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SuperpowerAs the capital of Japan, it is small and the population is not so large,United States Federal GovernmentRetains a strong political influence internationally as the location ofWorld cityAnd alsoFinancial centerIt is also very important.Its structure was designed to function as a capitalPlanned cityIs[Note 1].
Potomac RiverLocated on the north shore ofVirginiaIn other directionsMarylandIs in contact with. 2010CensusPopulation by 601,723It ranks 24th in the United States, but during working hours, the population exceeds 100 million due to commuters from the suburbs. Mainly in Washington DC, Maryland, Northern Virginia,West VirginiaThe area that combines the two easternmost counties of the city is generally called the "Greater Tokyo Area" or "Metropolitan", but its population is 2 (5,582,170 census).And it is the 7th place in the United States. In addition, Maryland's largest city with a population of 65 (620,961 census) is located about 2010 kilometers northeast.BaltimoreIs located. Combining this Baltimore with the so-called Greater Tokyo AreaWashington, Baltimore, Northern Virginia Metropolitan Area[Note 2]Population is 8,572,971 (2010 census)It is the fourth largest in the United States.
First Amendment to the United States ConstitutionGives federal jurisdiction to serve as a permanent capital, separate from each state.United States of AmericaThree powersorgan(PresidentOfficial residence (""White House”),Congress(Capitol),Federal Supreme Court) Is located and federal agencies gather, as well as monuments and museums in many countries (Smithsonian MuseumEtc.) are also placed.
169 meters high (about 555 feet) in the centerWashington monumentThere is.
Of the cityNational mallThe museums in Thailand are among the best in the world in terms of quality and quantity, and are also a tourism resource.Potomac RiverIt is a cove ofTidal BasinOn the shore ofCherry BlossomsThe trees are one of the best cherry blossoms in the United StatesCherry-blossom viewingIt has become a famous place every yearNational Cherry Blossom FestivalWill be held.
172 countriesEmbassyIn addition toWorld Bank,International Monetary Fund (IMF),Americas Organization (OAS),Inter-American Development Bank, The headquarters of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is also located.Union,lobbyistThere are also headquarters of various organizations such as vocational associations.
CongressHas authority in Washington, DC. Regarding Congress, Washington DC has elected a city representative (representative) who does not have the right to vote in the plenary session in the House of Representatives, but has not been given a seat in the Senate. Assuming Washington DC is a state, compared to other states, in areaRhode IslandThe lowest in the population, the second from the lowest in the population (the lowest isWyoming) However, it ranks first in population density, 1th in gross domestic product, and first in the proportion of blacks, and the majority (non-Hispanic whites) and minorities of the whole country are reversed.
As of 2011, in Washington DCDeath penaltyHas been abolished. America'sthink tank 2017/Announced in comprehensiveWorld cityIn the ranking, it is rated as the 17th largest city in the world, and it is the United States.cityThen.ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Los Angeles,Chicago,San FranciscoSecond place after.
The official legal name is "District of Columbia(District of Columbia, which sticks to Colombia).A territory under the direct control of the United States and the federal government that does not belong to a state.
Washington Special Territory (territory of Columbia) As1790/Was founded in1801/ OfDistrict of Columbia Organic Act (former)It became the District of Columbia with local autonomy.There are cities and counties with autonomy in the special wards, one of which is the capital.Washington Citywas. However1871/ OfDistrict of Columbia Organic Act (new)All the municipalities in the special ward were integrated into the special ward.
From this historical background, the former name "Washington, District of ColumbiaIs often used.However, this is "Washington City, District of ColumbiaIt is a phrase that means ", and is not the official name of the past.And therefore, when translating this into Japanese (in word order)Washington-Colombia Special ZoneThe literal translation isWashington, District of ColumbiaBecomes
For shortWashington DCIn the United States, it is also known as Washington, The District, or simply DC.日本語ではIn JapaneseWashington, capitalorWashingtonOften called.
"DC" is "District of Columbia"(コロンビアAn acronym for (special ward)South America OfコロンビアLike the republicChristopher ColumbusNamed after..In Japanese, Washington DC is simply called "Washington" (to identify it as Washington DC).State of WashingtonIs often referred to as "Washington".
In kanjiWashingtonFor shortHuafuIt is written as.
United States ConstitutionArticle 1, Section 8, Paragraph 17 empowered Congress to establish the capital of the United States.同条によれば、「ある州が譲渡し、連邦議会が受諾することにより、合衆国政府の所在地としての地区（ただし10マイル四方を超えてはならない）」が認められたAccording to the article, "a district as the location of the United States Government (but not more than XNUMX miles square), transferred by a state and accepted by Congress," was granted..James MadisonIt is,1788/May 1of"The FederalistIn Volume 43, he explained the need for federal jurisdiction, saying that the US capital should be separate from each state for its sustainability and security..1783/IsPhiladelphiaThe attack on Congress by soldiers in the riots also emphasized the need for the US government to be safe..
The Constitution did not specify the location of the new capital, but Madison,Thomas Jeffersonas well as the Alexander Hamilton3 people1790/, The capitalSouthernAn agreement was reached that the United States would take over state-issued wartime debt, provided that it was placed in (later known as the 1790 Agreement).[Note 3].
August 1790, 7,Capital Location LawWill create a new permanent capitalPotomac RiverIt will be placed on the riverside, detailsGeorge WashingtonWill be elected by the president..The original shape is a diamond shape with a side of 10 miles (16 km) and 100 square miles (260), as permitted by the United States Constitution. km2) Met.新首都建設のためFor the construction of a new capitalMarylandとVirginiaPart of the territoryCedingHowever, a new "federal city" will eventually be built on the north bank of the Potomac River.もっとも、同じ100平方マイルの地区内にはすでに2つの独立した自治体（1749年に設立されたアレクサンドリア市However, within the same XNUMX square mile district, there are already two independent municipalities (the city of Alexandria, founded in XNUMX).Was founded in 1751GeorgetownCity)was there. 1791年9月9日、この連邦の市はジョージ・ワシントンに敬意を表してワシントン市と命名され、この100平方マイルの地区全体はコロンビア区 (Territory of Columbia) と名付けられたOn September XNUMX, XNUMX, the federal city was named Washington City in honor of George Washington, and the entire XNUMX-square-mile district was named the Territory of Columbia.[Note 4](Colombia was the word used at the time as a poetic name for the United States).連邦議会は、1800年11月17日、ワシントンで最初の議会を開催したCongress held its first Congress in Washington on November XNUMX, XNUMX..
1801/Washington District Basic Law (The Organic Act) Formally organized the District of Columbia, putting the entire federal jurisdiction, including the cities of Alexandria, Georgetown, and Washington, under the exclusive control of Congress...In addition, the areas within the special wards that were not incorporated into the municipality were organized into two counties.That is, Washington County on the north bank of the Potomac River and Alexandria County on the south bank.同法制定後は、特別区内の市民はメリーランド州やバージニア州の住民ではなくなり、議会の代表権もなくなることとなったAfter the enactment of the law, citizens of the special wards were no longer residents of Maryland or Virginia, and had no parliamentary representation..
US-UK warin,1814/May 8From 25th to XNUMXth, British troops in York by US troops (nowToronto) Burned the capital in retaliation for the burned down (Washington burning).Capitol,Ministry of Finance,White HouseWas burned and destroyed in this attack..ほとんどの政府の建物は速やかに修復されたが、議事堂は大規模な建設工事が行われ、1868年になって初めて完成を見たMost government buildings were quickly restored, but the Capitol underwent extensive construction work and was only completed in XNUMX..
In the 1830s, the county of Alexandria, south of the special ward, was economically depressed due to fierce competition with Georgetown Port, which is located more inland and faces the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal...当時、アレクサンドリアはAt that time, AlexandriaSlave tradeIt was a major market in Japan, but there were rumors that abolitionists were trying to end slavery in the capital...A referendum was held and passed in 1846 on the return of Alexandria to Virginia, with the aim of avoiding the loss of the wealth-bearing slave trade.On July 7, the same year, Congress announced that the area of the special ward south of the Potomac River (about 9 km).2) Agreed to return to Virginia..The land now belongs to Arlington County and is part of the city of Alexandria.As a result, Washington DC is now in the shape of a square with its apex facing north, excluding the section divided by the river in the southwest.Four years later,1850 AgreementBanned the slave trade (not slavery itself) in the special wards.
Washington, 1861Civil WarIt was a small town until the outbreak.The Civil War has greatly expanded the US government, which has significantly increased the population of the town.解放奴隷の大量の流入もこれに寄与したA large influx of freedmen also contributed to this... 1870年までに、特別区の人口は、13万2000人近くにまで増えたBy XNUMX, the population of the special wards had grown to nearly XNUMX...しかし町の成長にもかかわらず、ワシントンの道路は未舗装であり、基本的な衛生設備もないなど、条件が非常に悪かったため、首都を別の場所に移転することを提案する連邦議会の議員もいたHowever, despite the city's growth, the roads in Washington were unpaved and the conditions were so bad that they lacked basic sanitation, so Congressmen proposed to move the capital to another location. There was.
1871 Washington District Basic Law (District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871), Congress created a new government for the entire special ward, consolidating Washington, Georgetown, and Washington County into a single municipality...This formed what is now Washington, DC, which is why the town is known by both the names "Washington" and "Special Zone of Columbia."同じ法律の中で、連邦議会は公共事業委員会を設立し、町の近代化に当たらせたUnder the same law, Congress established a Public Works Commission to modernize the town... 1873,Ulysses GrantThe president has appointed Alexander Shepherd, the most influential member of the committee, to the newly established governorship.That year, Shepherd spent $ 2000 million on public works ($ 2007 million in 3)., Washington was modernized, but at the same time it also led to financial collapse. 1874年、連邦議会はシェパードの知事職を廃止して直接統治を選んだIn XNUMX, Congress abolished Shepherd's governorship and chose direct rule...Further town renovation work was carried out in 1901 by the McMillan Plan (McMillan Plan) Had to wait.
The population of the special wards was relatively stable for some time, but in the 1930sWorld DepressionThen.Franklin RooseveltPresidentialNew Deal PolicyLegislation has increased the number of Washington bureaucrats.第二次世界大戦で政府の活動は更に増大し、首都における政府職員の数も増加したGovernment activity increased further in World War II, and the number of government officials in the capital also increased... 1950年までに、特別区の人口は80万2178人というピークに達したBy XNUMX, the population of the special wards had peaked at XNUMX..
