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🌏 | AT & T and Verizon agree to temporarily postpone XNUMXG new service


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AT & T agrees to temporarily postpone XNUMXG new service

 
If you write the contents roughly
The number of base stations for which both companies have postponed operations is unknown.
 

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] – Telecom giants AT & T and Verizon were scheduled to start on the XNUMXth and XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

base station

base station(Kichikyoku, BS: base station) IsRadio stationIn one of the typesLand mobile stationTo communicate withlandIt is a non-moving radio station to be opened in.

Definition

General affairsMinisterial OrdinanceRadio Law Enforcement RegulationsIn Article 4, Paragraph 1, Item 6, "Communication with land mobile stations (Land mobile relay stationIncluding those by relaying. ) Is defined as a non-moving radio station established on land (excluding land mobile relay stations)."Athletics" here means "land" according to Article 3, Paragraph 1, Item 5.River,LakeOther water areas similar to these are included. "In addition, Article 3, Paragraph 1, Item 8Land movement businessIs defined as "radio communication service between a base station and a land mobile station (including land mobile receiving equipment) or between land mobile stations (including relaying by a land mobile relay station)".

Specific base station

Radio ActIn Article 27-12, "It is necessary for the same person to open a considerable number of non-moving radio stations to be established on land in order to secure the matters listed in any of the following items. Of those, it is recognized that it is necessary to establish the radio waves smoothly in order to ensure the fair and efficient use of radio waves. "

  1. Mobile radio stations (one or more) established on land for the purpose of conducting telecommunications servicesPrefecturesThe movement range is limited to the area including the entire area of. ) Wireless communication for the telecommunications service within the range of movement
  2. Related to terrestrial backbone broadcasting for mobile receptionBroadcast target area(Broadcasting lawRefers to the broadcasting target area specified in Article 91, Paragraph 2, Item 2. )Terrestrial backbone broadcasting for mobile receptionReception of

It is stipulated.This applies to businesses that systematically open a large number of stations to carry out the relevant business.specifically,Mobile phone-PHSBusinessWireless accessOf the businessTelecommunications carrierorMultimedia broadcastinguseCore broadcasting station providerThat is.Here, the first type is a base station, but the second type isTerrestrial backbone broadcasting station.

Quotation of consonant is original

Opening plan

When opening a specific base station, formulate an opening plan in accordance with the opening guidelines of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.Minister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsMust be certified.As a general rule, the validity period of the opening plan is 5 years.The certified opening plan is the date of certification, validity period, and designation.frequencyEtc.AnnouncementIs done. [1]

Overview

Land stationIs a type ofPolice radio,Firefighting radio,Municipal disaster prevention administrative radio,Railroad radio,Taxi radioEtc. on landBusiness wirelessas well as the Telecommunications carrier OfMobile communicationMost of the master stations of.Depending on the operator, for connection with fixed communication and maritime / air communication,Fixed station,Mobile base stationThere is something that is attached to the base station, which is the same as the base station.Wireless equipmentSome are double licensed.The mobile base station isShip-aircraftCarry and operateMobile stationIt is the parent station of the station and is licensed to maritime and aviation-related businesses. It is a different type from the base station and has nothing to do with mobile phones.In addition, mobile base station vehicles of mobile phone operatorsIP radioThe stationary terminal that the user calls a base station is not a base station but a land mobile station.

The base station is installed at a high place for reliable communication, but the directivity of the vertical plane of the antenna may become unstable due to changes in the environment such as the movement of land mobile stations at long distances. teethDepression angleIn many cases, it does not communicate with distant stations.

  • To improve the service area of ​​mobile phones, small output base stations will be installed all over, with exceptions such as remote areas.

The directivity of the horizontal plane is also omnidirectional according to the land mobile station.

License / registration

It is stipulated in Article 5, Paragraph 1 of the Radio Law that a license is not granted to foreign nationals in principle, but the exception is Paragraph 2.

  • No. 7 On land to communicate with radio stations established for automobiles and other vehicles that move on land, or for portable use, or these radio stations or receiving equipment for portable use. Non-moving radio stations to be established (excluding those intended to carry out telecommunications services)
  • No. 8 Radio station established for the purpose of conducting telecommunications services

Is stipulated, so foreign nationals may also be licensed.

The next base station for telecommunications businessSpecific radio stationComprehensive license as.

  • Those that use only radio waves of the frequency separately announced by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications for the purpose of exclusively using radio stations established by the same person in a wide area (excluding those listed in the next item)
    • notice[2]The frequencies used are for mobile phones and 2.5GHz band wireless access systems.
  • Items to be installed indoors and in similar places

In most cases, even if it is not a comprehensive licenseRules for certification of conformity with technical standards for specific wireless equipmentCertified byConformity display Radio equipmentBecause you will be usingSimple license procedureThe provisions ofPreliminary license,Completion inspectionIs omitted and licensed.

