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🌏 | Gun shooting at a supermarket in Buffalo, 10 people died Possibly aimed at black people


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Gun shooting at a supermarket in Buffalo, 10 people died Possibly aimed at black people

 
If you write the contents roughly
The US debate over gun control, which may be short-lived, will undoubtedly reignite.
 

A man shot a gun at a supermarket in Buffalo, New York on the 14th, killing 10 people, police said.authorities… → Continue reading

 BBC NEWS JAPAN

From the news, readings, and feature articles of BBC journalists who interview in about 100 countries around the world, we select and deliver topics that are meaningful to Japanese users who are knowledgeable.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Gun control

Gun control(XNUMX years old)銃It refers to laws and policies that restrict or prohibit possession, carrying, use, sale, etc., or impose conditions.army,PolicemenThere are also rules and regulations regarding the handling of guns, but in generalCivilianOften refers to those for guns.This item is exclusivelyRegulations on civilian gunsI will explain.

Japan

History

The early modern period

16st century OfTraditional gunOr later,JapanThen.matchlockType ofgunWas mass-produced.Sengoku periodIt is said that there were more than 50 in the country at the end of the period, and it is considered to be the world's largest gun-holding country at the time.[1][2].

The national gun control isRebellionAs a preventive measure againstHideyoshi ToyotomiCarried out bySword huntBegins with.Tensho16 years(1588/The sword hunting order that was ordered nationwide) was forbidden for vassals to possess swords, spears, bows, guns and other types of armor. Until then JapanSengoku periodIt is not uncommon for farmers to participate in the war, and people other than samurai openly owned armor. However, sword hunting prohibits anyone other than a samurai from arming, and the status of the samurai and the rest is clearly fixed. In addition, in the sword hunt at this time, the gun was confiscated to some extent, but it seems that a considerable amount actually remained without being confiscated.[3].

Edo PeriodThe early Shogunate banned the use of weapons, including guns, in battles, but allowed possession and use of guns for birds and beasts.[4].

Tokugawa TsunayoshiEra ofSacredness4 years(1687/), the nationwide gun restrictions were applied. Guns other than samurai guns are hunter's guns, intimidating guns (guns to drive away birds and animals that devour crops), and caution guns (especially allowed guns for self-defense), provided that they are not used by anyone other than the owner. Recognized, the rest confiscated[5].. This policy is a series ofThe Order of MercyAlso has the meaning of being part of[6], At first, it was supposed to not use live ammunition to ward off birds and beasts. It doesn't have the effect of driving it away,Genroku2 years(1689/) In June, live shots were allowed[7].. According to the shogunate's orders, the lords confiscated or permitted guns and reported the number to the shogunate, but with the death of Tsunayoshi, the enthusiasm of the shogunate diminished and the reporting duty disappeared.[8].. However, the gun control itself did not disappear, and the system of prohibiting guns other than the guns authorized by the shogunate and various domains continued until the end of the Edo[9].

Although there were considerable variations among villages within the same region both during and after the revision of guns in various countries, there were many clan whose number of guns in the territory far exceeded that of samurai.[10].. Still, the populace refrained from using guns in battle, for examplePeasant,SmashNever brought a gun to[11].

Foreigners at the end of the Edo perioddefenseDeregulation from the need forHiroshima DomainThe presence of a large number of guns was confirmed in some clan. There is still debate as to whether this increase is the actual increase in the number of guns due to mitigation or the manifestation of hidden guns.[12].

Modern

From the Meiji era until 1945, gun control was the same as it was at the end of the Edo era in terms of accepting the regulations in principle. Meiji government1872/In (Meiji 5), it was established that the possession of guns should be permitted. Apart1884/(Meiji 17) There was enactment, and this was integrated with the gun control regulations,1899/(Meiji 32) was established. The Gunpowder Control Law1910/There was a big revision (Meiji 43 Law No. 53)[13].. The pistols that the postman has1873/Possession is allowed,1887/Increased demand for registered cash deliveryMail protection gun rules”

The Gunpowder Control Law divided guns into military and non-military. Military guns are those that are currently used by the Japanese army or have capabilities comparable to them. For example, a gun capable of killing when hit at a distance of 1000 meters was treated as a military gun even if it was not in the military. In addition, even if the performance was poor, it became a military gun if the military used it. Non-military guns are inferior to military use, and are typical of old-fashioned guns that were dismissed from the Army as hunting guns.[14].. With regard to military guns, it is necessary to obtain permission from the police station for both the transfer and the transfer, but non-military guns could be acquired and transferred without permission. No restrictions on possession[15]..Obsolete in the military as part of a profitable businessMurata gunBy converting a part of the gun into a shotgun and selling it to the private sectormatchlockWas usingMatagiAnd poison arrowsAinuPowerful firearms have also spread.

