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🌏 | Chinese Air Force aircraft flying around Taiwan, seems to be a "rehearsal exercise" = US Defense Secretary


Chinese Air Force plane flying around Taiwan, seems to be a "dry run" = US Defense Secretary

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"I don't want to guess, but it certainly looks like a dry run," Austin said at a conference in California.

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] -US Defense Secretary Austin said on the XNUMXth that a Chinese Air Force plane flew around Taiwan "... → Continue reading


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Coordinate: 37 degrees north latitude 120 degrees west longitude /37 N, 120 W / 37; -120

State of California
California State FlagCalifornia State Mark
(State flag)(State emblem)
State nickname: Golden state
The Golden State
State motto: Eureka
Location in California
State capitalSacramento
Largest cityLos Angeles
GovernorGavin Newtham
Official terminologyEnglish
 - Grand total
 -Water area
3th in the US
423,970 km²
403,932 km²
20,047 km² (4.7%)
population(2020 )
 - Grand total
 - Population density
1th in the US
97.9 people/km²
Join US
 -Date of subscription

1850 May 9
Time zoneUTC -8
STD -7
latitudeNorth latitude 32° 32'-42°
longitudeWest longitude 114°8'-124°26'
East-west width402.5 km
North-south length1,240 km
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

4,418 m
884 m
-86 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-CA
WebsiteCalifornia Government
SenatorDiane Feinstein
Alex Padiya

California(California,British: State of California) IsThe United States of AmericaWestern,The Pacific OceanShoreState.US West CoastOccupy most of the.

Languages ​​spoken at home (California) 2010
Race Composition (California) 2010
イ ン デ ィ ア ン


United States statesThe largest of thepopulationProud of[1],US presidential electionThe number of people is also the largest.The state capitalSacramentoso,Brazil OfState of Sao PauloFollowed byAmericasSecond most populous inAdministrative divisionAnd big cities start with the most populousLos Angeles,San Diego,San Jose,San FranciscoHas become[2].. No. 2 in the state (Los Angeles) and No. 6 (San Francisco Bay Area), And nine cities are in the top 50 cities with the largest population in the United States.

Once in Japan, the kanjiKari Fu NayaIt was sometimes written as "," but nowadays it is not often used. This abbreviation "Cazhou" isNews (Chinese)May be used even today, such as when there is a limited number of characters like the heading. In addition, the single character of "Ka" without "state" is not CaliforniaCanada(Kagodai)” is an abbreviation.

California is diverseclimateとterrainThere are also manyPeopleLive in. By area in the US statesア ラ ス カ 州とTexasIs the third after[3].. Oregon in the north, northeastネ バ ダ 州, SoutheastArizonaTouchingMexico OfBaja CaliforniaIs in contact with. Geographically from the Pacific coast to the eastSierra Nevada MountainsUntil the southeastMojave Desert, NorthwestSequoia,Bay pineThere is a forest. In the center of the state, the agricultural area boasts the highest level of productivity in the world,Central ValleyThere is.Mainland usaThen the highest elevation point (Mount Whitney) And the lowest point (Death Valley).Approximately 40% of the area is forest[4]As a relatively dry area, there are many forests.

From the second half of the 18th centuryAlta CaliforniaThe area calledSpanish EmpireBecame a colony of.1821 Including Alta CaliforniaMexico First Mexican EmpireBecame a republic and became a republic.1846 , A group of American pioneers in SonomaRepublic of californiaDeclared independence. Immediately after thatAmerican ink warAs a result, Mexico ceded California to the United States. California1850 May 9Became the 31st state of the United States.

Mid-19th century,California Gold RushCaused dramatic social, economic and demographic changes in California. With the influx of people and the boom, San Francisco grew from a small village of tents to a booming city known to the world. An important development in the early 20th century was the rise of Los Angeles as the center of the entertainment industry and the vast statewide tourism industry. In addition to rich agriculture, the aerospace industry, oil industry and information technology contributed to economic development.

If California is a nationGDPThen.ItalyEqual to10.populationBut the 35th place,landThen it will be the 59th place.

In California, repeated attempts at separation and independence in some areas have been repeated, and at least 1800 times have failed from the 2011s to 27.[5].


San Francisco Bay AreaNorth with the center ofAgriculture:The central part, whereLos Angeles~San DiegoDivided into the south with the obi as the center. In the bay areaSilicon ValleyIs one of the most economically advanced regions in the United States.Los Angeles TheHollywoodHoldingentertainmentIt is the global center of industry.

Asia,MexicoClose toImmigrationThere are many.ImmigrationHave a strong tendency to settle in their respective residential areas,Ethnic salad bowlThe expression "" applies.Chinatown,Korean Town,Little tokyo,(English edition),(English edition)Are famous. Above all, adjacentMexicoMany immigrants fromSpanishIs a state official language.

Much of the southMexicoOriginally in the territory ofSpanishPioneered by1848 OfAmerican ink warAs a result ofNew MexicoAlong with it, it was ceded from Mexico to the United States for $1,500 million and became a US territory (at the same timeTexasThe US ownership was also confirmed). So in CaliforniaSpanishOf originPlace nameAre very many.

laterPresident of the United StatesBecame,Ronald Reagan TheCalifornia GovernorAre experiencing.2003 OctoberIsAn actorでAustriaBornArnold SchwarzeneggerWas elected Governor and served until January 2011.

Origin of the name

The name "California" was originally created in addition to today's California with parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Wyoming and the MexicanBaja California PeninsulaIt consisted of

The etymology of California is blackAmazon tribeOf the Queen Califia (probablyCaliphIs the etymology[6]It is most commonly believed that it was derived from a fantasy heaven controlled by. The myth of Califia was recorded in the 1510 work "Esplandian Achievements" written by Spanish adventurer and writer Gulch Rodriguez de Montalvo as a sequel to the chivalry story "Amadis de Gaura". ing[6][7][8].. According to Montalvo, the Queen's kingdom of Califia was a remote land rich in gold, inhabited by strange creatures such as Griffon.