  • Before the institutionalization of specific radio equipment,Wireless device type verification rulesThose with "certification equipment" that passed the certification by the above were subject to the simple license procedure.

Antenna powerBase stations for PHS and 1GHz band wireless access systems of 5W or lessRegistration Agency.

Type code TheFB..The license / registration is valid for 5 years.However, licenses other than comprehensive licenses are valid only at the beginning, and the expiration date is May 4 within 5 years, exceeding 5 years. [3] Becomes

Use

Changes in the number of stationsAs you can see inTelecommunications businessMost of them are related to the mobile phone business.Except for telecommunications businessTrain-Taxi-busFor land transportation such as businesses, for water waterproof roads such as river offices and highway companies, and for other national administration (PolicemenIncluding. ) And so on.

Number of stations

Comprehensive licenseWireless station licenseThe number of designated stations described in is the upper limit of the number of stations that can be opened, and not all of them are in operation.Also, comprehensive registrationRadio station registration letterThe number of stations is not listed in.

Communication partner

Those stipulated in Article 52 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations that received "Other communications specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications" of Article 6 of the Radio Law for purposes other than the intended purpose Other than land mobile services such as mobile stations belonging to the same licenseeMobile stationLimited to communication with. ), But limited to land mobile stations or receiving equipment belonging to licensees (including land mobile stations or receiving equipment belonging to other licensees who have agreed to different license human communication).This is because radio stations for land mobile services are used for communication within the same licensee in principle.

FPUSuch asReception equipmentIs sometimes called a receiving base, but it is not a radio station that is intended only for reception. [4] So it's not a base station.

Station range

#DefinitionThe land in is part of the body of water.This was anchored as a recovery measure when communication of mobile phones, PHS and wireless access was interrupted due to natural disasters and communication became impossible over a wide area.ShipThose that allow the temporary establishment and operation of base stations in Japan[5]And mooredballoonCan also be opened and operated in the same way. [6]

Use of equipment with old technical standards

In 2005SpuriousRevised technical standards for tolerance of strength such as launch [7] The use of radio equipment of the old technical standard was "November 34, 11". [8] Was up to.

What is the old technical standard radio equipment?

  • "November 17, 11"[9]Equipment manufactured by or certified conformity display radio equipment
  • As a transitional measure, equipment manufactured by "November 19, 11" according to the old technical standards[10]Or certified conformity display radio equipment[11]

.

Radio equipment based on the old technical standards will be licensed without conditions on "November 29, 11" [12] After that, only re-license and re-registration are possible.

This expiration date isCoronaByCode division multiple accessMethod Mobile wireless communication and time division / code division multiple access method The expiration date is postponed "for the time being" except for wireless stations of mobile wireless communication. [13] Has been done.

For details, Radio station # Use of old technical standard equipmentSee.

Operation

Radio station operating rulesChapter 4 Operates fixed radio stations, land mobile services and mobile mobile services, simple radio stations and emergency stations.

Steps to follow

The base stationLand radio stationAnd at least third gradeLand special radio engineerMore thanWireless workersIn principle, it requires management by (it does not mean that it is resident).Excerpts related to base stations from "simple operations" that do not require radio operators in Article 33 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations that stipulate exceptions.

  • No. 2 Communication operation of radio equipment of a specific radio station and external conversion device of the radio equipmentRadio qualityTechnical operation that does not affect
  • No. 4 (1) A radio station established on land other than a specific radio station, andAviation bureau,Shipboard communication station,Radio navigation station,Coastal Earth BureauOrAviation Earth BureauCommunication operation of other than
    • Base stations are also applicable.
  • No. 6 (1) Technical operation of a conversion device external to the radio equipment of a femtocell base station that uses only conformity display radio equipment and that does not affect the quality of radio waves.
  • No. 6 (5) External conversion device for radio equipment that does not affect the quality of radio waves but is separately notified by technical operation
    • Based on thisnotice[14]PHS base station with an antenna power of 1 W or less specified in
  • No. 7 (1) A base station other than a specific radio station that communicates by relaying a land mobile relay station and does not affect the quality of radio waves with a conversion device outside the radio equipment, but other technical operations What is managed by the radio operator of the radio station
  • No. 8 Other things to be notified separately
    • Notification based on this[15]It is inPress talkDepending on methodWireless phoneTechnical operation of transmission / reception switching device

Most telecommunications carriers' base stations do not require wireless workers.