1961 years,23th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionFor the first time in Washington, DC citizensVoting rightWas given.A fixed number of three electors was secured for the least populated state for the entire District of Columbia.
Civil Rights Movement LeaderRev. KingWas assassinated on April 1968, 4, and then riots broke out in special wards (mainly U Street, 4th Street, and 14th Street in the northwestern district).暴動は7日間続き、3万1人以上の連邦軍とThe riot lasted three days with more than 3000 federal troopsDistrict of Columbia Army National GuardFinally succeeded in suppressing it.多くの店やその他の建物が焼かれ、多くが1990年代後半に再建されるまで荒廃したままであったMany shops and other buildings were burned and many remained devastated until they were rebuilt in the late XNUMXs..
In 1973, Congress passed the District of Columbia Local Autonomy Act (Home Rule Act) Was enacted, and the special ward was elected.MayorとParliamentDecided to introduce.1974/, The mayor's election was held,1975/Was the chairman of the administrative committeeDemocratic PartyWalter Washington (Walter Washington) Became the first publicly elected mayor of the special ward and the first black mayor of the special ward.
1979, Marion Barry (Marion barry) Was elected mayor and served a four-year term for three consecutive terms.しかし麻薬の使用が噂され、4期目の任期半ばの3年にはHowever, the use of narcotics was rumored, and in 3, in the middle of his third term,FBIBy sting operationCrack cocaineThe current criminal was arrested for possession use, and at trialimprisonmentHe was sentenced to six months in prison.この不祥事でバリーは次の選挙には出馬しなかったBarry didn't run for the next election because of this scandal.
Sharon Pratt Kelly, who became the next mayor in 1991 (Sharon Pratt Kelly) Is the first black woman to become mayor of a big city in the United States... 1994年、ケリーの任期が満了すると、バリーが市長に返り咲いたIn XNUMX, when Kelly's term expired, Barry returned to the mayor... Anthony Williams, a lawyer graduated from Yale University in 1998Anthony Williams) Was elected mayor and served for two terms, from January 2 to January 2007 Adrian Fenty (Adrian Fenty) Is the mayor.. In January 2011, Vincent C. Gray became the sixth mayor of the Washington, DC government and continues to this day.
By 1995, the city was becoming insolvent due to insolvency..これを受けて、連邦議会はコロンビア特別区財政管理委員会を設立し、市のすべての支出を監督させることとしたIn response, Congress has set up the District of Columbia Financial Management Committee to oversee all of the city's spending...特別区は、2001年9月に財政管理権限を回復し、同委員会の活動は中止されたThe special ward regained financial control in September XNUMX, and the committee's activities were suspended..
2001/May 9, TerroristsAmerican Airlines Flight 77Hijacked in the suburbs of Washington, DCVirginiaArlingtonIt is inDepartment of Defense(Pentagon) Was rushed into the aircraft.United Airlines Flight 93Was also targeting either the White House or the Capitol, but the aircraftPennsylvaniaCrashed near Shanksville..ペンタゴンへの攻撃が行われた場所には、2008年9月11日、ペンタゴン記念館がオープンしたThe Pentagon Memorial was opened on September XNUMX, XNUMX, where the attack on the Pentagon took place..
Washington DC has a total of 68.3 square miles (177 km)2), Of which 61.4 square miles (159 km)2) Is land, 6.9 square miles (18 km)2, 10.16%) is the water surface..The special ward is initially 100 square miles (260 km)2), But it is this area because a part of the south was returned to Virginia in 1846.現在の市域は、メリーランド州からCurrent city limits are from MarylandCedingConsists of only the area..As a result, Washington DC is surrounded by Maryland in the southeast, northeast, and northwest, and Virginia in the southwest.There are three large natural rivers in the special ward.Potomac River,,.アナコスティア川とロック・クリークはポトマック川の支流であるThe Anacostia and Rock Creek are tributaries of the Potomac River..北西部のポトマック川河畔にはOn the banks of the Potomac River in the northwestDumbarton OaksIs located.
The United States Capital Establishment Act empowers President Washington to choose the exact location of the new capital, extending east to the mouth of the Anacostia River.However, President Washington moved the boundaries of this federal territory to the southeast to include the city of Alexandria at the southern end of the ward. 1791年、連邦議会はワシントン大統領の選んだ区域を認めるため、合衆国首都設置法を修正し、これによりバージニアから割譲された領域も含まれることとなったIn XNUMX, Congress amended the United States Capital Establishment Act to recognize the area chosen by President Washington, which included territories ceded from Virginia...This place had many advantages.The Potomac River was navigable to the special wards and was accessible by boat.また、アレクサンドリアとAlso with AlexandriaGeorgetownThe existing port provided an important economic foundation for the city.In addition, inland special wardsNorthwest TerritoryWas close to.. 1791年から1792年にかけて、アンドリュー・エリコットとWith Andrew Ellicott from XNUMX to XNUMXBenjamin BannekerInvestigated the boundaries of the special wards and set boundary stones every mile.その多くが今も残っているMany of them still remain.
Unlike what is commonly reported, Washington DC was not built by reclaiming a swamp...確かに二つの川とその他の小川に沿って湿地が広がっていたものの、特別区の領域のほとんどは農地と樹木に覆われた丘から成っていたMost of the area of the special ward consisted of farmland and tree-covered hills, although the wetlands certainly stretched along two rivers and other streams...特別区内で、自然の状態で最も高い地点は、海抜125メートルのテンリータウンであるThe highest point in nature in the special ward is Tenry Town, XNUMX meters above sea level...The lowest point is the Potomac River, which is the same as the sea level.ワシントンDCの地理的な中心点は、北西地区の4番ストリートとLストリートの交差点付近に位置するThe geographical center of Washington, DC is located near the intersection of XNUMXth and L Streets in the northwestern district..
United States National Park ServiceRock Creek Park, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Natural History Park,National mallManages most of Washington, DC's natural habitats, including Theodore Roosevelt Island and Anacostia Park..国立公園局による管理外の重要な自然生育地としては、農務省の管轄である国立森林公園があるのみであるThe only important natural habitat outside the control of the National Park Service is the National Forest Park, which is under the jurisdiction of the USDA...Great Falls (northwest of Washington, DC) upstream of the Potomac RiverGreat Falls). 19世紀には、輸送船の交通がこの滝を迂回できるようにするため、ジョージタウンに端を発するチェサピーク・オハイオ運河が用いられたIn the XNUMXth century, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which originated in Georgetown, was used to allow transport vessels to bypass the waterfall..
1965 years,Lindon johnsonThe president called the Potomac River "national shame" and used it as a source of appeal for the need for the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966...現在では、この川は活気のある暖水漁業の場となっており、自然に繁殖したToday, the river is a vibrant hot-water fishery site and breeds naturally.Bald eagleAlso returned to the riverbank..高度に都市化した景観にもかかわらず、ワシントンDCは、都市における野生生物の管理、外来種の管理、都市流水の回復、都市流水における水エコロジーなどの研究の中心地となっているDespite its highly urbanized landscape, Washington DC remains a research hub for urban wildlife management, alien species management, urban water recovery, and water ecology in urban water...国立公園局の都市エコロジーセンターは、この地域における専門的知見と応用科学を提供する場となっているThe National Park Service's Urban Ecology Center is a venue for providing expertise and applied science in the region..
The climate of Washington DCKöppen climate classificationAccording toWarm and humid climate (Cfa), a climate typical of the Mid-Atlantic states of the United States that is far from the waters.四季がはっきり分かれており、春と秋は温暖で湿度も低いのに対し、冬は低温が続き、1年に平均 420mm も降雪量があるThe four seasons are clearly separated, with warm and low humidity in spring and autumn, while low temperatures continue in winter, with an average of XNUMX mm of snowfall per year...The lowest winter temperature is 12 ° C below zero (2) from mid-December to mid-February.° F) Often.Rarely, heavy snowstorms hit Washington, DC every few years, with minimum temperatures below -2 ° C.The most intense stormNor'easterCalled, this usually affects the entire east coast of the United States..Summers tend to be hot and humid, with daytime highs in July and August averaging around 7 ° C (8).° FStand)..Due to the combination of high temperature and humidity in summer, heavy thunderstorms occur very frequently, and in some cases tornadoes may occur in this area.
Hurricane(Tropical cyclone) Or thatTemperate lowOccasionally, ghosts pass through the area from late summer to early autumn.Hurricanes are often weakened by the time they come here, partly because Washington DC is located inland.しかし、満潮・However, high tideclimaxThe Potomac River flooding caused by the combination of rainwater is known to cause extensive property damage to Georgetown and near Alexandria, Virginia..
Recorded highest temperatures ever recorded were 1930 ° C (7) on July 20, 1918 and August 8, 6.° F).The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1899 ° C (-2) below zero on February 11, 26.1.° F), Which is from the time of the Great Blizzard in 1899. 32 ° C (90)° F) Is on average 36.7 days, and sub-zero nights are on average 64.4 days..