As you know, to the right of India is an island named California, very close to part of heaven on earth. A black woman lives and there is no man. Living in the Amazon style. They have strong bodies, strong and passionate hearts and great virtues. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world due to its rugged rocks. All the weapons are made of gold. Everywhere on the island is flooded with gold and expensive stones, and no other metal can be found on it[9].

The place name California is the fifth oldest place name given by Europeans in the United States and is still used. By the Spanish Expedition led by Diego de Basera and Fortun Jimenez, who landed at the southern tip of Baja California in 5 at the command of Hernan Cortes.California IslandWas named[Note 1][10] But laterPeninsulaIt turned out to be.


The western part of the Americas,Sierra Nevada MountainsWest ofThe Pacific OceanIt is an area facing.It is the third largest state and is 3 times as large as Japan.Long north-south shape, northOregonOn the east sideネ バ ダ 州-ArizonaAdjacent to.Southernmost citySan DiegoToBorder with mexicoThe entry of illegal immigrants has become a social problem.On the Pacific coastSan Francisco Bay Area,Los Angeles metropolitan area, San Diego and other metropolitan areas that represent the United States are located.

In the middle of the stateCentral ValleyThere is west(English edition)And in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the east, to the northCascade Mountains, SouthTehachapi MountainsIt is surrounded by. Central Valley is the agricultural center of California, producing about one-third of domestic food production[11].. The Central Valley is divided into two parts by the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.Sacramento ValleyToSacramento RiverFlows on the south sideSan Joaquin ValleyToSan Working RiverIs flowing. Both valleys are named after the river that crosses them. By dredging the Sacramento and San Wurkin rivers, both rivers are kept deep enough to become seaports in some inland cities. The delta is also an important source of water in the state. Water is pumped from the Delta region and transported using an extensive network of canals, including the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project, which is the length of the state. Water from the Delta is drinking water for nearly 3 million inhabitants, two-thirds of the state's population, and agricultural water west of the San Joaquin Valley. On the southern coastChannel IslandsIs floating.

The Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spanish Snow Mountains) are the highest peaks on the continental United StatesMount Whitney(Altitude 14,505 feet, 4,421 m)[12].. This mountain range is famous for being cut by glaciersYosemite ValleyOr the largest creature on earthSequoiaCovered with treesSequoia National Park, The largest freshwater lake in the state in terms of water storageLake TahoeThere is.

Migratory habitat to the east of the Sierra Nevada mountainsOwens ValleyとMono LakeThere is. In the western part of the state is the largest clear lake in the state in terms of water area. Lake Tahoe is larger, but it is divided at the border between California and Nevada. Sierra Nevada Mountains fall to Arctic temperatures in winter and are the southernmost in the United States(English edition)And many small glaciers also remain.

Approximately 45% of the state's inland surface area is covered with forest, making it the most forested state in the United States, with the exception of Alaska.The variety of pine trees is unique to other states.(English edition)Many of the trees are the oldest in the world. In the case of Bristol Corn Pine, there are 4,700 years old trees.

SouthernIs a large inland salt lakeLake saltonThere is. The south-south desertMojave DesertIt is called. To the northeastDeath Valley, The lowest and hottest spot in North America, (→Bad water) Is included.The distance from the lowest point in Death Valley to the highest point on Mount Whitney is less than 200 miles (320 km).Most of the southeastern part is a dry and hot desert, which often records extremely high temperatures in summer.

California isPacific Rim Volcanic ZoneIs part of(I.e.,洪水,drought, Santa Ana style (western style),Forest fire,LandslideAnd someVolcanoThere are many natural disasters such as activities. From the south to the westSan Andreas FaultAnd someFaultBecause of this, there are many earthquakes with relatively shallow epicenters (direct earthquakes).In the pastmagnitude8 classEarthquakeAre experiencing.


The climate is dominated by dazzling sun and dry summers and cool, wet winters.Mediterranean climateThere are many areas ofSubarctic climateThere are areas to enter. coldCalifornia CurrentBecause of this, fog often occurs near the coast. There is not much rainfall,Sierra Nevada MountainsThawed waterUnderground waterThere are many places that pump up water from wells. However, securing a new water source is an issue due to the rapid population increase.

Due to the shape of the state, long coastlines, and elevation differences, temperatures and climates may vary considerably between the southern and northern ends of the state or the coast and inland areas. Inland, there are cold winters and hot summers. Therefore, on the southern coastsurfingWhile some people doSkiThere are people who do

The northern part of the province receives more rainfall than the southern part. Mountains also affect the climate. The rainy place in the state is on the western slope of the mountain. The northwest has a mild climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate, but the temperature difference is greater than that of the coast. In high mountains such as the Sierra Nevada Mountains, winter has a snowy mountain climate, and summer has a relatively comfortable heat.

To the east of the mountainsRain shadeNext to it, it produces a vast desert. The high altitude desert in the east has hot summers and cold winters, while the lowland desert to the east of the southern mountains has hot summers and mild winters with little frost. Spread below sea level, Death Valley is considered the hottest place in North America. In the Western Hemisphere on July 1913, 7Maximum temperature 134° F(57 ° C) was recorded.


California is one of the richest and most diverse regions in the world, with some of the most endangered ecosystems.Biogeographic areaThen.Xinbei DistrictBelongs to manyBiogeographic regionStraddle.

Many in CaliforniaEndemic speciesKagarina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundusIn other places, there are relics that have died out. California Lilac (CeanothusMany species derived from a common ancestor, taking advantage of diverse habitat conditions such asDifferentiationOrAdaptive radiationThere are many endemic species generated by. Many of California's endemic speciesUrbanization,Felling,OvergrazingandExotic speciesIntroduced into the habitat is threatened with extinction.

There are some superlatives of California flora populations. It is the largest tree (sequoia dendron), the highest tree (sequoia) and the oldest tree (bristolcorn pine). Wild grass is a perennial plant[13].. Since the advent of Europeans, these have largely replaced the European annual herb alien species. Today, the hills of California turn golden brown, which is characteristic of summer.


The most prominent rivers in California areSacramento River, Pitt River andSan Working RiverIs. All flow from the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains through the Central Valley,San Francisco BayThroughThe Pacific OceanFlow into. Other important riversKlamath RiverAnd the Trinity River, on the southeastern borderColorado River.Owens RiverRuns off the southeastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada MountainsLake OwensIs flowing into. The Yale and Salinas rivers flow into the coast north and south of the San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the main waterway of the Mojave Desert,Santa Ana RiverRuns from the Transverse Mountains and crosses the southern state.