Inspection

  • As mentioned above, the completion inspection is omitted because the specific radio station is comprehensively licensed and the conformity display radio equipment is subject to a simple license procedure.Other than this, except for some parts, inspections such as registration inspections can be performed by businesses, etc., so some parts will be omitted based on this result.
  • Periodic inspections are conducted when the antenna power exceeds 41 W according to Article 2-6-4, Item 1 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations.The cycle is 5 years according to Appendix No. 5 No. 5.Except for some, inspections by businesses such as registered inspections are possible and will be omitted based on this result.
  • The change inspection is the same as the completion inspection.

History

1950 (Showa 25)-Radio Law Enforcement Regulations [16] At the time of enactment, it was defined as "a non-moving radio station established on land to communicate with land mobile stations."In addition, land mobile stations and land mobile services were also defined at the same time.The license is valid for 3 years.However, the initial expiration date was two years after the enforcement of the Radio Law (May 2, 27).

1952 (Showa 27) -The first license was renewed on May 5st.

  • Since then, he has been licensed to expire on May 3st every three years.

1958 (Showa 33) -Notification of start of operation andAnnouncementIt was made a radio station that does not require. [17]

1971 (Showa 46) -The license is valid for 5 years. [18] However, the initial expiration date was within 5 years, from 2 years after the enforcement of the Radio Law (May 27, 5) to May 31 every 5 years. [19]

1972 (Showa 47) -The license of the station licensed after the previous year's revision was renewed.

  • Since then, he has been licensed to expire on May 5st every three years.

1973 (Showa 48) -The license has expired under the provisions of the previous period.

1982 (Showa 57)-The definition is now.[20]

1993

  • Radio usage feeInstitutionalization, "Non-moving radio stations" in Appendix 6 Paragraph 2 of the Radio Law is applied.
  • Base stations other than those for telecommunications and public services were not required to be equipped.[21]

1994

  • Foreign nationals can now open base stations for non-telecommunications services.[22]
  • Radio stations for land mobile services make certain announcements every year.[23]The date specified in is the expiration date of the license.[24]
    • After that, the license will expire on May 4st, which is more than 5 years and within 5 years from the date of the license.

1996 (Heisei 8) -Radio stations that required two licenses, a base station and a fixed station, in the mobile phone business will be recognized as land mobile relay stations. [25]

1997 (Heisei 9)-Base stations with an antenna power of 1 W or less do not require regular inspections.[26]

1998 (10) -Foreign nationals can open a base station for telecommunications business.[27]

2000 (12) -Specific base stations were institutionalized, targeting base stations of telecommunications carriers in the mobile phone / PHS business and wireless access business.[28]

2005 (17) -PHS base stations with an antenna power of 10 mW or less have become registered stations.[29]

  • Bureaus licensed on the date of enforcement are considered to have been registered on the anniversary of the date of the first license to arrive, but the expiration date remains the same.[30]

2008 (Heisei 20) -The base station of the 5GHz band wireless access system has become a registered station.[31]

2009 (21) -All base stations are no longer required to keep a wireless business diary.[32]

2010 (Heisei 22) -Ground broadcasting for mobile reception for specific base stationsCommissioned broadcaster OfBroadcaster(Currently, the terrestrial backbone broadcasting station of the provider of the backbone broadcasting station for mobile reception) is added.[33]Was done.

2011 (Heisei 23) -A telecommunications business base station installed in a location that does not interfere with other radio stations is a specific radio station.[34]Was taken.

2014 

  • Base stations for mobile phones and 2.5GHz band wireless access systems, excluding femtocell base stations, are specified radio stations.[35][2]Was taken.
  • Antenna power of registered stations of PHS base stations relaxed to 1W or less[35]Was done.

2016

  • The station range has been expanded.[36]
  • The base station on the ship was licensed.[37]
Changes in the number of stations
年度End of 11End of 12End of 13End of 14End of 15End of 16End of 17End of 18
Total number839,142822,025793,784759,605738,368667,521621,470616,377
For telecommunications business777,894760,726735,232701,090680,224609,069562,872558,126
For land transportation21,27122,00622,63522,72622,81423,11423,52624,243
年度End of 1920End of 21End of 22End of 23End of 24End of 25End of 26
Total number626,244405,491412,674536,930578,516625,063679,895707,629
For telecommunications business567,904347,246354,746477,980518,272563,379617,951643,507
For land transportation24,57124,74724,76024,12523,70223,66223,35823,283
年度End of 27End of 28End of 29End of 30Year endEnd of Reiwa 2  
Total number702,879734,6151,254,3841,319,5011,173,056954,209  
For telecommunications business638,914673,6791,193,4801,259,0541,052,288894,186 
For land transportation22,84622,23922,10721,88521,42421,135 
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Information and Communications Statistics Database
  • Number of radio stations by region / station[38](Before 12)
  • Application / station type radio station[39](After 13)

by.

