypto asset "to prevent misidentification as legal tender". Asahi Shimbun(July 2019, 5). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASM5053B5M50ULFA02S.html 2019/6/1Browse. 
  15. ^ World's First Bitcoin Legal Tender El Salvador Parliament Passed 1 Photo International News: AFPBB News
  16. ^ El Salvador, Bitcoin fiat currency on September 9 "optional" | Reuters
  17. ^ Answer to the re-question about Bitcoin: Answer Body: House of Councilors
  18. ^ El Salvador's Bitcoin Law: Full English Text | by Avik Roy | Jun, 2021 | FREOPP.org
  19. ^ Cabinet Participation No. 204 No. 114
  20. ^ Andy Greenberg (April 2011, 4). “Crypto Currency”. Forbes.com. https://www.forbes.com/forbes/2011/0509/technology-psilocybin-bitcoins-gavin-andresen-crypto-currency.html 2014/8/8Browse. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Virtual currency or sotsuka virtual currencydigital currency crypto-currency". "Complete Encyclopedia of Japan". Shogakukan. 2018/1/5Browse.
  22. ^ Asahi Shimbun "Keywords"
  23. ^ "What is virtual currency "NEM"?". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2018/2/28Browse.
  24. ^ "China bans cryptocurrencies altogether, pursuing criminal liability, cracking down further”. SankeiBiz (February 2021, 9). 2021/9/23Browse.

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