Population overview

Population transition
1860379,994+ 310.4 %
1870560,247+ 47.4 %
1880864,694+ 54.3 %
18901,213,398+ 40.3 %
19001,485,053+ 22.4 %
19102,377,549+ 60.1 %
19203,426,861+ 44.1 %
19305,677,251+ 65.7 %
19406,907,387+ 21.7 %
195010,586,223+ 53.3 %
196015,717,204+ 48.5 %
197019,953,134+ 27.0 %
198023,667,902+ 18.6 %
199029,760,021+ 25.7 %
200033,871,648+ 13.8 %
201037,253,956+ 10.0 %
202039,538,223+ 6.1 %

2009 Currently, its population is estimated to be 36,961,664, making it the 13th fastest growing state in the country. The number has increased by 2000 from the last 3,090,016 census, and has increased naturally (births 5,058,440, deaths 2,179,958)[14]) And the net increase of migrants to the state of 306,925. Immigration from outside the United States increased by 1,816,633, while immigration to the United States decreased by 1,509,708[14].. In the 2020 census, the population increased to 39,538,223.[15]

California is the most populous state, accounting for 12% of the United States population.It has nine cities in the top 50 cities in the United States in terms of city population.Los Angeles is the second largest city in the United States with a population of 9.Below, San Diego (3,898,747th), San Jose (2th), San Francisco (8th), Fresno (10th), Sacramento (17th), Long Beach (34nd), Auckland (35th), Bakersfield (42th) ) And so on.Los Angeles CountyHas a population of 10,014,009, the largest in the United States county, more than the 40 states in the country (all 2020 census).[1].. StateCenter of gravityHas Button Willow (Census Designated Area)Khan CountyHas become[16][17].

Race composition

Race Composition (California) 2020[1]
イ ン デ ィ ア ン

US Census Bureau recognizes that you and your ancestors are from Spanish-speaking Latin American countriesHispanicAre divided into two categories. Hispanics are not only "Hispanic"WhiteorAsianWhen classified into, it may be simply classified as "other race." for that reasonCensusIt is said that the data is difficult to understand.

The following is a clear classification of "Hispanics", and figures for each group other than Hispanics (whites other than Hispanics and non-Hispanics)Eskimo, Other than HispanicMixedEtc.)For more information on race and census(English edition)See

2020 Census[1]
Latino(Regardless of raceHispanic)39.4%
Non-Hispanic whites36.5%
Asian american15.5%
Two or moreRace4.0%
イ ン デ ィ ア ンand Eskimo1.6%
Hawaiian IslandsandPacific IslandssystemIndigenous people0.5%

It is the largest state in the country with 22,189,514 Caucasians, with 2,250,630 African Americans, fifth in the country. It is estimated that there are 5 million Asian-Americans, and about one-third of the 440 million Asian population in the country live in California. Indian population is 1,310, which is also the highest in the country[18].

The most common origin is Mexican (25%), followed by Asian.United Kingdomsystem,GermanySystem, andIrelandContinue with the system. Especially MexicanChicanoMany of them live in southern California, the Central Valley, Salinas, and the San Francisco Bay area.Anglo-Saxon peopleMany of them are in the eastern, northern margin of the Sierra Nevada, andNorthern coastLive in. Not to mention CaliforniaNorth AmericaThe area with the highest concentration of Asians is near San Francisco.

In the 2020 census, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites was 35%, down about 2010 points from the 5 census, and 39% of Hispanics became the majority for the first time.[19]

イ ン デ ィ ア ン

The state once counts 60イ ン デ ィ ア ンEthnic groups were indigenous. Blessed with a mild climate and abundant fishing and hunting resources, agriculture did not develop.

The 18th-century Spaniards captured and forced Christianization of various ethnic groups, used for farm labor and oversight of other Indians.(English edition)(Evangelical Indian)". Currently, it is an Indian group unique to California.

Centered around 1849gold RushThen, a white man (forty-niner) who came for gold overrun the northern Indian land.YahiSome races were eradicated.

The state is the first Indian-owned junior college with a fully autonomous operation.(English edition)Is also the state in which the school was opened. This school was used by reclaiming the Indian reserve that had been confiscated by the federal government during the Korean War and had been used as a missile radar base. The state is now revoking the university's accreditation and disposing of it, and Indian students continue to protest.

Indian Rights Restoration Movement in the 1960s(English edition)In the United States, there was a protest of occupation by Indians across the United States. Was carried out in the stateAlcatraz Island Occupation CaseWas among the largest.

November 1969, 11,Mohawk OfRichard Oaks, SanteSioux OfJohn Tradel79 Indians of all agesAlcatraz IslandLanded and declared as a treaty right that "Alcatraz Island will be the cultural center of the Indians," and hundreds of Indians gathered from across the United States.Richard NixonThe President entered arbitration, and the "Red Power Movement" shook the world. Occupation lasted until June 1971, 6.

There are many small ethnic groups,Reservation place (Reservation) is mainly a settlement (Rancheria)"It is called. Some people take advantage of the warm climate and run orchards. Although many people specialize in resort tourism, most ethnic groups are in poverty because they have no industry.

Extinct, no ethnic recognitionSan Franciscoof"Aurone・The Mwekuma Band is a traditional cemeteryShell moundThe destroyed shopping center(English edition)Was built. In a tomb-breaking process that broke through ethnic opposition, chief Rosemary Gambler was arrested for sabotaging. The tens of thousands of remains of the Oroneans that have been unearthed have been seized and displayed in the Indian Museum at Berkeley University, and the people are in dispute for their return.

Flowing in the stateKlamath River, There are four dams upstream that block the salmon run-up, and traditional salmon fishing is not possible,(English edition),(English edition)Appeals for the abolition of the dam, and in 2004 and 2005, a businessman owning the dam livesEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euI went to and was enthusiastically greeted there. At this time, they were promised to secure fishways and abolish some dams, but since the owner of the dam moved in 2006, the movement has returned to the beginning. Also,(English edition)Argues that a gold dusting recreational event on the Klamath River is damaging the riverbed and harmful to salmon fishing. In January 2009, the California Fisheries and Hunting Agency rejected this as not a special "emergency". "If we don't think our fishing grounds are in a state of emergency, they're going to switch their heads," said Calc tribe Craig Tucker.

