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🌏 | McDonald's to expand trial sales of meat burgers from February at 2 US stores


McDonald's to expand trial sales of meat burgers from February at 2 US stores

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Analysts at financial institutions planned for McDonald's to expand trial sales in December.

[New York XNUMXth Reuters] – McDonald's, a major US fast food chain, is derived from plants on the XNUMXth. → Continue reading


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Financial institution

Types of major financial institutions in Japan
SortApplicable organization
Central BankBank of Japan
Ordinary bankCity bank,
Local bank,
Trust bank, etc.
中小企业Financial institutionCredit union,
Credit union etc.
Cooperative organizationFinancial institutionLabor bank, etc.
Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesFinancial institutionAgricultural cooperatives,
Fisheries cooperatives, etc.
Welfare workFinancial institutionConsumers' co-op, etc.
Securities financial institutionSecurities companies, etc.
Insurance companyLife insurance companies,
Non-life insurance company, etc.
Non-bankConsumer finance, etc.
GovernmentFinancial institutionJapan Policy Finance Corporation,
Development Bank of Japan,
Japan Housing Finance Agency, etc. 

Financial institutionWhat is (Kinyuukikan)?金融An organization that engages in business related to transactions.

The essence of finance is資金Is gathered from the surplus destinations and used to accommodate the lacking destinations. Due to the nature of this project, which is extremely public, it is necessary to raise funds for this project as well as sales (Individual,CorporationandBusiness personIn most cases, regulations such as a license system, a license system, or a registration system are applied. A corporation that is authorized, permitted, registered, etc. by the government can be defined as a financial institution in a narrow sense.

A common example of this type of business isbank,Credit unionetcdepositIn the form ofLoanTo goInsurance company Insurance feeTo collect and lend in the form ofIndirect financingformat,Securities companyIs a business corporationstock,Corporate bondIssueDirect financeThere may be mentioned a form of mediation of.

These financial institutions function as important players in various positions in the financial markets.

Japanese financial institution

Central Bank

Bank of Japan TheBank of Japan ActBased in JapanCentral Bank.

Private financial institution

Japanese private financial institutions are divided into deposit-handling financial institutions and other financial institutions (securities companies and insurance companies).[1]..In addition, Japan Post (Japan Post Bank, Japan Post Insurance) andCommerce and Industry Association Chuo BankMay be classified as a public financial institution due to government-owned shares (transitional status of full privatization)[1].

Deposit handling financial institutions

Deposit handling financial institutionsIs divided into ordinary banks, long-term financial institutions (trust banks), and cooperative financial institutions.[1].

Other financial institutions

Mutual aid organization

Public financial institution

Public financial institutions include government-affiliated financial institutions and other financial institutions, such as Japan Post Holdings (Japan Post Bank, Japan Post Insurance) and as mentioned above.Chuo Bank, Ltd.May be classified as a public financial institution due to government-owned shares (transitional status of full privatization)[1].

Other business formats and laws and regulations

Commercial regulations for banks, credit unions, and credit unions

in Japan,1990/Until the first half of the year, banks, credit unions, and credit unions are standalonePoster,News (Chinese)Other than so-called still media such ascommercialInability to act (CM of the governing body was also broadcast media.Banking lawDue to the revision, there will be a notice of Saturday closure notice, etc.) At the time of regulation operation,Credit cardWas used to make indirect commercials in the form of "○○ (= bank name) card, application to bank". In addition,Mutual bankIs a mutual bank that has loose commercial regulations and issues credits before conversion to ordinary banks.[Annotation 1]Although there were some cases, the same regulations as for temporary banks, credit unions, credit unions, etc.

From the second half of 1990radioLimited to the commercial part of the broadcast media limited to. In the case of radio, there were no restrictions, so some programs such as banksCrown sponsorThere were some cases where the program was provided as.

1991/From Octobertv setThe commercials at were also lifted. When the program started,Credit providedDo not put (ParticipationHandling), because there were restrictions such as the broadcasting time can only be broadcast on a fixed time frame, there were many activities mainly in spot commercials.

Since then, regulations have been relaxed, and now it is possible to issue credits like other companies.

U.S. financial institutions

Types of financial institutions

Major financial institutions include commercial banks, savings associations, thrift institutions, and credit unions.[3].