Washington DC climate
|Highest temperature record ° C (° F）||26|
|Average maximum temperature ° C (° F）||6.4|
|Average minimum temperature ° C (° F）||−1.8|
|Minimum temperature record ° C (° F）||−26|
|Precipitation amount mm (inch)||71|
|Snowfall cm (inch)||14.5|
|Average days of precipitation (≥0.01 in)||9.6||9.0||10.5||10.4||11.1||10.7||10.3||8.2||8.3||7.7||8.6||9.7||114.1|
|Average number of snowfall days (≥0.1 in)||3.1||2.5||.9||.1||0||0||0||0||0||0||.2||1.5||8.3|
|Average monthlyDaylight hours||145.7||152.6||204.6||228.0||260.4||282.0||279.0||263.5||225.0||204.6||150.0||133.3||2,528.7|
|Source 1: NOAA (1981-2010 normals at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport)|
|Source 2: The Weather Channel (extremes), HKO (sun only, 1961-1990)|
Washington DC is a planned city.Washington City DesignPierre Charles LanfanIt is largely due to the labor of.ランファンはフランス生まれの建築家・技師・都市設計家であり、当初、軍の技師としてLanfan was a French-born architect, engineer, and urban designer, initially as a military engineer.LafayetteCame to the American colony with. 1791年、ランファンはIn XNUMX, LanfanBaroqueA basic plan was created based on the form.これは、環状交差路から放射状に広い街路が伸びているものであり、開かれた空間と景観作りを最大限に重視したものであったThis was a wide street extending radially from the ring road, with the utmost emphasis on open space and landscape creation.[Note 5]..However, in the early 20th century, Lanfan's urban planning vision of open parks and magnificent national monuments was undermined by slums and overdeveloped buildings.その中にはナショナル・モールの中の鉄道の駅もあったAmong them was the railway station inside the National Mall.. In 1900, Congress set up a bicameral council led by Senator James MacMillan to beautify the ritual center of Washington, DC.Known as the McMillan Project, the project was completed in 1901, including the renovation of the Capitol site and the National Mall, the construction of new federal buildings and memorials, the cleanup of slums, and the crossing of the city. It included the construction of a new park system.The architects appointed by the committee did not modify the city's original design.建築家たちのなすべきことは、ランファンの意図したデザインの壮大な仕上げをすることであると考えられたIt was thought that what the architects had to do was to give a magnificent finish to Lanfan's intended design..
After the construction of the 1899-story Cairo Apartment Building in 12, the Capitol passed the Heights of Buildings Act, building a building taller than the Capitol. Declared not to.この法律は1910年に改正され、建物の高さが、面する道路の幅員に20フィート (6.1m) を加えた長さを超えないよう規制されたThe law was amended in XNUMX to regulate the height of buildings not to exceed the width of the road facing them plus XNUMX feet (XNUMX m)...今日、ワシントンDCの建物群のシルエットは低く広がっており、トーマス・ジェファーソンの、ワシントンDCを「低層で便利な」建物と「明るく風通しのよい」街路を備えた「アメリカのパリ」にしたいという願いに忠実であるToday, the silhouettes of Washington, DC's buildings are low and widespread, and Thomas Jefferson's desire to make Washington, DC "America's Paris" with "low-rise, convenient" buildings and "bright and airy" streets. Faithful to.. as a result,Washington monumentRemains the tallest building in Washington, DC..しかしながら、ワシントンDCの高さ制限は、同市で廉価な住宅が限られていることやHowever, the height restrictions in Washington DC include the limited number of cheap homes in the city.Sprawl phenomenonHas been criticized as the number one cause of traffic problems..ワシントンDCの高さ制限を逃れるため、ダウンタウンの近くとしては、ポトマック川の対岸にあるバージニア州ロズリンに高層の建物が建てられることが多いSkyscrapers are often built in Rosslyn, Virginia, on the opposite bank of the Potomac River, near downtown to escape the height restrictions of Washington, DC..
Washington DC is unevenly divided into four quadrants.The northwest area (Northwest), the northeast area (Northeast), the southeast area (Southeast), and the southwest area (Southwest).各地区の境界を画す軸は連邦議会議事堂から放射状に伸びているThe axes that demarcate each district extend radially from the Capitol...All street names have an abbreviation for the district name (such as NW) to identify its location.市内のほとんどの地域で、街路は碁盤目状に整備されており、東西方向の通りにはアルファベットで（例えばC Street SW）、南北方向の通りには数字で（例えば4th Street NW）名前が付けられているIn most parts of the city, the streets are arranged in a grid pattern, with alphabets on the east-west streets (eg C Street SW) and numbers on the north-south streets (eg XNUMXth Street NW). Attached..The streets that radiate from the ring road are mainly named after each state, and all 50 states are included in the name.Some of the streets of Washington, DC are particularly noteworthy.Pennsylvania Boulevard Connects the White House and the Capitol, and K Street is home to many pressure group offices...ワシントンDCには172か国の外国の大使館XNUMX foreign embassies in Washington DCOf these, 57 embassies are located in the Massachusetts Avenue district and are not officially known as Embassy Row..
Washington, DC's architecture is rich in variety.アメリカ建築家協会が選ぶ2007年の「アメリカ建築傑作選」では、10位までにランクされた建物のうち6つがワシントンDCにあるSix of the top XNUMX buildings in the XNUMX American Institute of Architects' Masterpieces of Architecture are in Washington, DC..That is, the White House, Washington National Cathedral,Thomas Jefferson Memorial, Capitol,Lincoln Memorial,Vietnam Veterans MemorialIs.All six of these architectures reflect neoclassical, George dynasty, Gothic and modern architectural styles, as do other major buildings in Washington, DC.特筆すべき例外としては、第二帝政様式によるA notable exception is the Second Empire style.Eisenhower Government Building(Old government building)Library of Congressand so on.
Architectural styles become even more diverse as you move away from downtown Washington, DC. In "Old City" (the area designed by Lanfan), the historic buildings are mainly Queen Anne, Chateau Esk, Richardson Romanesque, Neo-Georgian style,Beaux-ArtsAlso designed in various Victorian styles.オールド・シティーでは19世紀からのロウハウス（長屋）が特に目立っており、連邦様式や後期ビクトリア朝様式に従うものが多いXNUMXth-century low houses are particularly prominent in Old City, often following Federal and late Victorian styles...Georgetown was built before the city of Washington, so the area boasts the oldest building in Washington, DC.ジョージタウンのオールド・ストーン・ハウスは1765年に建てられ、市内で最古の遺構となっているGeorgetown's Old Stone House was built in XNUMX and is the oldest remains in the city...However, most of today's homes in the area were first built in the 1870s, reflecting the late Victorian style of the time. 1789年に創立されたFounded in XNUMXGeorgetown UniversityIs even more distinct from the surrounding buildings, with Romanesque styleGothic Revival architectureIs characterized by a fusion of architecture.
According to the 2010 census, Washington, DC has a resident population of 601,723, which has been on the rise since the 2000 census of 572,059.これは50年来の減少傾向からの反転であるThis is a reversal from the downward trend for XNUMX years...他方、労働時間帯には、近郊からの通勤により、ワシントンDCの人口は推計で71.8%膨らみ、日中人口は100万人を超えるとされているOn the other hand, during working hours, commuting from the suburbs is estimated to increase the population of Washington DC by XNUMX% and the daytime population to exceed XNUMX million...周辺のメリーランド州やバージニア州の一部を含むワシントン首都圏は、2010年の国勢調査で約558万人の居住者を抱えるThe Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes parts of the surrounding Maryland and Virginia, has approximately XNUMX million inhabitants during the XNUMX census..BaltimoreThe Washington, Baltimore, and Northern Virginia metropolitan areas, including and its suburbs, have a resident population of over 2010 million according to the 850 census..
Below is a table and graph showing the population trends in Washington DC from 1800 to 2010..
|statistics||population||Rate of change|
The proportion of the population in 2010 was 50.7%African American(Black), 38.5%Caucasian(White), 9.1%Hispanic(Various races), 4.4% other (various races)イ ン デ ィ ア ン, Alaskan Natives,Native Hawaiian, South Sea Islands indigenous people, etc.), 3.5% are Asian, 2.9% are mixed race..Blacks make up the largest number in Washington, DC, but their population is consistently declining due to the large number of people leaving the suburbs.同時に、ワシントンDCで昔から黒人の居住地域だった多くの場所が高級住宅化していることもあり、白人の人口は一貫して増加傾向にあるAt the same time, the white population is consistently on the rise, with many of the traditional black settlements in Washington, DC becoming more upscale...このことは、2000年と比べて、アフリカ系アメリカ人の人口が6.2%減少し、反対にコーカサス系は13.8%増加していることに表れているThis is reflected in the XNUMX% decrease in the African-American population and the XNUMX% increase in the Caucasian population compared to XNUMX...The main domicile of immigrants isEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,エチオピアAnd so on, El Salvadorans are gathering near Mount Pleasant.
An estimated 2000 adults in Washington, DC, were identified by the 3 census.ゲ イ,LesbianorBisexualIt became clear that he thought it was.これは市の成人人口の8.1%に当たるThis is XNUMX% of the city's adult population.. in this wayLGBTHas a fairly large population and a liberal political climate, but due to opposition in Congress,Same-sex marriageIs not allowed by Washington DC law..But the Domestic Partnership Act (Domestic partnership law) Allows same-sex couples in other jurisdictionsCivil UnionCan receive legal treatment similar to.
A 2007 report shows that one-third of Washington, DC residentsFunctional illiteracy(Insufficient reading and writing ability in work and daily life) (the ratio in Japan is one-fifth).英語に習熟していない移民もその一つの原因であると考えられているImmigrants who are not proficient in English are also believed to be one of the causes... A 2005 study found that 5% of residents over the age of 85.16 in Washington, DC use only English at home and 8.78% use Spanish.フランス語がそれに次いで1.35%であるFrench is followed by XNUMX%..機能的文盲率の高さとは対照的に、ワシントンDCの居住者のうち45%が少なくとも4年制大学の学位を持っており、国内で4番目に高い割合であるIn contrast to the high functional illiteracy rate, XNUMX% of Washington, DC residents have at least a four-year college degree, the fourth highest in the country..
Also, according to 2000 data, more than half of the residents are themselves.キ リ ス ト 教徒I think it is. 28%がXNUMX%Catholic, 6.8%Southern Baptist Federation, 1.3%Orthodox church(Greek Orthodox) orEastern churches, 21.8% otherProtestantIt is a denomination.MuslimIs 10.6% of the population,JewishIs 4.5% and 26.8% is non-religious.
Indigenous to this landイ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribeDelaware,Powhatan,Shawnee,Such.All of this was slaughtered by the US government and forced to relocate to other states in the 19th century.All remaining Indian tribes here are considered "extinct tribes" andReservation place (Reservation) has been confiscated and is not supposed to exist on a tribal basis.
The National Congress of American Indians, formed in Washington, DC in 1944 (National Congress of American Indians) ”IsIndian boarding schoolIt is the first full-scale lobbying organization by Indians across the United States who received white assimilation education in.They were called "loud red guard dogs", but the activity itself was conservative, and unlike AIM and others, they were criticized by the younger generation as "whiter".
In 2004, the purpose of this place was to exhibit the culture of Indian tribes throughout the United States.National Museum of the American IndianWas opened.