Some of the peoples of the state were displaced from the east and the south in the 19th century, and many are now in dispute, demanding official recognition from the federal government.

Indian Casino

In 1987, the "Mission Indian Cabazon Band" was established by the fate of the peopleBingo ground"Fantasy Springs Resort Casino" is a state government that makes it illegal and(English edition)After winning the lawsuit, he won the legal decision in the Supreme Court. This case allowed the Indians of the United States to compete for the opening of an ethnic casino,Indian CasinoBecame the business model of the nation called "modern buffalo."

In 1988, the federal government enacted the "Indian Wagering Control Act," classifying gambling by Indians into three classes, limited to federally-certified (that is, owning reservations) Indians for the highest level casino operation. The Ministry of Home Affairs has decided to approve this. On the other hand, many bands, who are the same Indian people as the "extinct people" by the federal government, have forfeited the right to reserves and welfare due to the cancellation of the treaty provisions with the federal government, and can not even have a casino. , The opportunity for independence has been deprived.

Currently, it operates 58 casinos and 90 poker fields throughout the state. There are casinos that call themselves "palaces," but many of them have the appearance of a palace, and have become one of the largest resort facilities, including hotels, hot springs, resort facilities, and restaurants.

For casinos and gambling facilities run by Indians in the stateList of Indian Casinos in CaliforniaSee.


Languages ​​spoken at home (California) 2010

2005 Currently, 5% of Californians over the age of 57.59 are at homeEnglishSpeaking, 28.21%SpanishAre talking. Less than,Tagalog2.04%,Chinese1.59%,Vietnamese1.4%, andKoreanFollowed by 1.05%.Overall 42.4% speak non-English[20][21].

Official documents such as election bulletins and tax returns also have Spanish notation, so the federal and stateOfficial terminologyIt is often misunderstood that there is no official language in the United States. On the other hand, about 30 states set the official language of the state, and in California,1986 State law amends that English is the common language and official language[22][23].

On October 2009, 10, Governor Schwarzenegger signed a new state bill to help preserve the Indian tribal language advocated by the California Indians, led by the Chumash Indian Santa Ines Band. The new state law allows the Indians of the state a license and standards for retraining ethnic languages. Once more than 24 ethnic languages ​​existed in the state,Indian boarding schoolBy USEthnic cleansingDepending on policy, more than halfExtinct languageIt has become.


The religions of California residents are:

In California, like many other Western statesNo religionIs higher than other parts of the United States.

Important cities and towns

68% of California's populationLos Angeles metropolitan area,San Francisco Bay AreaAnd live in the three metropolitan areas of Riverside San Bernardino. In addition, although the size is smaller, there is a moderate population in the urban areas of San Diego and Sacramento.

Sacramento became the first city in 1850[24] San Jose, San Diego and Benicia continued on March 3 of the same year[25][26][27].. The city system was enforced on July 2011, 7.Jurupa ValleyIs the newest city.

California recognizes two cities: charter and general law[28]..Cities under general law are recognized by state law and are subject to state jurisdiction.The city of charter is governed by the city's own charter. Most of the cities that established the city administration in the 19th century were charter cities.All 10 populous cities are also charter cities.Below are the 10 most populous cities and 10 counties in the state, respectively.

city ​​limits
sq. miles
per sq mi
1Los Angeles3,898,747469.18,311.1Los Angeles County
2San Diego1,386,932324.34,276.7San Diego County
3San Jose1,013,240174.95,793.3Santa Clara County
4San Francisco873,96546.718,714.5San Francisco County
5Fresno542,107104.45,192.6Fresno County
6Sacramento524,94397.25,400.6Sacramento County
7Long beach466,74250.59,242.4Los Angeles County
8Auckland440,64656.17,854.7Alameda County
9Bakersfield403,455140.52,871.6Khan County
10Anaheim346,82448.97,092.5Orange County
county limits
sq. miles
per sq mi
Largest city
1Los Angeles County10,014,0094,0612,466Los Angeles
2San Diego County3,298,6344,200785San Diego
3Orange County3,186,9897894,037Anaheim
4Riverside county2,418,1857,207336Riverside
5San Bernardino County2,181,65420,052109San Bernardino
6Santa Clara County1,936,2591,2911,500San Jose
7Alameda County1,682,3537382,280Auckland
8Sacramento County1,585,0559661,641Sacramento
9Contra Costa County1,165,9277201,619Concord
10Fresno County1,008,6545,963169Fresno

The population in the above table is based on the national census dated April 2020, 4.[1].

List of important suburbs in the above area, see:en: List of urbanized areas in California (by population).

reference:en: List of cities and towns in California and en: List of cities in California (by population)
reference:List of counties in California

25 rich places in California

The following list is ranked by the average personal income of the residents:

  1. - San Mateo County - $ 152,128
  2. -San Mateo County-$144,197
  3. - Butte County - $ 131,735
  4. -San Mateo County-$127,868
  5. - Los Angeles County - $ 126,620
  6. -San Mateo County-$125,559
  7. - Santa Clara County - $ 123,127
  8. - Ventura County - $ 120,676
  9. Belvedere (California) - Marine County - $ 119,798
  10. -Los Angeles County-$117,241
  11. - Contra Costa County - $ 113,989
  12. - San Diego County - $ 113,132
  13. -Marine County-$109,976
  14. -Santa Clara County-$105,597
  15. - Alameda County - $ 101,794
  16. - San Diego County - $ 99,860
  17. -Marine County-$99,710
  18. - Santa Cruz County - $ 98,473
  19. -Santa Clara County-$98,398
  20. -Marine County-$95,706
  21. -San Mateo County-$95,386
  22. Malibu (California) -Los Angeles County-$95,212
  23. - Mono County - $ 93,233
  24. - Napa County - $ 89,910
  25. -Marine County-$89,751

(English edition)

Law and administration

State government

California isRepublic OfSeparation of powersIs taking. That is, the executive office, which consists of the governor and other administrative officers stipulated in the constitution elected by the election, the legislative office, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, andSupreme CourtIs a judicial office composed of lower courts. Direct billing,Referendum,recallandApproveThere is a mechanism whereby voters can directly participate in politics. Political parties are closedPrimary electionAlternatively, you can choose either a primary election in which only members and independents can vote.