  • From 17, the license bureau and the registration bureau will be added up.
  • From 23, the number of established stations will be recorded for specific radio stations.

Mobile phone / PHS base station

The base station is between the terminalWireless communicationWhile doingTelephone networkCalls to and from the terminalcommunicationThe telephone network (switch) Has the role of relaying.Wired between base stations (telephone line) Or is connected.

In the case of radio, as mentioned above, communication between base stations is not possible in land mobile operations, so a double-licensed fixed station is used.In addition, the type may be changed to a land mobile relay station, and some of the ones described in this sectionLand mobile relay station under radio wave lawThere can be something.Even for satellite linesSatellite stationSince it is not possible to communicate directly withEarth stationWill be through.

PHS base stations are sometimes called CS (Cell Station) in particular.

In the suburbs and rural areas, the height is several tens of meters.Steel towerIs often used by constructing a building and installing radio equipment such as an antenna.Also, in the metropolitan areabuilding,ApartmentAntennas are often installed by renting rooftops such as.In addition, there are many cases where the facility of the investor is borrowed from the former investment relationship.NTT DoCoMoIt is,Telephone officeな どNTTIt is also installed in the relay antenna tower in the related facility,auWas the investor of the former cellularKDDIInvested in (former DDI) relay antenna tower and former IDOTEPCO,ToyotaRelated facilities,Softbank(Former Vodafone → Formerly known as Softbank Mobile) was once the source of investment (former digital phone → J phone era)JRIt is often installed in related facilities. PHS is used for rooftops of buildings, etc.Telephone poleEtc. (old)AstelIs a utility pole of an electric power company,NTT DoCoMoIs an NTT telephone line utility pole orPublic phonebox,WILLCOM(Old DDI pocket) is installed on an independent utility pole).Also, from the beginning, the mainsubwaystation,Underground streetA base station is installed on the premises.

In mobile phones, the antenna and other equipment (cover area) tend to be large, which requires a large site / site and a large construction cost, but in PHS, both the antenna / equipment (cover area) It is small and requires low installation costs.For this reason, in mobile phones, there are many cases where base stations of multiple companies (eg, au + Softbank) are installed in one tower, mainly in the suburbs and rural areas.In remote areas of rural areas, local governments and local governments when constructing base stationsMobile Communication Infrastructure Development AssociationIf you receive public assistance from NTT DoCoMo + au + Softbank (+ TU-KA), 3 (4) systems may exist in one tower.On the other hand, in PHS, there are spot-like areas such as ski resorts.In addition, PHS has been expanding to subway stations and underground malls since its inception in 1995, but due to problems such as costs for mobile phones, it has finally started around 2003.

In case of a power failure such as a disaster or power outage, almost all mobile phones, some PHS, for backupbatteryEquipped with equipment to ensure emergency calls and communications.However, even mobile phone base stations, which are said to have a large capacity battery,Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake,West off Fukuoka earthquakeIn a major earthquake disaster such as the above, a situation occurred (possibly) in which normal calls and communications could not be performed due to the following causes and other factors.

At KDDI, when a disaster occursSubmarine cableThe laying ship is dispatched offshore of the disaster area and operated as a ship-type base station.[40].

  • ExcessivetrafficBy concentrationconvergenceReal-time performance is required to avoidVoice callEtc. are easily regulated, and the number of mobile phones that can be connected to one base station is about 1, and the number of PHS is about 20 to 3.On the other hand, regulations on communications that do not require real-time performance, such as email and the Internet, are loose.
  • From the base stationswitchCommunication line to the facility (Leased line) Disconnection
    • designatedWired communicationPhysical disconnection or damage to the line
    • When connected by wireless line due to mountains, etc.Radio waveWhen the fixed station that relays is collapsed or damaged
  • The battery will run out in about a day, such as when power is restored or when an electric vehicle (to carry out rechargeable charging) cannot be arranged or delayed, and the fuel for private power generation will be exhausted.