≪Indian tribe requested to be certified by the US federal government≫
- "Cherokee・ ・ Turtle Island Nation "
- * "Kame no Shima" is the name used by Indians to refer to the North American continent.
Currently run by an Indian tribe in Washington, DCIndian CasinoThere is no house.There are no Indian tribes in the area, and there is little hope that they will be established in the future.
When the wave of violent crime struck in the early 1990s, Washington DC was known as the "murder capital" of the United States, and in terms of the number of murders, LouisianaNew OrleansOften lined up.. The number of murders (planned murders) was 1991 in 482, but the severity of crimes has eased significantly throughout the 1990s. By 2006, the number of murders in the city had dropped to 169... Various property offenders such as theft and robbery also decreased at a similar rate...In 2012, the number of homicides decreased to 88, the lowest since 1961...And in 2019, there were 2012 cases, which was about 1.9 times that of 166...In terms of population ratio, 2019 is 23.5 cases (national average: 5.0 cases), which is higher than the national average, and is the worst 1 by state..
In addition, about 8% of murder victims are black men, and about 8% of weapons use firearms.
Like many big cities, crime rates are high in areas associated with illicit drugs and gangsters. Northwestern Washington, DC (in a luxury residential area) in a wealthier areaGeorgetownThe crime rate is low, but increases toward the east. Like Columbia Heights and Logan Circle, although violent crimes were once rampant,GentrificationMany areas are regaining safety and vitality under the influence of (luxury housing). As a result, crime in Washington, DC is being driven further east beyond the border with Prince George County, Maryland..
Especially dangerous is the southeastern part of the city (Anacostia). About one-third of the murders in Washington, DC occur within this Anacostia district..1950 eraUntil then, it was a white middle-class residential area,Interstate highwayDue to the development of the population, the population has flowed out to the suburbs, the population has changed significantly, and security has deteriorated significantly. Currently, the black population in the area reaches 92%. The northeastern part of the city is also an insecure area (see the figure on the right). Crossing the city border,MarylandThere is also an unsafe area on the side.
August 2008, 6,Federal Supreme CourtIn the Washington DC vs. Heller case, Washington DC banned the possession of pistols in 1976.2th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionJudgment that it violates the right to possess a gun stipulated in..However, this ruling does not uniformly prohibit any form of gun control.銃器の登録制を定める法律は依然有効で、ワシントンDCによる殺傷能力の高い攻撃用武器の禁止も有効であるThe law governing the registration of firearms remains in force, and the Washington, DC ban on highly lethal assault weapons is also in effect..
In Washington, DC, the economy is growing diversified, with an increasing proportion of professional and white-collar services...ワシントンDCの2007年における州民総生産は938億ドルで、これは50州と比較すると35位に位置付けられるWashington, DC's gross domestic product in XNUMX was $ XNUMX billion, ranking XNUMXth compared to XNUMX states... 2008年3月の時点で、連邦政府がワシントンDCにおける雇用の27%を占めているAs of March XNUMX, the federal government accounted for XNUMX% of employment in Washington, DC...For this reason, Washington DC is believed to be unaffected by the national economic stagnation.連邦政府の活動は景気後退期においても継続するからであるThis is because the activities of the federal government will continue even during the recession...もっとも、2007年1月時点で、ワシントン地域の連邦職員は、全米の連邦職員数の14%を占めるに過ぎないHowever, as of January XNUMX, federal staff in the Washington region accounted for only XNUMX% of all federal staff in the United States...Law firms, independent contractors (independent contractors, both military and non-military),Non profit organization, Lobby groups, national trade unions, and professional associations are headquartered in or near Washington, DC, seeking a location close to the federal government... As of May 2008, the unemployment rate in the Washington Metropolitan Area was 5%, the lowest of the 3.5 metropolitan areas in the country.これは、同時期の全国平均失業率の40%と比べても低いThis is low compared to the national average unemployment rate of 5.2% during the same period..
Government-related industries, especially education, finance, and scientific research, are growing in Washington, DC.As for non-governmental matters,George Washington University,Georgetown University, Washington Hospital Center,Howard University,Federal Housing Mortgage CorporationIs the top 5 employers in the city..Fortune 1000 companies based in Washington (FortuneThere are five companies (the top 1000 companies selected by the magazine), two of which are also in the Fortune 5...ワシントンDCは、国際不動産投資においてはWashington DC is involved in international real estate investmentUK,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,ParisHas gained an advanced position next to.. 2006年、「エクスパンション・マガジン」誌は、DCを国内で最もビジネスの拡大に適した10の地域の一つに挙げたIn XNUMX, Expansion Magazine named DC one of the XNUMX best regions to expand its business in the country...Washington, New York, when it comes to commercial office area,ChicagoHas the third largest commercial area in the United States after.
Gentrification efforts are paying off in Washington, DC, especially near Logan Circle, Shaw, Columbia Heights, U Street, and 14th Street...In some areas, development progressed with the construction of the subway (metro) green line in the late 1990s.地下鉄網によって、これらの地域は商業地域と結ばれたThe subway network connected these areas to commercial areas.. 2008年3月にコロンビアハイツにできた新しいショッピングモールは、ワシントンDCで40年ぶりの新しい大規模ショッピングセンターとなったThe new shopping center in Columbia Heights in March XNUMX became the first large-scale shopping center in XNUMX years in Washington, DC...多くの都市と同様、ジェントリフィケーションはワシントンDCの経済を活性化させているが、その利益が均等に配分されているとはいえず、貧困層にとっては直接の救いになっていないLike many cities, gentrification is revitalizing Washington, DC's economy, but its benefits are not evenly distributed and are not a direct relief for the poor...For example, the unemployment rate in Washington, DC varies widely within the city. 2008年5月において、北西地区北部の裕福な第3地区では失業率が1.7%だったのに対し、南東地区の貧しい第8地区では17.2%であったIn May XNUMX, the unemployment rate was XNUMX% in the wealthy third district in the northwest, compared to XNUMX% in the poor eighth district in the southeast... 2005年において、アメリカの50州と比較すると、ワシントンDCは1人当たり収入が高いものの、貧困率もまた高く、全住民における経済的格差を際立たせているCompared to the XNUMX states in the United States in XNUMX, Washington DC has higher per capita income, but also higher poverty rates, highlighting economic disparities among all populations..
Historic sites / museums
National mallIs a vast, open area in the heart of Washington, DC.In the center of the mall is the Washington Monument.Also, in the mall,Reflecting poolWith the Lincoln Memorial at the western and eastern ends ofWorld War II MemorialBesides,Korean War Veterans Memorial, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Albert Einstein Memorial.National ArchivesContains thousands of documents that are important to American history.Declaration of American Independence,United States Constitution,Bill of RightsThe original is also included.
Just south of the mall, the Tidal Basin (a pond adjacent to the Potomac River) is lined with cherry blossom trees.この桜はThis cherry blossomJapanIt was a gift from.Around Tidal Basin,Franklin Roosevelt Memorial Park, Thomas Jefferson Memorial, DC War Memorial.
Smithsonian InstitutionFounded by Congress in 1846, is an educational fund that manages most of the national museums and galleries in Washington, DC.アメリカ合衆国政府がスミソニアン協会に一部資金を提供しており、収蔵品を入場料無料で公開しているのはこのためであるThat's why the United States government has partially funded the Smithsonian Institution and made its collection publicly available for free...スミソニアンの博物館の中でも最も来場者が多いのが、ナショナル・モール内にあるThe most visited Smithsonian museum is in the National MallNational Museum of Natural HistoryIs..In addition to this, as a Smithsonian museum in the mall,National Air and Space Museum,National Museum of Africa,National Museum of American History,National Museum of the American Indian,Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,Freer Gallery of Art(Both Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery focus on Asian art and culture),Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,Art Industry Center,Smithsonian Castle Headquarters(Also known as "castle").
Smithsonian American Art Museum (formallyNational Museum of American Art)When (National Portrait Gallery) Is in the same building near Chinatown called Donald Reynolds Center..レイノルズ・センターは旧特許庁ビルとも呼ばれているThe Reynolds Center is also known as the Old Patent Office Building..Renwick Gallery (Renwick Gallery) Is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, but in an annex near the White House.Other Smithsonian museums include the National Zoo in Woodley Park, near Union Station, in the southeastern district.
National galleryIs near the Capitol in the National Mall, but not from the Smithsonian Institution.It is completely owned by the United States Government and is therefore also free of charge.ギャラリーの西館では、19世紀のアメリカ、ヨーロッパ美術の収蔵品にスポットが当てられているThe west hall of the gallery highlights the collection of XNUMXth-century American and European art...東館は、建築士のThe east hall is an architectIo Min PayDesigned by, dealing with contemporary art..The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are often mistaken for the National Gallery, but they are actually completely separate organizations.National Building Museum near Judy Shari Square (National Building Museum) Was founded by Congress and holds special exhibitions from time to time.
There are many private museums in Washington, DC, and important collections and exhibits are open to the public. (National Museum of Women in the Arts), (Corcoran Gallery..ワシントンDCで最大の私設の美術館）、デュポン・サークルにあるLocated in Dupont Circle, Washington, DC's largest private museum)The phillips collection(Phillips Collection..America's first museum dealing with contemporary art)And so on.Other private museums in Washington, DCNewseum (Newseum),International Spy Museum (International spy museum),National Geographic SocietyMuseum, Science Museum (Marian Koshland Science Museum).Near the National Mall (Holocaust Memorial Museum) ThenHolocaustExhibits, documents, and works related to.
Performing arts / music
Washington DC is one of the art centers of the country.John F. Kennedy CenterIt is,National Symphony Orchestra of Washington, (Washington National Opera), (Washington Ballet) Is the home of.Every year, for those who have made a significant contribution to American culture in the field of performing artsKennedy Center Honor AwardIs given.PresidentとFirst ladyUsually attends the award ceremony of the Honorary Awards.これは、ファーストレディがケネディ・センター理事会の名誉会長であるためであるThis is because the First Lady is the Honorary Chairman of the Kennedy Center Board of Directors..