Military personnel were allowed to carry pistols and daggers for self-defense, even when off duty[16].

Apart from1910/According to Article 44 and Article 16 of the enactment regulations of the enacted gun and gunpowder control law (Meiji 39 No. 40), weapons of a shape and size that can be easily concealed regardless of military or non-military use are "handguns, "Sniper rifles, guns, swords and other disguise weapons". Weapons that can be hidden are regulated so that "swords for training" are included[17].. These had permission, possession, transfer, transportation, and carrying. The police station could voluntarily disallow it if it thought that there was a problem maintaining the peaceful order, but since it basically permits it, possession and carrying of a pistol for self-defense was normally permitted.[18].. As an exception, pistols held by Army soldiers for formal wear and pistols held by postal mailers in remote areas to protect postal items were not required to be licensed for their duties.[19].

modern

Old in the turmoil of the defeat in 1945Japanese armyStolen fromMilitary gunWas released in large numbers.1946/6/15Enforcement of the Potsdam Emergency Royal Decree, (Showa 21EdictNo. 300) prohibits possession of private guns except for hunting.1950/11/30ToPotsdam Ordinance, Is enforced,1958/ToLaw on possession of guns and swords(Gunto Law, 33 Law No. 6) was enacted,1965/The official nameLaw on possession of guns and swordsIt has been revised and has been revised since then. Since possession of military guns has subsided, possession of illegal guns isGangsterAnd some of the citizens' remodeled and imported pistols.

To date, few Japanese political parties or politicians have opposed gun control.Renaissance Sasebo shotgun shooting incidentDue to the influence of the above, the regulations have been further tightened, and the regulations are too strict, making it difficult for new hunters to enter.[20]However, there is no movement to relax gun control for self-defense, which is for hunting only.

Current status

The current gun regulation in Japan is mainly based on the Law for Controlling Possession of Guns and Swords (Gunto Law). The law is for pistolsrifle-machine gun-Gun・ Hunting gun and other metallic materialsbulletHas the function of firingCharge gunandAir gunIs defined as a gun, and as a general rule, possession is prohibited, except when possessing it for work in accordance with the law. This is a strict regulation worldwide殺人The ratio of firearms in the case was 3.5%, the second lowest in the world. In Japan, hunting andShooting competitionIs not recognized, and the ratio of people who own firearms is about 0.3%, the lowest in the world[Annotation 1].. Since there are few crimes using such strict possession restrictions and firearms,Model gun,Airsoft gunIt is forgiving to the distribution ofPlay gun OfcultureHas developed.

However, for model guns made of metal among play guns, due to the frequent occurrence of crimes using these1971/Appearance regulation (Imitation handgunRegulations),1977/Structure and distribution regulations (Simulated firearmsRegulations are enforced, and also for airsoft gunsinjury-Property damageDue to the increase in incidents,2006/Power regulation (Semi-air gunRegulations) are enforced. Other than these regulations, although the gun sword law was not directly amended,1986/ToInternational industryReleased byM29 Power Up Magnum,1994/ToAsahi FirearmsReleased byM40,2008/ToTanaka WorksReleased byCassiopeia seriesIt is ordered to ban the sale and collect it after receiving the result of the appraisal that it hits the genuine gun.

While elaborate game guns are in circulation, they were once used by the world's firearm manufacturers due to their high technical standards.OEM supplyDomestic pistols, rifles, shotguns, and air gun manufacturers, which had been highly evaluated as a source, had stricter regulations on the sword law.the 1980sAfter that, the selection gradually progressed,the 2010sCurrently, there is virtually only one company for each gun type[Annotation 2]That is, it is almost dead as a private industry.