Congestion due to excessive traffic concentration, not only in the event of a disaster, often becomes a problem when holding a large-scale event with a large number of people of tens of thousands to 10 or more around the event venue. (""Comic market"Fireworks display,Shoto,Coming-of-age ceremony,Baseball field,Racecourse,Soccer fieldEtc.) Racetracks and sports where crowds are expectedArenaIn the surrounding area, the capacity has been strengthened to some extent, but in the area around the event venue, which is crowded only a few times a year, the capacity is often not catching up.Especially when the "Comic Market" is held, the mobile base station cars of each mobile phone operator will be at the venue.Tokyo International Exhibition CenterAlthough they have been dispatched to the surrounding area, it seems that there are many cases where voice calls and 3G communication cannot be used because they cannot catch up with the traffic of visitors at all, and local staff are calling for refraining from using them. Started from the end of the 2000sSmartphoneDue to the rapid increase in the original traffic due to the acceleration of the spread of KDDI and the possibility of offloading communication via wireless LAN, KDDI and Softbank Mobile are their own companies at C2011 held at the end of 81. system無線 LANAnnounced about spot installation[41][42]In addition, KDDI temporarily installed an access point in the East Exhibition Hall.other,new YearWelcomedNew YearThe transmission restrictions for the time zone around midnight are repeated every year.

Cell method

About installation "Cell methodWhen "(cellular communication system)" is adopted, the range that radio waves can reach (communication range) is set to "cell(Cell, cellular:細胞)."" Used for appellative and proper nouns related to mobile phonesCellularIs also synonymous.

In the cell method, in order to efficiently use the radio frequency band (to improve frequency utilization efficiency), a large number of base stations are installed, the range of radio waves is kept in a certain area, and the same frequency band is reused as much as possible. This is the method to try.

How to arrange cellsCell designThat is.For mobile phone cell design, regular hexagon (Honeycomb) Is common.However, this is just a matter of design, and since radio waves are greatly affected by buildings and terrain, in reality, the regular hexagon is greatly distorted, resulting in a very complicated cell shape.Some of the cells may even break into adjacent cells.In addition, it is difficult to arrange regular hexagons in a regular arrangement due to the location of the base station.In addition, new base stations may be interrupted into existing cell layouts to eliminate dead zones and high traffic.As described above, the actual cell arrangement is far from the regular hexagonal arrangement.

The size of the cell is generally several hundred meters to several kilometers (called a "macro cell") in a mobile phone.A relatively large cell is called a "large zone", and a relatively small cell is called a "small zone".Large zones apply to low population density plains.Small zones apply to densely populated urban areas.In front of stations in big cities and in downtown areas, cells are also overlaid.In addition, many mountain villages in Japan are often small zones due to topographical restrictions.

In addition, DirectivityUsing an antenna, the configuration that divides a cell with a regular hexagon into equal parts by angle is "Sector configurationIs called.A 3-sector configuration or a 6-sector configuration that divides a cell into 3 or 6 is common.

In PHS, the size of the cell is a "microcell" of about several tens to several hundreds of m.As a PHS, it has a low ground clearance along the street and a large number of low-power base stations installed (“street cell system”, low traffic type) and a relatively high ground clearance such as condominiums and independent pillars. There is a method (high traffic type) in which a small number of base stations (and high-sensitivity antennas) are installed using high-power base stations.

In PHS, many communication channels with different frequencies can be adopted for each cell.Therefore, some PHS operators have adopted a system (DCA: Dynamic Cell Assign) that dynamically assigns communication channels to each cell, and cell design is performed automatically, autonomously and decentralized.

In actual businesses, methods that employ various combinations of these methods are often adopted.

references:[43]

Characteristics by business operator

NTT DoCoMo

FOMA (W-CDMA)

FOMA(W-CDMA) Base stationPDCIt is often attached to a base station.Therefore, the base station layout is not suitable for FOMA, but recently[When?]The number of new stations dedicated to FOMA has increased significantly, andMOVAEven in places that are not covered by, the number of places that can be used is increasing. Due to the decrease in mova usersFOMA Plus AreaThe number of 800MHz band base stations called is increasing significantly in recent years, and now the number of base stations in the FOMA Plus area alone exceeds that of mova and au base stations.In the mountains,Mountain peak,RidgeSince it is rarely stationed in the mountainside or simply along the road, the coverage area of ​​the base station is narrow, and a dead zone was seen for the large number, but the base in the plus area It has been improved by increasing the number of stations.

As for the sector structure, 6 sectors and 3 sectors are mixed in the plain part.The mountainous area is one sector.Plains sendDiversityIn the case of 6 sectors, there are 12 transmitters.There are innumerable antennas because the main body and control device are separate.coaxial cableIs characterized by protruding from the antenna.

MOVA

MOVA(PDC) Has a long history since the service started in 1993, and it was installed in many facilities such as NTT-related telephone stations and relay stations nationwide, and the development of independent base stations was also underway. The degree of perfection is high.

1.5GHz (Central / Tokai "City phone, Kansai's "Sitio") has a certain density around Tokyo, but it was extremely dense and difficult to use in other areas. Even after the end of new reception in 2004, it was used for voice calls of automatic 504GHz compatible devices after the 1.5i series, and was used as a countermeasure against the tight 800MHz band. The service ended on March 2012, 3.