Banks are defined in the Bank Holding Companies Act, and commercial banks are dual banks with a national bank under federal law and a state bank under state law. Banking System)[3]..Many banks are under the umbrella of a bank holding company[3].

Savings financial institutions also include federal savings associations under federal law and state savings associations under state law.[3].

Financial supervisory authority

  • Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)-Founded in 1863 by the National Currency Act[3].
  • Federal Reserve Board(Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, FRB)-Founded under the Federal Reserve Act[3].

British financial institution

Types of financial institutions

Major financial institutions include banks, building societies, and credit unions[3]..The building-and-loan union is a financial institution based on the Building Society Act 1986, and mainly lends with housing as collateral.[3].

Financial supervisory authority

  • Financial Policy Committee (FPC)-During the period established within the Bank of England under the Bank of England Act 1998, the business content under the Financial Services Act 1998 Was partially revised[3].

EU financial institutions

Types of financial institutions

In the EU, financial institutions that carry out banking operations are called credit institutions, and in Directive 2013/36 / EU (4th Capital Requirement Directive), "Accept deposits or other refundable funds from the public and self It is defined as "a business operator whose business is to provide credit on an account" and is regulated by the directive.[3].

In the EU, the universal bank format has been adopted for the integration of the financial services market, and any institution engaged in banking business can obtain a license as a credit institution. In May 1993, it was decided to regulate by 5/93 / EEC (Investment Service Directive).[3].. The 93/22 / EEC (Investment Services Directive) was amended by the Directive 2004/39 / EC (Financial Instruments Market Directive), which are now defined as investment service companies.[3].

Financial supervisory authority

  • European Banking Authority (EBA)[3]
  • European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA)[3]
  • European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)[3]

Chinese financial institution

Types of financial institutions

Financial institutions under the supervision of the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) include Policy Banks and National Development Banks, Commercial Banks, Rural Credit Unions, Rural Cooperative Banks, New Rural Financial Institutions and Postal Services. There are savings banks, non-banks, financial asset management companies, foreign banks[3].

  • Policy Bank and National Development Bank-The Policy Bank is a non-profit financial institution established in 1994 with a wholly owned government investment, does not handle personal deposits, provides financial grants, issues policy finance bonds, and is issued by the Central Bank. Funded by borrowing[3]..There are China Export-Import Bank and China Agricultural Development Bank (conventional China Development Bank was converted to a commercial bank in December 2008)[3].
  • Commercial Banks-As stipulated by the Commercial Banking Law, there are large commercial banks, stock-based commercial banks, commercial banks, and rural commercial banks.[3].
  • Rural credit unions-Financial institutions funded by farmers, agricultural cooperatives, township and village enterprises, etc., and mainly provide services such as handling deposits and loans from investors.[3].
  • Rural Cooperative Bank-A financial institution that has converted from a rural credit union with a minimum capital of 2,000 million yuan or more and a capital adequacy ratio of 4% or more and is permitted to operate in the same manner as a commercial bank.[3].
  • New Rural Financial Institution and Postal Savings Bank
    • New Rural Financial Institutions-Village Town Bank, Rural Fund Mutual Aid Company, Loan Specialist, Financial Institutions Approved to Promote Entry into Rural Areas[3].
    • Postal Savings Bank of China-A financial institution established on March 2007, 3, wholly owned by the Postal Savings Bank of China, taking over the postal savings business of the State Post Bureau.[3].

Financial supervisory authority

  • China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)-A banking regulator that reports directly to the State Council as stipulated by the Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC).[3].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈


  1. ^ a b c d "The role of banks in the economy as a whole”. Japanese Bankers Association. 2021/9/10Browse.
  2. ^ a b "What is a credit union?”. General Incorporated Association Tokyo Credit Union Association. 2021/9/10Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Summary report of financial system in other countries (Daiwa Institute of Research)". Financial Services Agency. 2021/9/10Browse.

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Test marketingAndBusiness Administrationthe termone of.development ofFull-scale new productsSaleBefore doing so, sell to a small number of people in a limited area. This is doneconsumerIt means a test to collect evaluations for new products from, and if the evaluation in test marketing is high, the product will be sold widely and on a large scale. On the contrary, if the evaluation of the result of test marketing is not good, the product will not be widely sold and will end with test marketing. If you do test marketingriskCan be reduced or in the futureMarketingFor activitiesplanThere are merits such as being able to perform effectively and efficiently.

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