The term of office of the governor and other elected constitutional officials is four years, and re-election is possible only once.The state legislature has a fixed number of 4 in the Senate and 1 in the House of Representatives.The Senate has a four-year term and the House of Representatives has a two-year term.There is an upper limit of 40 terms for members of the House of Representatives and 80 terms for members of the Senate.The current governorDemocratic PartyFromGavin NewthamIs. As of 2021, the Senate has 31 members of the Democratic Party and 9 members of the Republican Party, and the House of Representatives has 59 members of the Democratic Party and 19 members of the Republican Party.

California's legal system is clearly BritishCommon lawIs based on[29] But in Spain like a shared propertyContinental lawSome have been inherited from. The death penalty is legal and currently holds the largest number of "waiting for execution" death row prisoners in the country. The death row prison cell is located north of San Francisco.Marine CountyIt is inSan Quentin State PrisonIt is in. Execution is currently suspended indefinitely due to human rights issues being raised.[30].. The number of prisoners in prisons in the state has grown from 1980 in 25,000 to over 2007 in 17[31].. California's judiciary is the largest state in the United States, with 1,600 judges (the federal judicial office is only about 840). The Supreme Court has seven judges. Judges in the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal, appointed by the Governor, are subject to voter review every 7 years.

California, which has large metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles and San Francisco that are ranked as 10 major cities in the United States,Air pollutionThere are problems such asManufacturerEtc.Industrial wasteSuch as treatment and wastewater regulationsCorporationThe target law,(English edition) Of2009 In shared spaces including more privately owned apartmentssmokingIt was cracked down from an early stage, such as bylaws prohibitingExhaust gasEnvironmental regulations such as regulations are the strictest in the United States.

In the 1970s, it was regarded as one of the most politically-controlled places in the United States, but since it adopted a policy of directly selecting important bills by the referendum, administrative administration has not been successful and it was once the best in the United States. The education level, which was said to be decreasing, is decreasing year by year.


National politics

Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
202034.3% 6,006,42963.5% 11,110,250
201631.62% 4,483,81061.73% 8,753,788
201237.12% 4,839,95860.24% 7,854,285
200836.91% 5,011,78160.94% 8,274,473
200444.36% 5,509,82654.40% 6,745,485
200041.65% 4,567,42953.45% 5,861,203
199638.21% 3,828,38051.10% 5,119,835
199232.61% 3,630,57446.01% 5,121,325
198851.13% 5,054,91747.56% 4,702,233
198457.51% 5,467,00941.27% 3,922,519
198052.69% 4,524,85835.91% 3,083,661
197649.35% 3,882,24447.57% 3,742,284
197255.01% 4,602,09641.54% 3,475,847
196847.82% 3,467,66444.74% 3,244,318
196440.79% 2,879,10859.11% 4,171,877
196050.10% 3,259,72249.55% 3,224,099

California has a unique political culture. It was the second state to accept abortion and the second to allow same-sex marriage (same-sex marriage was a judicial decision and was later withdrawn by a resident-invoked vote, but on June 2, 2, The same Supreme Court is once again legal because the Federal Supreme Court upheld the provincial court's ruling that the referendum "Prop 2013" denying same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.)

In the national elections since the 1990s, Democratic candidates have been generally chosen, but Republican candidates have been chosen as governors. However, many Republican governors, such as Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered more centered than the "moderate Republican," a central political party.

The Republican Party dominates in the northeast, but other areas such as the Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area are the Democratic grounds.

California's political tendencies are stronger for Democrats and weaker for Republicans.This tendency is remarkable in the presidential election.In addition, the Democratic Party has won all US Senate elections since 1992, and is a majority in both Houses of the State Legislature.In the United States House of Representatives, there were 110 Democrats and 34 Republicans during the 19th session.Either party has the upper hand in the constituencies in the state, and few constituencies are in close quarters.According to political commentators, the number of Congressmen and presidential electors should be 55, three more than the current 3.[32].


As of 2007, the state's gross domestic product was about $ 1 trillion, the largest in the country, accounting for 8,120% of the United States' GDP.Compared to other countries in the world, it ranks 13th in GDP and 9th in purchasing power parity theory.However, it had a deficit of $ 12 billion in the 2009-2010 fiscal year.[37].2008 Economic decline in the second halfWorld financial crisisThe state budget was delayed by three months due to the urgent task of responding to the situation, but the deficit was simply carried over to 3. One problem is that a significant portion of state revenue depends on income taxes raised by a small number of wealthy state citizens.For example, in 2009, 1% of taxpayers paid 2004% of the total tax collection.[38].. Since the taxable income depends on capital gains, the decline in the securities market has had a major impact. The provincial governor has proposed significant cuts in spending and tax increases, but the legislation with Congress has made it difficult to pass the bill.

State spending increased from $1998 billion in 560 to $2008 billion in 1,310, resulting in a deficit of $2008 billion in 400[39].. $2010 billion in 720[40] And the deficit may increase further[41].

Comparing the number of employment, there are three major fields: trade / transportation and public works, local government, profession and business management, education and health, and tourism and entertainment.The largest employer is the University of California.In terms of output, finance is the largest, followed by trade / transportation and public works, education and health, local governments, and manufacturing. The unemployment rate in January 3 was 2010%, the fifth highest in the country, significantly higher than 1% in 12.5.[42][43].

California's economy is highly dependent on trade and international commerce, accounting for about a quarter of the state's economy. 4 exports were $1 billion, up from $2008 billion in 1,440 and $2006 billion in 1,270[44]..Among them, computers and electronic products are by far the highest at 2008% of the export value in 42. [44].. Agriculture continues to be a very important part of the California economy. Agricultural sales over the last 30 years have nearly quadrupled from $1974 billion in 73 to $2004 billion in 310[45]..During this period, agricultural land decreased by 15% and agricultural water supply was chronically unstable, but sales increased by this amount.This is due to the intensive use of suitable agricultural land and the increased yield through technological improvements.[45].