Each gun possession permission isPrefectures OfPublic Safety Commission jurisdictionHowever, it is said that the examination criteria and the degree of difficulty of the examination for permission are not constant throughout the country, but vary from prefecture to prefecture. It is said that it is more difficult to obtain a new possession permit for the prefectures in which there were cases where firearms were used in the past,Bank of Mitsubishi hostage caseThere has occurredOsaka, Successive mayors were shot twice (Nagasaki mayor shooting case-Nagasaki mayor shooting dead)Nagasaki,CarbineStanding basket case in (Kim Happiness Incident)There has occurredShizuokaPossession of a rifle inAsama Sanso IncidentThere has occurredNagano,Shonen Rifle Devil CaseThere has occurredTokyoIt is said that the examination criteria are strict.On the contrary, hunting is popularbearIn the Tohoku region where countermeasures are required, for the purpose of huntingHunting PartyIf you belong to, it is said to be looser than the above-mentioned area.

There are restrictions on the types of rifles that can be possessed, and possession of military type rifles whose pistol grip is independent of the stock is not allowed. Japan alsoM16It is possible to own AR-15 Sporter, which is a civilian model of (unlike the military model, not capable of fully automatic shooting),caliber6MmThe above conditions and the refurbishment to thumbhole stock are required. Also, with regard to the sword device that is often installed near the muzzle on military rifles,bayonetIt is said that it is necessary to destroy and remove it due to the possession restriction of theHowa M300,Sturm Ruger Mini 14,(English edition)Such,.30 carbineBox, etc.MagazineIt is said that it is difficult to obtain new possession permission or transfer permission because it is easy to illegally modify the rifle of the type loaded using the rifle, such as replacing the box magazine with a large number of bullets sold overseas. ..

In this way, the conditions for obtaining a gun possession permit are strict, so in recent years the hunting population andClay shootingThe competition population itself is decreasing,deer,boarThe number of individuals such asFeeding damageAnd the number of cases where natural forests are destroyed is increasing.[21]Therefore, there are several proposals to ease the conditions of possessing a gun.[22][23][24].. Even in shooting competitions, under the age of 18Rifle shootingIf the competitor owns the gun himself, he cannot keep it at home.[25]For the pistol competition, the competition population is limited to 18 for air pistols aged 500 and over and 50 or less for pistol pistols.[26]However, the growth of the competitive population cannot be expected.

Even if the gun has historical value, there are restrictions on the exhibition of modern guns rather than antique guns.Kochi Prefectural Sakamoto Ryoma Memorial HallでRyoma SakamotoSame as my favorite itemSmith & Wessonof"(English edition)When the facility manager exhibitedFoundationでCivil servantIs not residentKochi Prefectural PoliceIt was pointed out that it may be illegal and was removed.Later, three staff members of the museum were commissioned by the prefecture to solve legal problems and the exhibition was resumed.[27]..In addition, in the same prefectureAoyama BunkoBut I keep a gun of the same type, but the administratorMunicipalitiesTherefore, it was not regarded as a problem.[28].

Firearms for military and public safety agencies such as automatic riflesHowa IndustryIs manufactured byOutputThe delivery destination is the domestic police,Japan Coast Guard,SDFEtc.Mass productionThe effect is not exhibited,Type 89 5.56mm rifleIn many cases, the procurement price remains high.

2013/January,Japanese shipsGuards armed with rifles (Foreign countriesBoarding)Act on Special Measures concerning Security of Japanese Ships in Pirate Frequent Areas(25 Law No. 75) was established.Gulf of AdenSuch asPirateThis is the first law in Japan that allows civilians to be armed with guns for defense purposes, but only in high-occurrence areas.[29][30].

There have been several incidents of illegally manufacturing firearms,Aum Shinrikyo OfAutomatic rifle stolen caseStarted2014/To3D printer gun manufacturing caseIs occurring. AlsoMaruyama Gonzales 2017/Toフィリピン OfCebu IslandWhen I interviewed a gun smelting factory in China, he said that the frame imports products manufactured in Japan.GangsterFilipinos hired byCraftsmanIs getting better[31].