Docomo PHS

Docomo PHSAt the beginning of the service of (former NTT Personal), it was a street cell type in which small and small output (mainly 20mW) CS was placed on NTT public telephones and telephone poles, similar to Astel.In a strange placeCoca Cola Ofvending machineSome were built into (because they were connected to an ISDN line for remote monitoring).Later, similar to WILLCOM (DDI pocket at that time), a high-traffic type with a high-output type CS placed on the roof of a building / condominium was adopted in parallel.It was said that the high-traffic type had more holes (dead zones) in the area than WILLCOM, probably because it was a simple cell arrangement based on the cell radius even in the central and urban areas.The high-power type is characterized by the fact that the elements are black and there are four elements each facing upward and downward, for a total of eight elements. The service ended at 4:8 on January 2008, 1.

au (KDDI / Okinawa Cellular Telephone)

au ThecdmaOneAt the beginning ofKanto region-Tokai region-Koshin regionIs IDO (Japan Mobile Communications), Other than that, cellular (DDI Cellular Group), So even now that it is integrated with au, the base stations are very different.

Old IDO

Since the service started in 1999 and has a long history, the degree of completion of base station placement is generally high.The former major investor of IDOToyota,TEPCOTherefore, installation was promoted from facilities related to Toyota and TEPCO.

In the mountainous areas, the area is large despite the small number of base stations, due to the combination of stations located on the summit and ridges and stations located on the mountainside and along the road.However,Out of rangeThere are not a few places, so it is expected that more new stations will be set up.

The sector structure is basically 3 sectors, and the mountainous area is 1 to 2 sectors.

The antenna is integrated with the control device andPolarizationThe feature is that the number is small due to the diversity method.

Old DDI Cellular

Since the service started in 1998 and has a long history, the degree of completion of base station placement is generally high.

The sector structure is basically 6 sectors, and there are some 3 sectors.The mountainous area is one or two sectors.Not only in urban areas, but also in areas with low population density, the plains have 1 sectors, and instead, the cell radius is increased.Therefore, interference between cells that are considerably separated may occur.

Although the antenna is integrated with the control device, it has a large number of sectors and is characterized by a large number of antennas (6 in the case of 12 sectors) due to the spatial diversity method.In Hokkaido, the same base station as the old IDO area can be seen.

Old TU-KA

Tuker(KDDI) is the last mobile phone along with the old digital phone (as of 2006), and the initial investor wasNissan MotorBecause of the old DDI (excluding Kansai), many of them were attached to DDI's wireless communication antennas and Nissan-related facilities.Due to the coarse density, there are many dead zones, and in the case of suburban and rural development, antennas were often installed by carpooling with other companies' base stations. Base stations were being added until just before absorption into KDDI. With the end of service on March 2008, 3, steel towers, etc.UQ CommunicationsMobile WiMAXFor and auLTEIt is used for use.

Okinawa Cellular Area

Softbank

Old digital phone (2G)

It was the original parent company of the old digital phoneJapan TelecomWas a JR system, so base stations were set up using JR-related facilities such as stations.This is the last call for mobile phones (as of 2006), and there are many dead zones due to the coarse density, and antennas are often installed by sharing with other companies' base stations when developing suburbs and rural areas.

Old Digital Tu-Ka (2G)

From the capital structure, at the initial stage, JR related facilities such as stationsNissan MotorIt is highly possible that the base station was constructed using the related facilities.With the old digital phoneTukerOf bothroamingSince it is also a saucer for both carriers, it has facilities for both carriers.At a later base station, it is possible that the former TU-KA and the former DDI Cellular base, which have the same capital line, were shared, but details are unknown.

Softbank Mobile (formerly Vodafone) (2G and 3G)

Softbank Mobile3G(W-CDMA) is installed in the existing PDC base station like FOMA, but the handicap or density is coarse because it is a latecomer, which was one of the reasons why the number of subscribers is sluggish.As a breakthrough measure, capital investment (full year) in fiscal 2006 will be significantly increased, and investment of about 66.8 billion yen will increase by 4,000% from the previous year.[44]do itNECSmall base station equipment made by [45][46].

On March 2010, 3, President Son himself announced a plan to double the base station.[47].

2GWas abolished on March 2010, 3.

Platinum band

2012/May 2It was decided that the 900MHz band will be assigned to SoftBank Mobile.[48].

May 7ToPlatinum bandIt was opened under the name.