2007 California per capita income was $1, making it the eighth largest state in the country[46].. This varies widely by region and occupation. In the Central Valley, for example, migrant farm workers work below the minimum wage, making it one of the poorest regions. In recent years the San Joaquin Valley areaAppalachiaAlongside regions, it has become one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States[47].. On the other hand, among the many coastal cities, there are some of the richest parts of the United States in terms of per capita income. High-tech industry in the north concentratedSilicon Valley,Santa Clara CountyとSan Mateo County TheInternet bubbleHas recovered from the depression.

California has a progressive income tax system that varies in grade 6, with a maximum tax rate of 9.3%.The total income tax will be $ 400 billion a year.The consumption tax rate is 8.25%, which is 10.75% including local consumption tax.[48].. Property tax is levied on the fair market price at the time of purchase and is not increased according to the prevailing market price.

California goes bankrupt in 2009 economic crisis[49].. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said in June that "our wallet was empty, the bank was closed and the credit was lost"[50].. Currently proposing a $240 billion spend cut[50].

Major companies, etc.

Companies headquartered in California include:


The vast area of ​​CaliforniaFreeway,ExpresswayAnd are connected by a highway (public road). It is a car society, and traffic congestion is severe in urban areas. The Provincial Department of Transportation is responsible for the construction and maintenance of state roads and transportation planning for the entire state. The rapid increase in the population is distorting the transportation network, and it remains an issue for the provincial government whether to actively continue to expand the transportation network on freeways or to concentrate on improving mass transportation in urban areas.

One of the most famous landmarks in the state was completed in 1Golden Gate BridgeIs. The orange-colored panoramic view overlooking the bay is popular with tourists and allows pedestrians and bicycles to pass through. It was also designated as US National Highway 1, which is part of State Highway 101, also known as El Camino Real (Spanish "Road of the Kings") and the Pacific Highway. Completed in 7 among seven bridges over the San Francisco Bay AreaSan Francisco Auckland Bay BridgeIs also famous. The two-story bridge has a daily traffic volume of 1 vehicles and is divided into two parts on the island of Yerba Buena.

Transportation to and from the Pacific and mainland USLos Angeles International AirportとSan Francisco International AirportIs a big relay point. There are about 12 other commercial airports in the state and many public and airports.

There are also some important seaports. The huge seaports created by the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in the south are the largest in the country, and the container handling volume is about one-fourth of that in Japan. Auckland Port is the fourth largest in the country and handles trade with the Pacific Rim,Northern CaliforniaEnter the United States fromMarine containerIs sending out most of.

Intercity trainAmtrakOperating in the United StatesNortheast corridorThere are 3 routes with the largest number of trains. These in-state linesAmtrak CaliforniaIt has a unique brand name, and it has a different painting and specification from other Amtrak trains. In addition, Amtrak operates transcontinental and longitudinal trains from the cities on the west coast of the state to the east and north. Los Angeles(Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority) Or San Francisco (San Francisco Municipal Railway) In the metropolitan areasubway,Light RailThere is a network of. The light rails are San Jose, San Diego, Sacramento andSan Diego CountyIt also operates in the north. Furthermore, as a commuter train, the San Francisco Bay AreaAltamont Commuter Express,バ ー ト,Caltrain,Sonoma Marine Area Railroad, Los Angeles metropolitan areaMetro link, In San Diego CountycoasterThere is.California High Speed ​​RailThe bureau was founded in 1996 and plans to connect San Francisco and Los Angeles in two and a half hours.The total length can be 2 miles (700 km). Construction with nearly $ 1127 billion in funding (state bonds) was approved by a referendum in November 100.Bus routes operate in almost all counties, and many cities also have bus services.Bus routes between citiesGreyhoundAnd Amtrak's through-way coach (railway connecting bus) operates. However, with regard to the latter, it is not permitted to sell tickets for the bus section alone due to the provisions of California law, and it is assumed that it will be used for transit with the railway.[51].


PublicSecondary educationHas a high school that offers elective courses in trade, language and liberal arts, for those who are gifted, college oriented and industrial oriented. California's public education system is supported by distinctive constitutional amendments, ranging from kindergarten to grade 12Community collegeHave a minimum budget of. Community college grows with economic development and enrollment is increasing[52].

There were 2005 million students in the 2006-620 school year. California lags behind other states in budget and teacher levels. The cost per student isWashington DCIt is the 51th out of 29 states, including, and the 49th in terms of faculty and staff per student. The student to teacher ratio is also 49th, with 1 students per teacher[53].

Public higher education in California is a distinctive three-tier system of the University of California, California State University, and California Community College Organizations.

University of California Organization

University of CaliforniaMechanism is the mostNobel PrizeIt is one of the leading public university institutions in the world that employs award recipients. It has many research universities. It has the following 13 campuses. Abbreviation is UC.

Also, although not part of the University of California Organization, it is a law schoolUC Hastings Law School Is in San Francisco.

University of CaliforniaUnited States Department of Energy-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,and Los Alamos National LaboratoryIt manages the national research institute.

California State University Organization

California State UniversityThe institution is also considered to be one of the leading educational institutions in the world. With more than 1 students, the California State University Organization is the largest university organization in the United States with the goal of accepting the top third of high school students. Mainly intended for undergraduate education[54].. Includes the following 23 universities and branch schools. Abbreviation is CSU.

California Community College Organization

The California Community College Organization offers a low level of subject learning, with an emphasis on basic skills and vocational training. The largest higher education network in the United States with 110 colleges and over 290 million students[55].

Private universities

The following private universities are famous. There are hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including religious and special purpose schools.

Art and culture




4 major professional sports leagues in North AmericaOf these, 15 teams are based in the state.San Francisco Bay Area3 major cities (San Francisco,San Jose,Auckland) Has a total of 5 teamsLos Angeles metropolitan areaHas eight teams.Besides,San DiegoとSacramentoThere is one team each.

In addition,Major League Soccer(MLS),WNBA(Women's basketball),Major League Rugby(MLR) also has a team based.