Asia

East Asia

ChugokuAlthough possession in Japan is strictly regulated, illegally manufactured firearms may be found due to the leakage of blueprints and operation manuals on the Internet and the presence of manufacturing facilities in Japan.Black societyIs being traded between.In addition, the guards on board the armored car carry shotguns and the like.[32].

South KoreaThen,Shotgun,rifle,HandgunCan be obtained with permission, but you must keep your firearms at the police station at all times, borrow them from the police station each time you use them for shooting, and return them again after use.With the increase in firearm incidents, further tightening of gun control is being considered.[33].

TaiwanRegulation is strict and possession is not easy[34].. Hunting gunNative TaiwaneseAlthough it is permitted as a cultural tradition of the[34].. HoweverTaiwan black societyAnd smuggled firearmsAirsoft gunIt is a problem that illegally modified firearms are in circulation[34].

South Asia

IndiaSince it is also permitted to possess for self-defense purposes, about 2016 million people have been licensed as of the end of 340.[35].

PakistanIllegal possession of firearms would result in imprisonment for up to 7 years, fines, or both[36]Also, if you have misleading items such as imitation bullets, you may be denied boarding or arrested.[36]It is strictly cracked down. HoweverPeshawarIn the suburbs, etc., because it is a firearms manufacturing industry[37], Since it is available to everyone at a bargain price, there are many gun robbers in urban areas.[36].. In addition, there are cases where tourists purchased as souvenirs are arrested.[36].. Since the firearms have been handed over to terrorists in South Asia and other parts of the world, the authorities have tightened crackdowns, and as a result, the number of firearms is decreasing.[37].

Southeast Asia

Pirates of the Straits of MalaccaAnd because it is armed with firearms illegally obtained by the anti-government guerrillas, the sailors of foreign merchant ships navigating nearby also possessed firearms for self-defense.

SingaporeThen you get permission for competition, but the competition population is small[38].. Crimes using weapons, including firearms, as defined by the Arms Offences ActWhippingPenalties and death sentences are imposed[39].

MalaysiaIn general, possession of ordinary people is allowed for self-defense, but there are strict examinations[40].

フィリピンThen the regulations are loose,Cebu IslandFactory that builds firearms in tourist destinations such as[41]There are guns that the government can not grasp such as there are gun crimes occurring frequently in various places[42][43].. There are also many shooting ranges for tourists.

IndonesiaAlthough it is regulated by the Firearms Explosives Law, gun crimes are occurring frequently in the city because it can be purchased at a low price.[44].


North America

The United States of America

From the beginning of immigration, self-defense with guns is natural,Western pioneer eraToBank robberyAnd train robbery,Indigenous peopleDue to the frequent conflicts with the gun, the tradition of protecting oneself has taken root and is affecting gun control.In addition, due to the strong independence of the states, there are differences in the regulation range, and there are various states from states where fully automatic firearms are permitted to states where it is difficult to possess.

Canada

Due to the high demand for hunting in Canada, handguns and rifles are licensed.The basis law for gun control is federal law, and the content of the regulation is common throughout the country, and there is no legal difference between states like the United States.Guns that can be owned are categorized into three types: Non-Restricted Weapon (not regulated), Restricted (regulated), and Prohibited (prohibited) (Non-Restricted Weapon is not a literal translation and is actually not regulated. License or registration required). Non-Restricted includes hunting rifles, shotguns, etc. Restricted includes pistols and some assault rifles / semi-automatic guns. And pistols are included. Even if it is prohibited, it is legal when the owner purchases the gun, and if possession is prohibited by the law amendment after that, it is possible to possess it, but you can buy and sell the same gun. Only for those who are.Possession of a gun that can be fired in full auto is not allowed, and there are strict regulations other than for hunting, such as pistols with a barrel of 3 mm or less, silencers, etc. are illegal.

To own a gun, you need a PAL (Possession and Acquisition License), and you need to take the prescribed training and pass the test.

In order to own a gun in the Restricted category, it is necessary to take a Restricted Weapon course and pass the test. Bill enacted in 1998,C-68However, all guns are obliged to register with the government, but the increase in registration and management costs beyond expectations has become a problem, and since 2006, when the Conservative Party came into power, penal provisions have been stipulated without registration. It is in a state of amnesty that is not executed.In particular, there is a movement to abolish the registration obligation for hunting rifles and shotguns, but as of 2011, it has not been abolished.