Old willcom

WILLCOMMost of the (former DDI pocket) base stations have a pattern (high traffic type) in which high-power (500 mW) base stations (CS) are placed on the rooftops of buildings and condominiums and on independent pillars, and small-power and small CS are congested. It is complementary for relaxation and on the premises / indoors.One base station can cover users within a radius of 500m. Since we continue to take measures to crush holes in the area by making the best use of DCA and thoroughly using high-traffic CS, the density of stations is high for high-traffic type in central and urban areas.The feature is that the elements are white and four upwards.

In addition, because the firmware that can be remotely updated to CS was adopted from the beginning,Air edgeIt has become possible to flexibly deal with new services such as.In addition, there are high-sensitivity type and high directivity type by improving the antenna element, for interference suppression.Adaptive arrayAs a PHS operator, we are actively adopting technology and expanding the area, such as adopting technology and adopting wireless entrance lines at the margins.Since the transition to WILLCOMW-OAMEight-element new base stations, which are considered to be compatible, are being sequentially arranged mainly in urban areas.

WILLCOM CORE XGP WILLCOM

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayE accessMerged with. Brand name on July 7stY! Mobile Was unified.

WCP

The operation of the base station separates the companyWireless City PlanningCo., Ltd. (WCP) was established in June 2010. It has been revealed that WCP will take over the rights related to the XGP business and the lease of equipment assets (including base stations and utility poles) including PHS and locations by absorption-type split method.

XGP technology has evolved with AXGP (100% compatible with TDD-LTE).

Astel Group

AstelWas a street cell type that mainly placed small and small output (mainly 20mW) CS on utility poles.There are also high-power CS, but only a few. On December 2006, 12, all Astel Group voice PHS services were terminated.

Image of base station

Opposition to base station construction

In recent years, when a business operator is trying to construct a new base station for a particularly large mobile phone, there have been movements in various places against the idea that there are landscape problems and health effects from local residents. ..For matters related to health effectsElectromagnetic wave,Electromagnetic hypersensitivitySee section.

Base station lovers

Some people hate base stations, others like them.Simply out of curiosity, I go to a base station (often from a cell phone or PHS) to take a picture or make a map showing the location of the base station.A game using a mobile phone or PHS that competes for the coordinates of the base station (PositionEtc.) also exists.

Global share of mobile phone base stations

The global market share (sales basis) of mobile phone base stations in 2017 according to the IHS Markit (US information company) survey is as follows.

Global share of mobile phone base stations by manufacturer
2017 Source: IHS Markit[49]
RankingCitizenshipCompany nameshare
1 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaHuawei27.9%
2 bit SwedenEricsson26.6%
3 bit FinlandNokia23.3%
4 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaZTE13.0%
5 bitRepublic of Korea flag South KoreaSamsung3.2%
6 bitJapanese flag JapanNEC1.4%
7 bitJapanese flag JapanFujitsu0.9%

Equivalent types of foreign countries

Radio station license systems vary from country to country and vary in detail.

米 国

米 国Then, "base station" in FCC rules title47 Part90 Private Land Mobile Radio Services Section90.7 Definition (definition) corresponds.

Other

  • Of the apartmentManagement associationBut against the mobile phone companyrooftopIn many cases, the common area of ​​the building is rented to set up a base station to obtain rent, but regarding the profits that entered the management association at this time,National taxFrom the authoritiesTaxationIs targeted,Omission of declarationHas come to be pointed out frequently.It is said that there are many cases where the management union side incorporates the profits obtained from the installation of the base station without knowing that it is taxable.[50].