Arena stage (Arena Stage) Is one of America's earliest non-profit regional theaters, performing eight stages in one season featuring classic works and new American plays...Shakespeare Theater (Shakespeare Theater) Is a non-profit theater founded in 1985, and critics rate it as "one of the three finest Shakespeare's theaters in the world" for its reinterpretation and directing techniques for classical theater. Has been.
The U Street area in the northwestern part of Washington is known as "Washington's Black Broadway."Bohemian Cabans (Bohemian Caverns, Nightclub) and Lincoln Theater (Lincoln Theater), There was born in WashingtonDuke Ellington,John Coltrane,Miles DavisWas played by a legendary person in music history..Another jazz club is Madame's Organ in Adam's Morgan (Madam's Organ) And the Blues Alley in Georgetown, where modern blues are played.
Born here in Washington DCGo go (Go-goThere is a unique music genre called).FunkWith percussion that inherits and drivesR&BThe taste of the song integrates the live session with the intense dance rhythm.The most successful musician led the DC band (Chuck Brown), He made go-go a national focus on the 1979 record "Bustin'Loose"..
Washington DC is an AmericanIndiesIt is also an important center for culture and music.の作ったMade byDischord RecordsIs in the 1980sPunk RockAnd even in the 1990sIndie rockIs one of the indie labels that played the most important role in the birth of..The history of Washington's indie label includes teenbeat records, dischord records, simple machines, and ESL music. Blackcat near U StreetThe Black Cat) And 9:30 club (9:30 Club), Such as modernAlternative musicAnd with the presence of nightclubs playing indie music, popular music is being brought to smaller, more mellow clubs... In February 1964, the Beatles, who were traveling to the United States, gave a concert at the Coliseum.The pattern was filmed and screened in a movie after the members returned home (long before the people involved and the Beatles knew it), and later "Complete Beatles", "The Beatles Anthology" and The Beatles. Used in related works.
Washington DC is a major center of national and international media.Washington PostWas first published in 1877 and is Washington, DC's oldest and most-subscribed daily local newspaper...同紙で最も注目されるのは、国内・国際政治についての取材範囲の広さ、そしてThe most notable part of the newspaper is the wide range of coverage of domestic and international politics, andWatergate caseIs the exposure of..The paper, widely known as "The Post," has printed only three editions all the time.They are for Washington, DC, Maryland, and Virginia, respectively.広域の全国版はないにもかかわらず、同紙は3年2008月現在において国内の全日刊紙の中で3番目に多い発行部数を誇っているDespite the lack of a wide-area national edition, the newspaper boasts the sixth highest circulation of all daily newspapers in Japan as of March 6..The Washington PostHas published a free daily commuter newspaper called "Express," which briefly summarizes current affairs, sports, and entertainment.The company also has a Spanish newspaper El Tiempo latino Is also issued.国内で最大の発行部数を有する日刊紙であるThe daily newspaper with the largest circulation in JapanUSA TodayHeadquartered near McLean, Virginia.
There are also many community and specialty papers that focus on regional and cultural themes.週刊のワシントン・ブレード紙とWith the weekly Washington BladeMetro weeklyPaperLGBT This is a topic about.The Washington Informer and Washington Afro-American newspapers highlight concerns for the black community.In addition, there are several district newspapers published by the Current Newspaper.The Hill and Roll Cole newspapers focus only on topics related to Congress and the federal government.
The Washington Metropolitan Area is the ninth largest television market in the United States, with 230 households (8290% of the American population)...Several media companies and cable TV channels are headquartered in Washington, DC.C-SPAN,Black Entertainment Television (BET),National Geographic Channel, Smithsonian Networks, XM Satellite Radio,National public radio (NPR),Discovery Communications, Inc.(Located in Silver Spring, Maryland),Public broadcasting service(PBS, VirginiaArlington(Location) and so on.US Government International News Service "Voice of America(VOA) has its headquarters in the Southwest District near the Capitol.同じくDCに本拠地を置くは、アメリカで最大のアフリカ系アメリカ人向けテレビ・ラジオの複合企業で、メディア界の大物によって設立されたAlso based in DC, America's largest African-American television and radio conglomerate, founded by media tycoons..
reference:List of radio stations in Washington, DC
Washington DC is home to five large professional sports teams.バスケットボールのBasketballWashington Wizards (NBA) And ice hockeyWashington Capitals (NHL) Are all in ChinatownCapital One ArenaI'm playing at. 2008年にDC南東地区にオープンしたOpened in XNUMX in the southeastern part of DCNationals parkIt is,Washington Nationals(Major league baseball) Is the home of.DC United(Major League Soccer) IsAudi fieldI'm playing at.フットボールのFootballWashington Commanders (NFL) Is located in Landover, MarylandFedex field.
There are also many women's professional sports teams in the Washington area.バスケットボールのBasketballWashington mystics (WNBA) Is the Capital One Arena, softball Washington Glory ()National Pro Fastpitch) Play at the Westfield High School Sports Complex (Fairfax County, Virginia).Washington Freedom of Soccer is a women's professional soccer league that started in 2009 (American Women's Professional Soccer,American Women's Soccer League Resurrected by (the successor to (WUSA)), renamed to Magic Jack in 2011,FloridaMoved to.
Other Washington-based professional or semi-professional teams include:
- Washington Bay Hawks (Major League Lacrosse): Actually, the base stadium isMarylandAnnapolisHowever, the name bears Washington.
- Washington DC Slayers (American National Rugby League)
- Potomac Mavericks (Professional Inline Hockey Association)
- Baltimore Washington Eagles (Aussie football）
- DC DIVAS (Women's National Football Association)
- DC Explosion (Minor League Football)
- Washington Rugby Football Club (Rugby Super League)
- Old Glory DC(Major League Rugby）
American Football,basketball,baseball,Ice hockeyThere are only 4 cities in the United States that have all the teams of the four major sports leagues, and Washington DC is one of them.If you add football to this, you'll have eight cities, including Washington, DC.The Washington, DC sports team has won a total of 13 league titles.Four of them were won by DC United (the most in Major League Soccer history)...Also Washington Commanders three times, Washington Bay Hawks twice, Washington Wizards, Washington Glory, Washington Nationals once each.
In addition, at the Fitzgerald Tennis Center in Rock Creek Park, the Legg Mason Tennis Classic (Legg Mason Tennis Classic) Tournament will be held.Marine Corps Marathon (Marine Corps Marathon) And the National Marathon (National Marathon) Are also held annually in Washington.In addition, in the Washington area, Comcast Sports Net (CSN), A local television station specializing in sports, MarylandBethesdaIs based in.プロテニスProfessional tennisCity openWill also be held.
National mallMany tourist spots are concentrated in and around.モール内にはIn the mallWashington monument,Lincoln MemorialThere are monuments such as, and around itSmithsonian Museum,National galleryThere are many museums and art galleries on behalf of.Also, on the north side of the mall,United States Capitol,United States Supreme CourtGovernment agencies such as are also open to the public and are popular as tourist attractions.
North side away from the mallNational Geographic SocietyAnd so on, on the northwest sideWashington National CathedralAlthough tourist attractions are not concentrated, each of them shows its own townscape, and many people visit these areas.さらにfurtherWashington metroIn the suburbs connected byArlington National CemeteryThere isArlingtonAnd the old townscape called Old Town remainsア レ ク サ ン ド リ アand so on.
There are many tourist buses that go around these tourist attractions with explanations around the mall, such as Tour Mobile, Old Town Trolley, Gray Line Red Trolley, and Duck Tour.. Also,Union StationFromNational mall,Tidal BasinRoute bus that goes around the lake shoreDC CirculatorIs also operating.
Washington, DC as a region The local political tendency is liberal, with a strong Democratic Party and an overwhelming number of supporters..
Local government and local politics
United States ConstitutionArticle 1, Section 8, Paragraph 17Gives the United States Congress the highest authority over Washington, DC. 1973年のコロンビア特別区地方自治法により、連邦議会の一定の権限が特別区のワシントンDC地方政府に委譲され、同政府は、ワシントンDCの首長であるThe Local Autonomy Act of the District of Columbia in XNUMX delegated certain powers of the federal parliament to the local government of Washington, DC, which is the head of Washington, DC.District Mayor of Columbia(CurrentlyDemocratic PartyOf) and the local assembly that has the right to enact ordinancesCouncil of the District of ColumbiaIt will be operated by (constant 13 seats).However, Congress has the authority to review and revoke the legislation made by the Council of the District of Columbia and to intervene on issues of Washington, DC local autonomy. 8つの選挙区XNUMX constituenciesOne city council member is elected for each, and five other members, including the chairman, are elected from all over the country...Also, for each subdistrict, the district advisory committee (ANC) 37 members are elected. ANC は伝統的に多大な影響力を行使しており、市政府は ANC の助言に十分に配慮するのが通例であるANCs have traditionally exerted a great deal of influence, and city governments typically give due consideration to ANC advice..
When the Mayor of District of Columbia and the Council of the District of Columbia adopt the budget, Congress has the power to change it.地方のRuralincome tax,Sales taxAnd property taxes make up the majority of the income for the city government's departments and administrative services. Like the 50 states, Washington DC has a health insurance system for the elderly (Medicate) Is funded by federal subsidy programs such as. Congress is also funding directly to subsidize some of the city's expenses, which was $ 2007 million in 3800 (about 0.5% of DC's budget)... However, apart from these funding, the federal government operates special district courts (with a budget of $ 2008 million in 2) and federal police agencies such as the Federal Park Police, which are the security of the city. Contributes to the maintenance of.
Historically, the city's local governments have been infamous for missteps and waste, especially during the time of Mayor Marion Barry. The Washington Post, July 1997, 7, reported in a front-page article that Washington, DC's administrative services are the most costly and lowest quality in the country... In the days of Mayor Anthony Williams, he began to see success, the city was revitalized, and the budget became profitable in the 1990s, which continues to this day... At the end of 2007, investigative authorities found that several tax and revenue office employees had stolen more than $ 4400 million by creating false tax refund checks. This scandal has become a stigma for Fenty's municipal administration, and regaining public confidence is paramount..
Washington DC is an all-federal holiday (Federal holiday) Is followed. Besides that,1862/(Declaration of slave liberation9 months before) the Emancipation Proclamation ActAbraham LincolnTo commemorate the signing by the PresidentMay 4The anniversary of the liberation of slaves is a national holiday. The law put an end to slavery in DC and released about 3100 slaves..