Carrying guns is not generally accepted, and guns can only be carried by police, the military, judicial affairs and private companies that carry cash.All pistols are in the Restricted category and can only be transported between the registered storage location and the shooting range where the shooting practice is practiced. ..In addition to the gun registration certificate, a Transport Permit containing the name and address of an authorized shooting range for regular shooting training is required. Non-restricted category rifles and shotguns are allowed to be carried in the trunk, etc. without being loaded with ammunition.

The number of pistols is up to 10 in the magazine, and the number of rifles is up to 5.Among the pistols, the .25 and .32 calibers are prohibited, because most Saturday Night Specials (crude pistols) have this caliber.Many guns used in international competition centerfire pistols have this caliber, but major competition pistols are allowed to be possessed.

For the semi-automatic rifle in 1989Montreal Polytechnic University MassacreでMini 14Regulations were tightened by the use of. The incident also changed the police response to the act of shooting. laterDawson College shooting caseIt is said that this led to efforts to reduce victims.

One of the purposes of gun control is to prevent crimes using guns, but in reality, firearms smuggled from the United States, which are connected to the land, are often used for crimes.The number of murders using guns was 2005 per 100,000 population in 0.6 statistics.

Justin TrudeauWhen asked about gun control, the Prime Minister said he was considering a "wide range of options" when he offered flowers at the scene of a mass shooting in Toronto in 2018.[45].

May 2020, 5, Prime Minister Justin TrudeauIndiscriminate mass murder in Nova ScotiaIn response, it announced that it would ban the sale of about 1500 models of "assault type" firearms.[46]..Those who have regulated firearms are required to destroy them within 2 years[47].. In response, the Canadian Coalition for Firearm Rights held a 5000-person protest in Ottawa.[48].

South America

Brazil

BrazilNow on the ban on the sale of guns and ammunitionReferendum 2005/10/23The regulations were not enforced due to the opposition.[49].

Oceania

Australia

AustraliaThen,Port Arthur incidentStrictly triggered by, the indiscriminate shooting and shooting killings that had occurred several times until then completely disappeared.[50].

University of SydneySurvey shows that possession rate is 100 per 13 people[51].

New Zealand

New ZealandThen, hunting became popular after animals for sports hunting were brought in during the British rule.[52], Possession rate is higher than UK or Australia because possession license is granted if you pass the class or test at the age of 16[51].. Also, tourists from overseas can experience hunting and shooting with rifles, and there are guides for guests from their home countries.[52].. Semi-automatic firearms are also permitted, but the government does not know the exact holding rate because there is no registration system,University of SydneyAccording to the survey of 100 people per 33 people[51].. Occurred on March 2019, 3Christchurch Mosque shooting caseIn responseJacinda AdernPrime Minister announced that it would tighten regulations[51].

Europe

In the past, postmen were allowed to carry pistols as a countermeasure against robbery aimed at mail, cash, and checks, but nowadays it is not permitted in many countries.

Orient ExpressIn the past, passengers were required to carry self-defense firearms as a countermeasure because they run in remote areas for long periods of time.[53].

アルバニアExcept for the license system, a license is required. Although there are differences depending on the country, in some states the possession conditions are severe compared to the US where guns are sold in supermarkets, but for competition and huntingJapanIt tends to be easier to get permission. However,United KingdomThere are countries like Japan that are as strict as Japan.Also, it takes some time to get a license.In addition to police officers, security guards may carry pistols with permission.[54].

Generally, shooting competitions and hunting are popular, so the percentage of households with firearms is about 5-20%.Lowest NetherlandsIt is in the 1% range.Handguns that cannot be carried in Japan and fully automatic rifles that are difficult to carry can also be obtained with permission.recentlyGermanyNow the pistol grip can carry a gun of a type independent of the stock.SpainThen, we are doing unique tests such as personality tests and psychological tests.Basically, the longer the gun body, the easier it is to get permission to possess it.This is because if the gun is long, it will be difficult to hide it in clothes or a bag, and it will be difficult to use it for crimes.[Source required]..In many countries, weapons other than guns are prohibited from being brought into stores.