NFLSuper bowlHas been held more than 10 times in the state so far, and in 201650th Super Bowl Santa Clara OfLevi's StadiumIt was held in.

University sports are also popular and the oldestBowl gameKnown as the annualRose bowlAnd so on.

The only state in the United StatesSummer olympicとWinter OlympicsHas experience of holding both (1932 Los Angeles Summer Olympics,1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics,1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics).In los Angeles2028 Los Angeles Summer OlympicsHas been decided to be held, and it will be the fourth time in total.

1994 FIFA World Cup America TournamentThen, 8 games including the final matchRose Bowl StadiumSo, 6 gamesStanford StadiumIt was held in.

California's four major North American professional sports league teams
OUR TEAMCompetitionleague
Los Angeles RamsAmerican FootballNFL
Los Angeles ChargersAmerican FootballNFL
San Francisco XNUMXersAmerican FootballNFL
Los Angeles DodgersbaseballMLB
Los Angeles AngelsbaseballMLB
Auckland AthleticsbaseballMLB
San Diego PadresbaseballMLB
San Francisco GiantsbaseballMLB
Golden State WarriorsbasketballNBA
Los Angeles ClippersbasketballNBA
Los Angeles LakersbasketballNBA
Sacramento KingsbasketballNBA
Anaheim DucksIce hockeyNHL
Los Angeles kingsIce hockeyNHL
San Jose SharksIce hockeyNHL
Other professional sports teams
OUR TEAMCompetitionleague
Los Angeles SparksbasketballWNBA
Los Angeles Galaxyサ ッ カ ーMLS
San Jose Earth Quakesサ ッ カ ーMLS
Los Angeles FCサ ッ カ ーMLS
LA GiltinisRugby unionMLR
San Diego LegionRugby unionMLR

Food culture:

イ ン デ ィ ア ンIn addition, since it is composed of immigrants from all over the world, it is possible to easily enjoy food from around the world (or an American-style arrangement) in urban areas. Especially because it was originally a Mexican territory and there were many immigrants from MexicoMexican foodIs very common,Italian food,Chinese cuisine,Vietnamese foodAre being enjoyed on a daily basis.

Today in the beginning of the 21st century, not only in big cities in the United States,sushi,TeriyakiIncludingJapanese cuisineHas become popular andsupermarketButtofu,Soy sauce,noodlesIt is possible to procure ingredients such as1970 eraThere was a sign of that. Since there are many Asian residents and the climate is warm,Radish,Chinese cabbageAsian vegetables such as, medium grain called California rice and JapanAkitakomachiShort grain such asJaponica seedsIs a major production area in North America, and it is an area where fresh Asian ingredients are easily available.California Roll,fortune cookieIn many cases, it is a place where the Western-style arrangements of existing Asian foods are spread throughout the United States.

Mediterranean climateTherefore, as a specialty productOrangeAndoliveそ し て,California wineIs famous.

Relationship with Japan


CaliforniaHawaiiAlong withJapaneseIt is one of the US states that has a close relationship with Old timesJohn Manjiro,Fukuzawa Yukichi,Katsu KaishuTherefore, there are many Japanese who visited this place. Surprisingly,Yumeji TakehisaAlso visited this place.

MeijiLaterJapanese OfImmigrationOne after another,1924 (Taisho13 years)JapaneseForbid immigrantsJapanese Immigration LawIs established. This discriminatory treatment is1941 (16)May 12[Note 2] Japan-US War ・Pacific War(Great East Asian War) It became worse by the outbreak and became an enemy foreignerJapanese American Theland,propertyConfiscated,10 places OfConcentration campWill be housed in[Note 3].. These pre-warImmigrationThe birthplace ofSanyo region(Yamaguchi -Hiroshima-Okayama)andKyusyuMany of them are in the northern part of the region.Sanyo roadIs a region where many travelers come and go, and there is little resistance to migration to other places. "This region has been a water force since the Middle Ages (Western and modern Japanese military,Former Japanese Navy, CurrentJMSDF) Activity is remarkable,IsolationIs solved (OpeningAfter that, it was a departure rush again. There is also a theory that says. For this reason, I used to say, "The standard language of Americans of American descent isHiroshima dialectIs. I was even told.

After the warNikkeiIs a Japanese-American unit that was active during the war (army442nd Regiment Combat Team・100th infantry battalion) and Japanese AmericansMemberThe status and honor are restored by the production of the.1988 Passed the unfair treatment of concentration camps and won financial compensation to survivors. Generally speaking, Nikkei are economically better off than the average, but there is still a social problem of the glass ceiling "invisible ceiling". It is said that it will be above average). With overwhelmingly white American farmers, in California,SacramentoThere is a large proportion of Japanese farmers in the suburbs.

Japanese American society is about the 1st and 2nd generation, and postwar immigrants from the postwar period to the 1980s,バ ブ ルIt can be roughly divided into new immigrants. In the first generation, it seems that the poor, who had a hard time living in Japan, which lacked resources and were poor, were forced to relocate.Economic refugeesIt is hard to assimilate to American society, and it is like other immigrant groups.Little TokyoThere is a tendency to form an ethnic town represented by.Prewar・It is said that there is a strong sense of suspicion for society from the experience of persecution during the war, but the experience in concentration camps wasPaternalismWas destroyed psychologically, and the authority was completely lost by the rise of the second generation leader.

After the second generation, he was interested in Japan as the land of his fathers, but he had no further emotions and his thoughts and actions were American. However, the second generationI's parentsとClothI often experience the identity crisis of tearing myself into these two cultures, and it is often drawn as the theme of. Born in the United States after the second generation, in Japan since childhoodEducationA person who has returned to the United States after receiving the treatment is called "". In this case, their emotions are almost the same as those of the Japanese, but their hardships in the United States were often as difficult as in the second generation.

Postwar immigrantsWar bride), and there are many people who went to the United States for success.Rocky aoki,Show kosugiIs a typical example. The groups are individually dispersed and not formed as one ethnic group. HoweverAgingAs we do, we can see the phenomenon of return to Japan.