Federal and national affairs
|Years||Democratic Party||Republican Party|
|1964||85.5% 169,796||14.5% 28,801|
|1968||81.8% 139,566||18.2% 31,012|
|1972||78.1% 127,627||21.6% 35,226|
|1976||81.6% 137,818||16.5% 27,873|
|1980||74.2% 130,231||13.4% 26,218|
|1984||85.4% 180,408||13.7% 29,009|
|1988||82.6% 159,407||14.3% 27,590|
|1992||84.6% 192,619||18.4% 20,698|
|1996||85.2% 158,220||9.3% 17,339|
|2000||85.2% 171,923||9.0% 18,073|
|2004||89.0% 202,970||9.0% 21,256|
|2008||92.5% 245,800||6.5% 17,367|
|2012||90.9% 267,070||7.3% 21,381|
|2016||90.5% 282,830||4.1% 12,723|
|2020||92.6% 317,323||5.4% 18,586|
Promotion to the state
Representative / taxation issues
Citizens of Washington, DC have not sent voting members to Congress.House of RepresentativesIn, one non-voting deputy (associate member) represents Washington, DC, and is now Elena Holmes Norton (Democratic Party,).District of Columbia's attireElection) is doing this. Representatives have the authority to attend committees, participate in discussions, and submit bills in the House of Representatives, but cannot participate in voting in the House. AlsoSenateNo representative has been sent to. Until 1961, it was also excluded from voting in the presidential election,23th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionAlso gave DC the right to vote for three people in the electoral college.プ エ ル ト リ コ,GuamUnited States territories (territories) such as the United States also send non-voting representatives to the House of Representatives (but cannot participate in the presidential election), but unlike both regions, Washington, DC citizens are subject to all federal law and taxation. To.. In 2007, DC residents and businesses paid $ 204 billion in federal taxes, with 19 less states and the highest per capita tax payments... In addition to thisCivil rights movementBlacks who were previously deprived of their right to vote under nominal equality in the South are the majority of DCs, so they are indirectly excluded from voting as they were at the time.
In a 2005 poll, 78% of Americans said they were unaware that residents of the District of Columbia were given less than 50 states for congressional representation... There is a public-private movement in DC to raise awareness of this issue. Since 1990, the DC authorities have been electing "shadow senators" in line with the bi-annual federal elections, with two DC-sanctioned "shadow senators" and one "shadow senator" (federal). There is (apart from the non-voting representative) recognized in. In addition, from November 2, the city's "taxation without a representative" (No taxation without representative) ”Is an unofficial motto on the license plate of a Washington car... It was just before retirement when this license plate appearedBill ClintonThe president (Democratic Party) attached it to the presidential limousine because he agreed with the purpose. But,George W. BushThe new president (Republican Party) replaced the license plate with a commemorative presidential inauguration shortly after taking office, saying that the political slogan should not be on the license plate... DC is a land with overwhelmingly strong support for the Democratic Party.[Note 7].
According to various polls, 61% to 82% of Americans believe that DC should be allowed to vote in Congress... Nevertheless, attempts to give DC a voting representative have been unsuccessful. Among them was the DC state promotion movement, and a constitutional amendment that gave DC the right to vote in both House and Senate elections was submitted, but none have been successful. In 1978, a constitutional amendment granting the right to elect members of both the House and Senate, which is similar to the state, was made within seven years.ApproveIt passed the Congress on the condition that, but by 1985, only 16 states had ratified it, which is necessary for constitutional amendment.3/4It was not established as far as the state of (38 states).
Opponents of giving DC the right to voteFounding Fathers of the United StatesThey argue that DC residents had no intention of having the right to vote in Congress, because the Constitution clearly states that representatives must come from each state. Opponents of the promotion of DC to a state also said that such a movement would destroy the notion of a state-separated capital of the state, making it a state representative of the Senate in one city. Claims to be unfair.
Referendum and US Join Bill (HR 51)
August 2016, 4,The mayor proposes to hold a referendum asking for promotion to the stateAnnounced a draft state constitution on the 29th..The special ward council unanimously decided to hold a referendum on July 7...The new state name was initially "State of New Columbia," but was changed to "State of Washington, DC" shortly before the vote...The new state name, DC, is an abbreviation for "Douglass Commonwealth," rather than the traditional "District of Columbia." DC is also abbreviated as "Washington Douglass Commonwealth"..Douglas is an abolitionistFrederick DouglasDerived from.Commonwealth is the expression used by four states in the United States for state names (Commonwealth (US)See).The state area is considered to be the entire special ward excluding federal agencies such as the National Mall and the White House., Areas not included in the new state remain under Union Territory.This is a measure to stipulate that "the location of the federal government is under the direct control of the federal government" in Chapter 1, Article 8 of the United States Constitution...The referendum was held at the same time as the presidential election on November 11, and the result was that about 8% of the votes were in favor..
Eleanor Holmes Norton and Delaware elected non-voting representatives of the special wards in 2017Each submitted a bill to the House of Representatives, but failed due to the majority of Republicans who were opposed to promotion at the time.When the Democratic Party of Japan, which is in tune with the promotion, won the majority, it adopted the wording in support of the promotion of the state of the special ward in the `` People's Law of 2019 (HR 1)'' passed in January 2019...The bill is non-binding, and although unlikely to pass because the president and the majority of the Senate are Republicans, it was the first historic moment in the United States Congress to approve state promotion...At the same time, the special ward stipulated that it would join the United States. (HR 51) ”was submitted.
Started in May 2020George Floyd protestThen,Against the presidentDonald TrumpRequests the National Guard of the Special Wards to suppress it.In addition, federal agencies such as the U.S. military and federal police were also introduced to thoroughly eliminate congressmen using sleep gas and rubber bullets...Residents and the mayor rebelled against the excessive response, increasing the momentum for promotion to the state.The District National Guard is under the command of the federal government, and the mayor has no command.In the case of the state, the governor has the command of the National Guard, so it was thought that the president would not forcibly eliminate the protesters. HR 51 will pass the House of Representatives on June 6, RepublicanSenate majority party in-hospital general affairsAct asMitch McConnellSuggests Senate Voting Abandonment..Trump also described the bill as "very, very stupid."..In the end, HR 51 was not established during the session, and it was decided to start over from the House of Representatives in the next session.In the presidential election in November of the same year, HR 11 was promoted.Joe BidenThe Democratic candidate has won.At the same time, in the federal parliamentary electionsWhile the Democratic Party maintained a majorityIn Georgia, both regular and special elections were voted on, and it was carried over to the beginning of the year whether the Democratic Party or the Republican Party would take the lead.
New session begins on January 2021, 1 and HR 3 is resubmitted to the House of Representatives.. On the 6th, the final vote of the Georgia Senate election was held, and the Democratic Party took the initiative in the Senate with the victory of the Democratic candidate in both elections, and the passage of the bill became a reality... 7th, by Trump supportersParliamentary attackThere has occurred.Around 13:15 on the day of the incident, supporters entered the grounds of the Capitol and surrounded the building.Some have become mobs, and the mayor, who felt a sense of crisis, requested the Pentagon to dispatch the National Guard.However, the dispatch was decided at XNUMX:XNUMX, and the mobs had already invaded the Capitol.Trump claimed to have taken the National Guard immediately, but no evidence of it was found and was criticized for inciting the assault...This response, which is the exact opposite of the previous year, has made it widely believed that the National Guard of the special wards is under the control of the individual president, and the movement to review the status of the special wards has spread throughout the country. HR 27 submitted to the Senate on the 51th.. On April 4, President Biden announced his support for HR 20 ahead of the House vote... HR 23 passed the House of Representatives on the 51rd.
Education / medical
District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) Operates the city's public school system, which consists of 167 schools and learning centers. In 2007, 4 students were enrolled in the public school system. DCPS enrollment has consistently declined, and the city predicts that by the next year, the total number of enrolled students will drop to 9076... It is undeniable that DCPS is one of the most costly and least successful school systems in the country, both in terms of infrastructure and student performance... The city council gave the mayor almost full authority over public schools in making a major reform of the city's school system in 2007. Secretary Michelle Reis, the new Chief Executive Officer of DCPS appointed by Mayor FentyMichelle Rhee) Has made thorough reforms, such as entrusting some schools to private management companies, dismissing principals, and replacing teachers..
Due to problems with the public school system, publicCharter schoolThe number of registrations has been increasing at a rate of 2001% every year since 13... The District of Columbia Public Charter Schools Commission oversees 56 public charter schools in the city. As of fall 2007, a total of 2 people were enrolled in DC's charter school... Washington, DC is also home to some of the country's most famous private high schools. Many celebrities and their children have attended private high schools such as Sidwell Friends School.Chelsea ClintonIs one of them, my fatherBill ClintonDuring his tenure as president, he attended Sidwell School.
There are many prominent universities in Washington, DC.Georgetown University (GU),George Washington University (GW),American university (AU), (CUA),Howard University (Howard University), (Gallaudet University),Johns Hopkins UniversityGraduate School of International Relations (SAIS) and so on. Corcoran School of the Arts and Design (Corcoran College of Art and Design) Offers specialized art classes, and other higher education institutions also offer continuous education, remote education, and education for working adults. District of Columbia UniversityUDC) Depends on the countryLand Grant UniversitySo, in Washington, DC, which doesn't have a state university because it doesn't belong to any state, it provides an opportunity for public higher education.
Washington, DC, has 16 medical centers and hospitals, making it a national center for patient care and medical research..National Institutes of HealthIs near Bethesda, Maryland. Washington Hospital Center (WHC) Is the largest hospital in DC and is the largest private hospital and non-profit hospital. Right next to the WHC is the National Children's Medical Center (Children's National Medical Center). The centerUS News & World ReportAccording to the magazine, it is one of the highest ranked pediatric hospitals in the United States... Many well-known universities, such as Georgetown University, George Washington University, and Howard University, also have medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. Walter Reed Military Medical Center (Walter Reed Army Medical Center) Is located in the northwestern district of Washington, DC, and provides medical services to active and retired military personnel and their families.
Emergency medical servicesDistrict of Columbia Fire and EmergencyProvided by.