Germany,FranceIn some countries, such as, the people are allowed guns for self-defense purposes.Security guard(Escort guardThere are many cases in which it is permitted for self-defense even in occupations that are easily exposed to risks such as (in charge only) and jewelers.NorwayIn some areas, possession is permitted for self-defense from wild animals.

National Rifle AssociationThere is no such large gun lobby group, so regulations tend to be tightened every time a heinous crime occurs.[Annotation 3].

Switzerland

SwitzerlandSince ancient timesNational soldiersIn the past, there was a law in some states that regulated men in the opposite direction to the present day, saying that men cannot marry without a gun. In 1999, the Gun Control Law was enacted at the federal level, and the possession of some firearms was prohibited and the permission system for possession of firearms was introduced.Guns and ammunition are now constantly tracked and managed. In 2011, he called for the military rifle to stop being stored at home.ReferendumHas been made but has been rejected[55].

Switzerland has the highest possession rate in Europe, with 2016% of households in 24.45 owning one or more firearms, which can be stored in local arsenals as well as at home.[56][57].

On May 2019, 5, a referendum was held to decide whether gun control should meet EU standards and was passed with 19% approval.[58].

Norway

NorwayWill give you permission to carry hunting and competition guns (rifles and shotguns) at the age of 18 or older, but will be revoked if you have a health problem.[59].. In addition to this, a permit for shooting competitions and hunting is required[59].. Handguns are restricted to 21 years and older[59].. Since hunting is popular, those who have obtained permission can rent and hunt from the gun store by showing the permission and license of the local governor, but if you have more than 4 weeks, you need another permission. Become[60].

Norwegian terrorist attacksA report by the investigative committee in Japan recommended that semi-automatic rifles be regulated, and it was regulated from 2021 onwards, but since many hunters use it, hunting exceptions Became[61].

Long Yale BeanSo when you go out of your living quarters,Polar bearEven if you are unfamiliar with handling as a countermeasure[62]It is compulsory to carry a rifle or accompany a person who has a possession permit[63][64].. Note that hunting for polar bears is prohibited, so in principleSignal pistolIt is recommended to drive away with noise[65]Shooting killed as a last resort when you can't get rid of[66].. Permission is given to guides for sightseeing tours in addition to local people[65]Or at the research center at Svalbard UniversityFieldworkIf you apply for a researcher or a guide who will accompany you, permission will be granted. In addition, some tourist guides are immigrants from abroad and some have been granted permission to own it.[67].. All students learn how to handle rifles due to fieldwork training at a local university[66].. In Longyearbyen, gun stores rent self-defense rifles for residents.[60]There are many owners, but it is prohibited to bring in the store[62].

Africa

In African conflict countries and civil war areas, guns are being diverted from government troops to militia, and there is no gun control. In addition, these firearms have flown into neighboring countries, leading to the deterioration of security in neighboring countries.Republic of South AfricaEven in such developed countries, gun control is loose, and gun crimes are frequently occurring in urban areas.

Washington ConventionThen as an exceptionNational parkThere are no restrictions on sports hunting in Japan, and hunting large wild animals "Trophy huntingMany customers are visiting[68].. Since this is a tourism resource,NamibiaFor example, foreigners can hunt with hunting guns.[69].

Middle East

In areas where police enforcement is out of reachHEATSuch asIslamic extremistsArmed with firearms that the organization obtained illegally.

Israel

JerusalemSacred places such as are prohibited areas.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The rigor of gun and weapons regulation in the UK is comparable to Japan,Self-defense pocket stickIf even found, it will be confiscated, but hunting and shooting competitions are well known and 500 million are in circulation.There are about four times as many firearms as Japan in terms of population.
  2. ^ HandgunMinebeaMitsumi, The rifle is Howa Kogyo, the shotgun isMiroku, Air guns are Custom Technics (CTC) only.
  3. ^ For example, France 2002, Germany 2002, Finland 2006, etc.