New immigrants are Japan's "internationalization" after the bubble economy (=Anglo-AmericanPeople who chose to live in the United States. There are many non-saras, retirees, and international students, but their lives depend largely on their relationship with Japan, and due to the recent recession, more and more people are choosing to return to Japan.

Entry into Japanese companies

1951 (Showa 26)San FranciscoLocated in northern California,Northern California Chamber of Commerce (JCCNC) Was established.2007 (19) Currently, about 300 companies are members.1960 era(Showa 35-44)Los Angeles,San DiegoCentered onSouthern California Japanese Companies Association (JBA) Was established, and the number of member companies as of 2007 (Heisei 19) has reached about 500. Both organizations received state approvalNon profit organizationIs. Similar to Japanese companies and Japanese associations in other states, seminars and fellowship events for members, surveys of actual conditions of Japanese companies,Japanese cultureReferralsserviceWe are engaged in activities.

2000 Survey on Japanese companies in Southern California conducted by JBA in (12)[56]According to the survey, 70% of the companies surveyed are concentrated in Los Angeles County, with Los Angeles (108) and Torrance (94) prominent.Then 20%Orange CountyBased in Irvine and Cypress. Also,Mexican borderThere are also 20 companies in San Diego County near. However, the manufacturing industry is more common in the industrial areas along the Mexican border (Maquidora) in Orange County and San Diego County than in overcrowded Los Angeles. How many Japanese companies are expanding into Southern California1980 eraAlthough it has been decreasing after peaking at (55-64 / 62.4), new establishments are continuing. 24.3% are established as corporate headquarters in the United States and 72.8% are established as branches, which is a starting point for expanding into the United States.XNUMX% of local employers are employed, most of them金融-insuranceWork,Manufacturing industryI am in Temporary employees from JapanReal estateWork andConstruction industryHowever, it is on a downward trend at about 3.1% of the total.Medium to large scale with over 100 employeesCompanyNumber andemploymentThe number is decreasing, and on the contrary, 70% of the total are small companies (in Japan)中小企业), And is increasing employment.80% of the target companies expect sales to increase or profits similar to the previous year.real estate,Wholesale-retailIndustries such as manufacturing, finance and insurance are doing well.

2002 In (14), JCCNC conducted a "Bay Area Japanese company fact-finding survey". Compared to the 2000 (Heisei 12) survey, the number of companies in the Bay Area has decreased, and the average number of employees per company has also decreased significantly to 1.The average number of temporary staff from Japan is four, and there is no change. 49% are local corporations of Japanese companies.4% of the locations are in Santa Clara, San Francisco and San Mateo County. 80%Service industryOr the manufacturing industry.2% of companies have increased their sales over the past two years, 36% have decreased, about 46% have a deficit in operating profit, and about 34% have said their outlook for the next year or two has improved or remained flat. It was.1% of the total is somethingvolunteerThe activities and donations to American organizations totaled $1940 million.

Every year, JCCNC and JBA representatives jointlySacramentoPays a courtesy visit to the State Assembly[57][58].2007 Degree (19)Arnold SchwarzeneggerI had the opportunity to visit the Governor and thanked Japanese companies for their investment (1739 companies of $290 billion) and employment (15 people). State legislatorsmedical insurance,Driver's licenseFrom the personal life level such asMarine containerTaxation, facilityconsumption taxHe called for improvements to corporate-level issues such as environmental legislation and gave advice on attracting state businesses.AsianWe also had a luncheon to make pipes with the members of the Diet.

Japanese language education

Due to the large number of Japanese people and the close relationship with Japan, California has a full-time private overseas education facility.Nishi Yamato AcademyAnd all over the stateMinistry of educationLicensedSupplementary schoolThere are 6 schools. According to the Ministry of Education's announcement in 2002 (Heisei 14), three schools in Los Angeles (common name: Asahi Gakuen), San Francisco supplementary school, San Diego supplementary school (common name: Minato Gakuen) are among the 3 schools worldwide. It is in the top 187 schools. Among them, the Los Angeles and San Francisco supplementary schools, which occupy the top 10st and 1nd place, are both mammoth schools with multiple school buildings and more than 2 enrolled students.

There are two non-approved supplementary schools and JapaneseImmersion,Japanese SubjectIt is inPublic schoolTraining for Japanese language teachers according to the curriculum in the state[59]Is performed, (Second language-Foreign language educationAs)Japanese language educationIs thriving.

sub cultureThere is a positive climate for.


2004 (16), Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger visited Japan to promote industry and tourism. From 2008 (Heisei 22) to 2009 (Heisei 21), the state tourism agency is advertising with a copy of "Anything California"[60].

recentlyFuji TV series"Wannai R & RCharacter of "Matsuura GorieIs a government-recognized goodwill ambassador for the state of California.

Sister cities and partner cities with Japan

Sister municipalities
sister city

(Japanese flag Japan-Prefectures市町村)-(City, etc.)


Celebrities from the same state


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ According to historical materials published in 1601 by the Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas,フ ロ リ ダ,Dry tote gas,Cape CanaveralandAppalachianIs a place name previously named
  2. ^ Japan time : May 12
  3. ^ CampMinistry of ArmyThose managed by WRA below,Ministry of JusticeThere was a camp managed by. When referred to as a Japanese-American concentration camp, it generally refers to the former.


  1. ^ a b c d e QuickFacts. US Census Bureau. 2020
  2. ^ "E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State, 2001? 2009, with 2000 Benchmark.”. Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Finance (May 2009). 2009/12/24Browse.
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  9. ^ Person-Lynn, 2004.
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  15. ^ Bureau, US Census. "2020 Population and Housing State Data" (English). The United States Census Bureau. 2021/8/14Browse.
  16. ^ In terms of coordinates,North Latitude 35 Degrees 27 Minutes 31 Seconds 119 degrees 21 minutes 19 seconds west longitude /35.458606 N, 119.355165 W / 35.458606; -119.355165
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  22. ^ California Constitution article 3 sec. 6 California Law
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  59. ^ The Japan Foundation Business Activities Overseas Japanese Language Education "Japanese Language Education Country Information"
  60. ^ California Tourism Board-Anything California

Related item

外部 リンク

Japanese goverment
Japan Independent Administrative Agency


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