As a federal military organization, there are no large camps in DC, but an integrated force (Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region, JFHQ-NCR) is responsible for the defense of Washington DC and its surroundings. Also,National GuardAsDistrict of Columbia Army National GuardandDistrict of Columbia Air National GuardIs organized. These National Guards are always under the command of the federal government.
Washington DC is often cited due to the worst traffic conditions and congestion in the country. In 2007, Washington cars were caught in traffic for 60 hours a year, which isLos AngelesNext to the worst traffic conditions in the country.. On the other hand, 37.7% of Washington commuters use public transport to commute, which is also the second highest percentage in the country..
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Is the citysubwayIs a netMetro rail(Often referred to as "metro"), he runs a metrobus. The subway and bus network serves Washington, DC, as well as the suburbs of Maryland and Virginia. Metrorail opened1976/May 3Currently, the number of stations is 87 and the total length of the track is 171.1km... In 2008, on average, a total of 1 people use the metro rail on weekdays.New York City SubwayIt is the second busiest subway in Japan after.
WMATA estimates that by 2030, the average number of subway passengers will be one million per day.輸送能力を拡張する必要があることから、1の車両を追加するとともに、繁忙駅の混雑を緩和するために迂回ルートを作るよう計画が更新されたDue to the need to expand transportation capacity, the plan was updated to add 100 vehicles and create a detour route to reduce congestion at busy stations...この地域の人口増加を受け、メトロの路線を2つ新たに建設するという取り組みがよみがえったIn response to the population growth in the region, efforts to build two new metro lines have been revived...それとともに、町と町を結ぶ新たなAt the same time, a new connection between townsLight RailNets are also planned.最初の路面電車の路線は、2009年末にオープンする見通しであるThe first tram line is expected to open at the end of XNUMX..なお2016年、小規模ながらIn XNUMX, although smallDC streetcarOpened..There is also a local bus network in the area around Washington.A bus called Ride On runs in Montgomery County, Maryland, complementing WMATA's services.メトロレール、メトロバスおよびその他のローカルな公共バスでは、「スマートリップ」(SmarTrip) という、繰り返しチャージ可能な乗車券（ICカード）が利用できるOn metro rails, metro buses and other local public buses, a rechargeable ticket (IC card) called "SmarTrip" is available..
Union StationIs in New York in the United StatesPennsylvania StationIt is the second busiest railway station after (Pennsylvania) andAmtrakWith Northeast CorridorAcela ExpressIt is a terminal station of.Maryland Rail Commuter, MarylandMARC) And Virginia Railway Express (Virginia)ERV) Commuter trains and the Red Line of the metro also run at Union Station..Intercity busesGreyhound,Peter Pan,Boltbus, Megabass and many other Chinatown bus lines.
There are three major airports with access to Washington, DC, one in Maryland and two in Virginia.
Ronald Reagan Washington National AirportVirginia, just across the Potomac River from the heart of DCArlington CountyIt is in.Reagan Airport is the only airport in the Washington area with a metro rail station. Due to its proximity to DC, Reagan AirportAir defense identification zoneSpecial security precautions are required for, Additional noise regulations are also imposed..レーガン空港にはAt Reagan AirportUnited States Customs and Border ProtectionSince there is no such service, we provide international service only to aircraft that are permitted to pre-clearance (immigration, customs clearance, etc. before boarding) such as Canada and Caribbean Islands..
The main international flights areWashington Dulles International AirportDeparts and arrives at.Dulles Airport is located in Fairfax and Laudown County, Virginia, 42 km west of DC.同空港はアメリカ合衆国東海岸におけるThe airport is located on the east coast of the United StatesUnited airlinesIt functions as a major hub airport in Japan, and to JapanAll Nippon Airways, United Airlines respectivelyTokyo International AirportOperates direct flights to.
Major passing near Washington DCInterstate highwayThere are the following.
- From Howlton, Maine on the Canadian border, through Baltimore, Maryland, through the eastern part of the Washington, DC metropolitan area-passing through the south, through Richmond, Virginia, to Miami, Florida (second-class branch lines near Washington, DC) There is an interstate highway).
- 495: A ring road that passes through the metropolitan area with a radius of about 16 km (eastern metropolitan area-southern overlaps with Route 95).
- Route 295: Head south from the city center and join Route 495.
- Route 395: Head southwest from the city center and join Route 95.
- Extends west from the city center to Front Royal, Virginia (National Highway 66(Different from Route 66).
- It branches off from Route 495 in the northern part of the city and extends north-northwest to Frederick, Maryland.
- Bangkok(Kingdom of Thailand）
- Beijing(People's Republic of China）
- ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル(Belgium）
- Dakar(Republic of Senegal）
- Pretoria(Republic of South Africa）
- Seoul Special City(South Korea）
- Sunderland(United Kingdom）
- Brazzaville(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu Special city）
- Rome(Italy Lazio）
- Ankara(Turkey Ankara）
- Brasilia(Federal Republic of Brazil Federal District of Brasilia）
- Addis Ababa(Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Addis Ababa Autonomous Region）
- ^ Old as a similar planned cityManchuria OfShinkyo(CurrentPeople's Republic of ChinaJilin ProvinceChangchun),Australia OfCanberra,Brazil OfBrasilia(Both are capitals).
- ^ Usually, the names of metropolitan areas and metropolitan areas come first with the names of populous cities, but the Washington, Baltimore, and Northern Virginia metropolitan areas are exceptionally named after the capital, Washington DC.
- ^ By 1790Southern Province TheAmerican Revolutionary WarMost of the foreign bonds were repaid.In response, the Northern State was not paying back and wanted the new federal government to take over the unpaid debt.This effectively meant that the Southern State would take over the debt of the Northern State, and in return the Southern State should place the federal capital close to the interests of its agricultural and slavery areas. We lobbied.前掲AboveCentennial History of the City of Washington, DCSee page 124.
- ^ 1871/Until the district was officially named the District of Columbia, the two words "territory", which means "~ territory," and "district," which means "~ ward," are now compatible. Was used as a target.reference:"Get to know DC”(English). The Historical Society of Washington, DC (2004). As of March 2008, 3original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ President Washington eventually dismissed Lanfan because he insisted that he control the city's design in too much detail.Andrew Elicot, who was involved in the city's survey with Lanfan, took over the subsequent mission and completed the plan based on his memory.Although Jericot has made some superficial changes, Lanfan is still recognized as a contributor to overall city planning.reference:"The L'Enfant and McMillian Plans”(English). National Park Service. 2019/11/11Browse.
- ^ Alternative newspaper (Alternative newspaper) Is not a comprehensive coverage of general news, but is aimed at young people with opinion-like commentary and columns, cutting-edge research, and magazine-like special features on local people and culture. It is a local newspaper.English Wikipediareference.
- ^ United States presidential electionThen it became the first participation1964/Most recent2016/In all elections, up to the electionDemocratic PartyCandidates have won overwhelmingly with a vote rate in the 7-9% range.In particular,1972/-1984/In the election, Democratic candidate (George McGovern,Walter Mondale) Is 50 out of 1 states (McGavan isMassachusetts, MondaleMinnesota) Can only get electors,Republican PartyCandidate (Richard Nixon,Ronald Reagan), But even in those elections, the Democratic Party candidate has won overwhelmingly with a vote rate of around 8% (McGavan 78.1%, Mondale 85.4%).
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- ^ "Columbus (male name) + ia = Columbia (female name)" as well as "Patric (male name) + ia = Patricia (female name)"
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- ^ "Lobbying: A Recession-Proof Industry”(English). Center for Media and Democracy (May 2008, 5). 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "Federal Government, Excluding the Postal Service”(English). Bureau of Labor Statistics (March 2008, 3). As of January 12, 2009original[Broken link]More archives.2008/8/11Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). Bureau of Labor Statistics (July 2008, 7). 2008/7/18Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. DC Office of Labor Market Research and Information. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ “2007 Fortune 500 Annual Ranking” (English). Fortune magazine(July 2007, 4) 2008/7/26Browse.
- ^ "2006 AFIRE Annual Survey”(English). Association of Foreign Investors in Real Estate. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ “2006 Mayor's Challenge: Where Are the Best Metros for Future Business Locations?” (English). Expansion Magazine(July 2006, 8)
- ^ Manoileff, Manoileff; Camille Richardson. “Washington DC: A Capital City”(English). US Commercial Service. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ a b Turner, Margery Austin; Christopher Snow (June 2001, 6). “Leading Indicators of Gentrification in DC Neighborhoods”(English). The Urban Institute. 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Schrag, Zachary (2006-02-08). The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington MetroBaltimore: Johns Hopkins University Publishing. Pp. 213-220. ISBN 978-0801882463
- ^ "New Target Opens Doors In District”(English). NBC4.com (March 2008, 3). 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). Washington, DC Employment Services Authority (2008). 2008/8/10Browse.
- ^ Global Financial Centers Index 21 Z/Yen Group Retrieved May 2017, 4.
- ^ "National Mall & Memorial Parks”(English). National Park Service (September 2006, 9). 2008/6/28Browse.
- ^ "Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom”(English). National Archives of Japan. 2008/6/28Browse.
- ^ "National Mall and Memorial Parks”(English). National Park Service (September 2008, 2). 2008/6/2Browse.
- ^ "About the Smithsonian”(English). Smithsonian Institution. 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "Smithsonian Visit Statistics”(English). Smithsonian Institution. 2008/6/2Browse.
- ^ "Museum and Program Fact Sheets”(English). Smithsonian Institution. 2008/6/2Browse.
- ^ "The Reynolds Center Frequently Asked Questions”(English). Smithsonian Institution (2006). 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "Architectural Chronology of the Patent Office Building”(English). Smithsonian Institution. As of April 2007, 4original[Broken link]More archives.2008/7/22Browse.
- ^ "About the National Gallery of Art”(English). National Gallery (2008). As of December 2006, 12original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "IM Pei's East Building”(English). National Gallery. 2008/6/4Browse.
- ^ "History of the Phillips Collection”(English). The Phillips Collection. 2008/6/13Browse.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions”(English). Holocaust Memorial Museum (January 2008, 1). 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "About the Kennedy Center Honors”(English). Kennedy Center. As of May 2008, 5original[Broken link]More archives.2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ "The Board of Trustees”(English). Kennedy Center. 2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ "Arena Stage History”(English). Arena Stage. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "STC History”(English). Shakespeare Theater. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ Levin, Dan (September 2006, 9). “Lights Return to'Black Broadway' in Northwest Washington, DC” (English). New York Times. originalArchived as of October 2011, 6. 2008/6/20Browse.