Source

  1. ^ Noel Perrin, Heita Kawakatsu (translated), 1991 (Heisei 2), "Japanese who have abandoned guns: disarmament learned from Japanese history,"Chuokoronsha(Original 1984) ISBN 978-4122018006 ASIN 4122018005"Japanese who have thrown away guns-disarmament learned from Japanese history" Chuko Bunko
  2. ^ Noel Perrin (1988-01-01) (English). Giving Up the Gun: Japan's Reversion to the Sword, 1543-1879. David R. Godine. ASIN 0879237732. ISBN 978-0879237738 
  3. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 15-16.
  4. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 16-18.
  5. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paperback edition, pages 23-25. Hideki Abe, "Actualities and Characteristics of Buy and Sell Guns in the Setouchi Rural Area," 49-50.
  6. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 41-42.
  7. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, "Politics over Living Things", page 25, library edition.
  8. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 66-67.
  9. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 67-74.
  10. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 12-14. Takashi Watanabe, "Bakumatsu Restoration of the Peasants" pages 194-196.
  11. ^ Takashi Watanabe, “The Bakumatsu Restoration of the Peasants” page 209.
  12. ^ Hideki Abe, "Actualities and Characteristics of Gun Trading in Setouchi Rural Areas," 52-56.
  13. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun Gun Explosives" (1935), page 7.
  14. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 68-82.
  15. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 181-184.
  16. ^ Sanyo Railway Train Robbery Murder CaseI had it, but I didn't use a gun because I was struck by falling asleep.
  17. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 311-312.
  18. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 330-334.
  19. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 318-322.
  20. ^ "Liberal Democratic Party Repels Firearms Crime Victims Approaching Deregulation of Hunting Guns". 47News(July 2003, 2). http://www.47news.jp/CN/200302/CN2003021501000221.html 2014/3/16Browse. 
  21. ^ Collection of statistical data on capture (PDF) - Ministry of the Environment
  22. ^ “Proceeding to consider strengthening countermeasures against increasingly serious bird and beast damage / securing financial resources and human resources is an issue”. Agricultural mutual aid newspaper. (December 2011). https://web.archive.org/web/20140316080528/http://nosai.or.jp/mt/2011/12/post-2058.html 2014/3/16Browse. 
  23. ^ About revision such as birds and beast damage prevention special measures law (PDF) - LDP
  24. ^ "Liberal Democratic Party Repels Firearms Crime Victims Approaching Deregulation of Hunting Guns". 47NEWS(July 2003, 2). https://web.archive.org/web/20140316064104/http://www.47news.jp/CN/200302/CN2003021501000221.html 2014/3/16Browse. 
  25. ^ FAQ - Japan Rifle Shooting Association
  26. ^ Sports ranking with a small population of competition (Japan) -Toushirou LAB
  27. ^ "" Ryoma's pistol "reopens ... the real thing is different". YOMIURI ONLINE(July 2010, 10). https://web.archive.org/web/20101002064501/https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20101001-OYT1T00215.htm 2010/10/1Browse. 
  28. ^ "Ryoma's pistol, violating the gun sword law?Kochi Memorial Hall removed”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2010, 8). 2022/2/20Browse.
  29. ^ "Rifle guards anti-piracy measures law enacted on Japanese ships". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2013, 11). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASFS1204N_T11C13A1EB1000/ 2014/3/16Browse. 
  30. ^ "Armed security guards are OK for Japanese ships, special measures law is enacted for anti-piracy measures, civilian arming is stipulated for the first time". Sankei Shimbun(July 2013, 11). https://web.archive.org/web/20131113061843/http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/131113/plc13111312400007-n1.htm 2014/3/7Browse. 
  31. ^ Maruyama Gonzalez "The Philippine gun was "made in Japan"!?" - AERA
  32. ^ Increasing gun darkness and illegal possession in China (Page 2/4) - Sokoku Shimbun