footnote

  1. ^ Radio Law Article 27-13
  2. ^ a b Based on the provisions of Article 26-319, Paragraph 15, Items 2 and 2 of the 1 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. 3 Radio Law Enforcement Regulations, the radio waves used by the radio stations of Paragraphs 1 and 3 of the same paragraph Matters to determine the frequency(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Home Page-Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Law)
  3. ^ 19 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. 429 Date specified by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications in a separate notification every year so that the validity period of radio stations for land mobile services based on the provisions of Article 8, Paragraph 1 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations will expire at the same time. This is because the first issue (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Usage Homepage-Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Related Laws and Regulations) says June 1.
  4. ^ Radio Law Article 2 No. 5
  5. ^ Call for opinions on draft ministerial ordinances to partially revise the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations and Radio Station License Procedure Regulations-Development of related provisions related to the expansion of the use of mobile phones, etc.-(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Press Material December 27, 12) )(Archive February 2016, 2)- National Diet LibraryWeb Archiving Project
  6. ^ Radio Law-related examination criteria New and old comparison table Same as above Attachment 3 (Same as above)(Archive February 2016, 2)- National Diet LibraryWeb Archiving Project
  7. ^ 17 Revision of Radio Equipment Regulations by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119
  8. ^ 17 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119 Amendment of Radio Equipment Regulations Supplementary Provisions Article 3, Paragraph 1
  9. ^ The day before the enforcement date of the revision of the Radio Equipment Regulations by the 17 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119
  10. ^ 17 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119 Amendment of Radio Equipment Regulations Supplementary Provisions Article 3, Paragraph 2
  11. ^ 17 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119 Amendment of Radio Equipment Regulations Supplementary Provisions Article 5, Paragraph 4
  12. ^ 17 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 119 amends the Radio Equipment Regulations Supplementary Provisions Article 3, Paragraph 2 and 19 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 99 amends the same Articles
  13. ^ Reiwa 3rd year, revision of radio equipment rules by Ministerial Ordinance No. 75 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  14. ^ Simple operation that does not require the qualification of a wireless worker based on the provisions of Article 2 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations, Notification No. 240 of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in 33Item 1 No. 3 (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Usage Homepage-Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Decree)
  15. ^ Ibid. Paragraph 3, Item 5 (same as above)
  16. ^ Showa 25Radio Control CommitteeRule No. 3
  17. ^ Showa 33Ministry of PostAmendment of Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by Ordinance No. 26
  18. ^ Amendment to the Enforcement Regulations of the Radio Law by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ordinance No. 46 of 31
  19. ^ According to the provisions of Article 53, Paragraph 1 of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations.
  20. ^ Amendment to the Enforcement Regulations of the Radio Law by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ordinance No. 57 of 34
  21. ^ 5 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 217 revised 35 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 1017
  22. ^ Enforcement of revision of the Radio Law by Law No. 5 of 71
  23. ^ 5 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 601 (later revised to 19 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. 429)
  24. ^ Enforcement of revision of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by Ordinance No. 5 of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in 61
  25. ^ Flexibility of the scope of application of licenses for business classification of radio stations 9 White Paper on Communications Chapter 2 Section 3 1. (3) Promotion of Deregulation D. (B) (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Information and Communications Statistics Database)
  26. ^ 9 Amendment of Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by Ordinance No. 75 of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
  27. ^ Enforcement of revision of the Radio Law by Law No. 9 of 100
  28. ^ Amendment of the Radio Law by Law No. 12 of 109
  29. ^ Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 17 in 132
  30. ^ Supplementary Provisions 17 and 132 of the revision of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 2 of 3
  31. ^ Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 20 in 95
  32. ^ Revision of Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 21 in 321 by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. 35 of 1017
  33. ^ Enforcement of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by Law No. 21 of 62 and revision of the Radio Law Law Enforcement Regulations by Ordinance No. 22 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 51
  34. ^ Enforcement of the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by Law No. 22 of 65 and revision of the Radio Law Law Enforcement Regulations by Ordinance No. 23 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 6
  35. ^ a b Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 26 in 74
  36. ^ Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 28 in 14
  37. ^ Licensed for the first mobile phone communication base station opened on a ship in Japan-NTT DoCoMo Co., Ltd. conducts training assuming disaster response on the coast of Nagasaki City- (Kyushu Bureau of Telecommunications News Material November 28, 11 )(Archive February 2016, 12)- National Diet LibraryWeb Archiving Project
  38. ^ Data by field before 12 (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Information and Communications Statistics Database-Data by field)(Archive February 2004, 12)- National Diet LibraryWeb Archiving Project
  39. ^ Number of radio stations by application Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Information and Communications Statistics Database-Number of radio stations by application
  40. ^ A cable ship that infiltrates "KDDI Ocean Link" and is also active as a ship-type base station -Mobile Watch
  41. ^ "To more connected au" au C81 special page
  42. ^ "About Wi-Fi spots around Tokyo Big Sight" SoftBank Mobile special page
  43. ^ Business Mobile: What is a Cellular Phone "Cell"?ITmedia
  44. ^ Started selling M-Report "Trends of Base Station Related Manufacturers-First Half of 2006-" at MRR CNET August 2007, 1
  45. ^ Softbank Mobile, NEC's new product used to expand 3G service area Business + IT January 2006, 12
  46. ^ 3G mobile phone base station for Softbank "NEC / Siemens" base station system "RS381, RS880 series"Nikkei BP
  47. ^ Softbank open DAY with new products and mini liveMobile watch 2010/3/29
  48. ^ "Platinum band" 900MHz band is reported to Softbank by the electric supervisor Same as above February 2012, 2
  49. ^ RAN market: How Huawei, Ericsson, Nokia, ZTE, Samsung performed telecomlead July 2018, 7
  50. ^ Antenna revenue: "taxation" national tax on management association, pointed out omission of tax return Mainichi Newspapers 2013/2/17

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外部 リンク

Information and Communication Promotion Association


 

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