- ^ Wartofsky, Alona (June 2001, 6). “What Go-Goes Around ...” (English). Washington Post: pp. G01 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Horgan, Susie J (February 2007, 2). “Birth of DC Punk” (English). Washington Post 2008/6/17Browse.
- ^ “Black Cat: A changing club with a changing scene in a changing city” (English). Georgetown Voice(July 2001, 9) 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ "History of the Post Timeline" (English). Washington Post.As of August 2008, 6original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ Shin, Annys (May 2005, 5). “Newspaper Circulation Continues to Decline” (English). Washington Post: pp. E03 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ "The Watergate Story Timeline" (English). Washington Post. 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "eCirc for US Newspapers”(English). Audit Bureau of Circulations (March 2008, 3). 2008/7/8Browse.
- ^ "Just the Facts”(English). USA Today. 2008/7/8Browse.
- ^ Joyner, James (May 2005, 5). “Washington Times Circulation Growing" (English). Outside the Beltway. 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ "Washington city paper”(English). Association of Alternative Newsweeklies (2008). 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). The Nielsen Company (January 2008, 1). 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ Jones, Charisse (June 2008, 6). “Sweeping national study finds blacks in US diverse, optimistic” (English). USA Today 2008/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Washington Freedom History”(English). Women's Professional Soccer Association. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "DC United Tradition”(English). DC United. 2008/3/9Browse.
- ^ "Super Bowl History”(English). National Football League (2008). 2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ "History”(English). Washington Bay Hawks (2008). 2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ "NBA Finals: All-Time Champions”(English). NBA (2008). 2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ "NPF History”(English). National Pro Fastpitch Association (2008). 2008/6/29Browse.
- ^ “Nationals sticky waist and first crown for the first time in 95 years in the capital”. Nikkan Sports (Nikkan Sports Newspaper Co., Ltd.). (December 2019, 10) 2020/8/29Browse.
- ^ Ibid., "Walking the Earth," pp. 57-58.
- ^ "Trump is out of the question, but Biden is ... a feeling of alienation in the forgotten city.". Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2020, 11) 2020/11/30Browse.
- ^ Translation of First Amendment to the United States Constitution(Wikisource)
- ^ Washington, DC constituency allocation and list of regions included(English Wikipedia)
- ^ "Elected Officials”. Washington, DC Government. As of February 2007, 12original[Broken link]More archives.2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "Advisory Neighborhood Commissions”. Washington, DC Government. As of February 2008, 6original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). Office of the Chief Financial Officer. As of July 2010, 7.original[Broken link]More archives.2008/8/29Browse.
- ^ "About the District of Columbia Courts”(English). Special District Court. 2008/5/31Browse.
- ^ "US Park Police Authority and Jurisdiction”(English). National Park Service (September 2006, 3). 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Powell, Michael (April 2007, 7). “Poor Management, Federal Rule, Undermine Services” (English). Washington Post: pp. A01 2008/8/29Browse.
- ^ "District Government Achieves Balanced Budget and Clean Audit Opinion for FY 2003”(English). DC Office of the Chief Financial Officer (January 2004, 1). As of May 30, 2009original[Broken link]More archives.2008/6/23Browse.
- ^ Leonnig, Carol; Dan Keating (December 2007, 12). “DC Tax Scandal At $ 44.3 Million, Analysis Finds” (English). Washington Post 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ "DC Celebrates Emancipation Day”(English). DC Office of the Secretary. 2008/6/2Browse.
- ^ Leip, David. “General Election Results – Dictrict of Columbia”. United States Election Atlas. 2016/11/18Browse.
- ^ "Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections. District of Columbia Board of Elections. 2016/12/13Browse.
- ^ "Individuals Living or Working in US Possessions”(English). Internal Revenue Service. 2008/7/24Browse.
- ^ "Internal Revenue Gross Collections, by Type of Tax and State, Fiscal Year 2007 (XLS District of Columbia) ”(English). Internal Revenue Service (2008). 2008/8/20Browse.
- ^ a b "(PDF)" (English). DC Vote Voice (2005). As of October 2008, 6original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/29Browse.
- ^ "'Taxation without Representation' Tags”. Washington, DC Automobile Authority. As of April 2011, 4original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ “Political License Plate Is Out, Bush Says” (English). New York Times(July 2001, 1) 2008/7/5Browse.
- ^ “Washington Post Poll: DC Voting Rights” (English). Washington Post(July 2007, 4) 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Fortier, John (May 2006, 5). “The DC colony” (English). Hill paper. originalArchived as of October 2008, 10. 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ "Mayor Wants Statehood Vote This Year By DC Residents”(English). WAMU (April 2016, 4). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "DC Statehood Commission Will Release Draft Constitution Next Friday”(English). Washington City Paper (April 2016, 4). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "DC statehood measure approved for November ballot”(English). The Washington Post (September 2016, 7). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "DC Council approves name change if city becomes state”(English). Washington Examiner (October 2016, 10). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "DC statehood bill passes Oversight Committee, heads to House floor for vote next week”(English). WUSA (April 2021, 4). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ a b "U.S. House of Representatives Passes Bill to State Washington, Senate Probably Re-Veto”. Reuters (June 2021, 4). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ "Constitution of the State of Washington DC (pdf) ”(English). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "The Constitution says no to DC statehood”(English). The Boston Globe (June 2020, 6). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "General Election 2016 --Certified Results”. Special District Election Commission (November 2016, 11). As of March 18, 2018originalMore archives.2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "HR1 --For the People Act of 2019”(English). United States Parliament (2019). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "Opinion: The House finally voted to support DC statehood. It's a needed step”(English). The Washington Post (September 2019, 3). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "US President Donald Trump admits that he is "President of law and order" if he does not refuse to put in the army to calm the mayhem”(Japanese). BBC (June 2020, 6). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ "DC is closer to becoming a state now than it has ever been”(English). VOX (June 2020, 6). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "After The 2020 Election Results, Here's What's Next For DC Statehood”(English). WAMU (April 2020, 11). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "Trump: DC Statehood'Will Never Happen Unless We Have Some Very, Very Stupid Republicans'”(English). WAMU (April 2020, 5). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "DC statehood boasts record support in new Congress”(English). WTOP (January 2021, 1). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ "Warnock, Ossoff win in Georgia, handing Dems Senate control”(English). Associated Press (January 2021, 1). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "Mr. Trump's call for dismissal, growing supporters attack federal parliament”(Japanese). BBC (June 2021, 1). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ "Impact of US Parliamentary Occupation  Targeted Vice President(Japanese). TV Asahi (January 2021, 1). 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ "Lawmakers Introduce Bill to Make Washington, DC, the 51st State”(English). Spectrum News (January 2021, 1). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "White House endorses Washington DC statehood bill" (English). Independent (September 2021, 4). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "Biden Administration Endorses Bill to Establish Washington as America's 51st State”(English). Voice of America (April 2021, 4). 2021/4/22Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). DC State Superintendent of Education (October 2007, 10). 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Settimi, Christina (July 2007, 7). “Best And Worst School Districts For The Buck" (English). Forbes. 2008/6/10Browse.
- ^ Haynes, V. Dion; Bill Turque (May 2008, 5). “Rhee Offers Plan To Improve DC's Troubled Schools” (English). Washington Post: pp. B01 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ Haynes, V. Dion; Theola Labbe (April 2007, 4). “A Boom for DC Charter Schools” (English). Washington Post: pp. A01 2008/7/25Browse.
- ^ "Current Enrollment: 2006-2007 School Year”(English). DC Public Charter School Committee. 2008/7/12Browse.
- ^ De Witt, Karen (January 1993, 1). “Chelsea's School; Sidwell Is Often Chosen by Capital's Elite” (English). New York Times 2008/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Member Hospitals”(English). District of Columbia Hospital Association. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "Awards and Recognition”(English). National Children's Medical Center. 2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ Mummalo, Jonathan (September 2007, 9). “A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: DC 2nd in Traffic” (English). Washington Post: pp. B01 2008/7/15Browse.
- ^ Christie, Les (June 2007, 6). “New Yorkers are top transit users”(English). CNN Money. 2008/7/15Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). WMATA (September 2007). As of May 9, 2008original[Broken link]More archives.2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ Dawson, Christie R. (June 2008, 6). “(PDF)”(English). American Public Transport Association. 2008/6/20Browse.
- ^ "Metro details improvements to meet future capacity needs”(English). WMATA (April 2008, 4). 2008/8/30Browse.
- ^ Gardner, Amy (May 2008, 5). “Proposed Extension To Dulles Revived” (English). Washington Post: pp. B01 2008/8/30Browse.
- ^ Shaver, Katherine (May 2008, 5). “Trips on Purple Line Rail Projected at 68,000 Daily” (English). Washington Post: pp. B01 2008/8/30Browse.
- ^ Sun, Lena (July 2008, 7). “Transit Plan on Track” (English). Washington Post: pp. C01 2008/7/13Browse.
- ^ “<Life around the World> To protect pedestrians”. Tokyo Newspaper(July 2019, 6) 2019/6/15Browse.
- ^ "SmarTrip”(English). WMATA. As of November 2008, 11original[Broken link]More archives.2008/6/3Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). Amtrak Media Relations. 2008/5/27Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”(English). Federal Aviation Administration (August 2007, 8). 2008/7/15Browse.
- ^ "Airport Noise Abatement Program”(English). Metropolitan Washington Civil Aviation Bureau. 2008/7/15Browse.
- ^ "Customs at Reagan National”(English). Metropolitan Washington Civil Aviation Bureau. 2008/7/15Browse.
- ^ "Online Directory: District of Columbia, USA”(English). Sister Cities International. 2008/6/11Browse.The official website of the city lists only 10 cities except Brazzaville and Chongqing."Protocol and International Affairs”. Washington, DC Government Secretariat. As of May 2008, 5original[Broken link]More archives.2008/8/30Browse.
- ^ "Le jumelage avec Rome”(French). Municipalité de Paris. 2008/7/9Browse.
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