  33. ^ http://www.recordchina.co.jp/a103452.html South Korea, where the shootings have occurred frequently, Park administration strengthens gun control = GPS mounting is obligatory to know the position-Korean media
  34. ^ a b c Gun ownership rate in Taiwan is 100 per 5? Police "impossible" -Central company focus Taiwan
  35. ^ UP is the top gun holder in India
  36. ^ a b c d Basic data for safety measures Pakistan --Overseas Safety Homepage
  37. ^ a b Pakistan towns where guns are cheaper than smartphones - AFPBB
  38. ^ Asian clay shooting championship -Asia held in Singapore in 2006Clay shootingRecord of gun shop owners who participated in the championship
  39. ^ Guide to Singapore-related major laws related to life -Embassy of Japan in Singapore
  40. ^ Is extremist organization IS the target of kidnapping Chinese millionaire? Increasing number of self-defense gun possession applications in Malaysia-Chinese media (February 2015, 2)-Excite News
  41. ^ Maruyama Gonzalez "Preliminary killing notice of "I'll kill you" at a pistol shaving workshop in the Philippines!?" (1/3) - AERA
  42. ^ Korean man killed in Cebu, 8 bullets shot - JoongAng Daily News
  43. ^ Japanese woman shot dead in Cebu Island, Philippines
  44. ^ Basic data for safety measures Indonesia --Overseas Safety Homepage
  45. ^ Canada's prime minister announces'wide-ranging' options under gun control - Reuters Communications
  46. ^ "Justin Trudeau announces federal ban on assault-style firearms in Canada (Full transcript)-Macleans.ca". www.macleans.ca. 2020/5/1Browse.
  47. ^ Canada tightens gun control - West Japan Newspaper
  48. ^ "Thousands march for gun rights on Parliament Hill". https://tnc.news.. 2020/9/16Browse.
  49. ^ Brazil: Overwhelming opposition to gun control referendum(Internet archiveSaved inMSN every dayArticle. )
  50. ^ ""It's a mistake to aim to ease the Gun Control Law."”(May 2018, 3). 2018/3/5Browse.
  51. ^ a b c d NZ to tighten gun control Mass shooting, 50 dead (Photo = Reuters) - Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  52. ^ a b New Zealand Hunting Tour Guide for Japanese New Zealand Hunting Guide
  53. ^ "Orient Express-The man who ran the dream luxury train-" --BS World Documentary - NHK
  54. ^ Research report on gun administration in major overseas countries Nikko Gumi Social Security Foundation
  55. ^ "Gun lovers in Switzerland, history of regulation”. Swissinfo.ch (October 2017, 10). 2018/9/1Browse.
  56. ^ "Guns in Switzerland: Facts, Figures and Firearm Law". Gunpolicy.org. University of Sydney School of Public Health (2016). 2017/4/20Browse.
  57. ^ Adrian Meyer (February 2014, 2). “Waffenkammer Schweiz: So viele Waffen liegen bei Schweizern zu Hause”(German). Zürich, switzerland: Blick. 2015/10/3Browse. “Damit kämen in der Schweiz rund 250 Waffen auf 1000 Einwohner.”
  58. ^ "Tightening gun control, passed by majority, Swiss referendum (photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2019, 5). 2021/3/1Browse.
  59. ^ a b c "Lov om sky tevå pen og ammunisjon mv”. Lovdata.no (June 1961, 6). 2014/4/19Browse.
  60. ^ a b Weapon rental-Spitsbergen Travel
  61. ^ Norway bans semi-automatic rifles Shooting incident in 2011 - French news agency
  62. ^ a b Trip to Svalbard 3 - University of OuluHe was a visiting professor (Kyoto UniversityRecord of staying in 2006 by Professor, Graduate School of Medicine
  63. ^ Field survey at Ny Olsund, Svalbard -Yasuo Iimura (Shiga Prefectural UniversityAssistant Professor, Department of Biological Resource Management, Faculty of Environmental Science)
  64. ^ What is "Long Yale Bean", the northernmost town on earth? - GIGAZINE
  65. ^ a b Concentrated on shooting polar bears on cruise sailors Norway-(1/2) - CNN
  66. ^ a b Arctic islands change in symbiosis between humans and polar bears. Is climate change also a cause? - French news agency
  67. ^ The -50 ° C ice world is a town of migrants - Courier Japon
  68. ^ President Trump puts elephant hunting memorabilia on hold, overturning permit policy -French news agency
  69. ^ A golden wildebeest is over 1000 million yen!? Trophy hunting situation in Africa with no wild --Daily SPA!

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