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🌏 | Toyota factory, normal operation at well water utilization, etc. Due to large-scale leak in Toyota City


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Normal operation at Toyota's factory, utilization of well water, etc. Due to a large-scale leak in Toyota City

 
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According to Aichi Prefecture, a large-scale leak occurred at an intake facility in the river of the water supply that supplies industrial water, and it became impossible to take water from around 18:4 am on the 45th.
 

[Tokyo XNUMXth Reuters] -Toyota Motor Corp. was affected by a large-scale water leak at an intake facility in Aichi Prefecture on the XNUMXth. → Continue reading

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    Water intake facility

    Water intake facility(Shusui Shisetsu) isRiver,Lake-reservoirSuch as surface watergroundwaterTaking in water from such a water source,WaterwayIt is a facility for supplying water to water conveyance facilities such as water pipes and water pipes.In the intake of surface water, depending on the water sourceIntake weir,Intake gate,Intake tower,Water intake frameand so on.Groundwater intake facilities are generally "wellCalled "[1].

    This item mainly deals with surface water intake facilities.

    Water source

    Various characteristics of the water source will be examined when constructing the water intake facility.The characteristics of the water source include maximum drought amount, maximum drought level, maximum flood amount, maximum flood level, drought amount, drought level, flat water amount, flat water level, flood amount, flood level, and water quality.Already in the water sourceWater right,Fishing rightsMay be set, and adjustments will be made as necessary.In addition, the pollution source, development status, inflow sediment, and safety of the watershed basin will be examined.[2].

    River
    The flow rate and water level of rivers fluctuate between floods and droughts.The water intake facility is required to operate stably even with such fluctuations.For this reason, water is taken downstream of the water intake facility.WeirIs often used to stabilize the water level.[3].
    Lake / reservoir
    Lakes and reservoirs have different water temperatures and qualities depending on the water depth, and muddy water tends to collect especially near the bottom of the lake.There are also fluctuations depending on the season and weather.Therefore, it is desirable to have a structure that allows water to be taken from any depth depending on the situation.Since it is required to operate stably against fluctuations in water level and waves, it is often the case that an intake tower is installed offshore or an intake is provided attached to a weir or dam.[4].
    groundwater
    Wells are used to take water from groundwater.Underground waterA horizontal hole type catchment culvert is used for water intake from.springWhen taking water from, it is desirable to surround it with reinforced concrete and cover it to prevent light from entering.[5].

    形式

    Intake weir

    By installing a weir that crosses rivers, the water level will be raised and stable water intake will be possible.It functions by a facility that integrates an intake weir, an intake, and a sand basin. [6].

    Intake gate

    Installed on riverbanks and lakeshoresSluiceIt has a gate (opening / closing mechanism or adjustment mechanism) for adjusting the water level and the amount of water intake.A grid called a screen is placed in front of the gate to prevent floating objects such as driftwood from flowing in.In addition, a corner drop may be provided on the front surface.The standard inflow velocity is less than 1 m / s.When installing in a river, install a weir on the downstream side as necessary to stabilize the water level.[3][2]..Works in unison with screens, gates or corner drops, sand pools, etc.There is a problem in securing water intake during droughts and floods[7].

    Intake tower

    It is installed in a place with a water depth of 2 meters or more and a large change in water level, such as the middle or lower stream of a river or a reservoir.It is often circular in reservoirs and oval in rivers to reduce the resistance to running water.The Izutsu subsidence method is generally used for fixed construction.[3], Measures will be taken at the base to prevent scouring.A management bridge that runs from the shore to the tower is often installed to facilitate management.An intake is opened on the wall of the tower, and a grid called a screen is placed in front of it.By making the intake port multi-stage in the depth direction, water can be taken from any depth.In cold regions, a mechanism to prevent freezing may be added.To avoid sediment inflow, standard inflow velocities are limited to 15-30 cm / s in rivers and 1-2 m / s in lakes.[2]..Since it is a facility that protrudes into the reservoir and is easily noticeable, it may be designed with consideration for the landscape.The movable type is used when it is not suitable for fixing due to the deep water depth, and the surface water can be taken in by floating the intake port up and down according to the fluctuation of the water level.[7].

    Intake pipe culvert

    It is an intake that takes water directly from the surface of the water source to the pipe, and is installed in a place where the water level is stable.A corner drop and a screen are provided on the front[2]..A water intake will be provided on the low-water revetment of the river to take in surface water and lead it to the mainland through a pipe.Used for rivers with little change in water level[7]

    Water intake frame

    An intake provided at the bottom of the water source, which is a box-shaped or cylindrical facility.[2]..The area around the opening is protected by wood or concrete.[5]..It is installed at a depth of 3 meters or more away from the riverbank or lakeshore.To avoid sediment inflow, the typical inflow velocity is 15-30 cm / s in rivers and 1-2 m / s in lakes.[4]..Used for small and medium-sized water intake in lakes and marshes, the structure and construction are relatively simple, but surface water cannot be collected.[7].

    Other

    Gutter
    A facility where pipes are arranged diagonally along the upstream slope of the dam body and water is taken from the gate provided in the middle.The water taken in falls to the lower end of the gutter and is drawn to the downstream side of the gutter through the bottom gutter that horizontally penetrates the lower part of the gutter.[8].
    Dam body intake facility
    An intake facility attached to the dam body.A gate that supports high water pressure is used[4].

    footnote

    1. ^ "Water Services Book", pages 52 and 58
    2. ^ a b c d e "Water Supply Engineering" pp.68-78
    3. ^ a b c "New System Civil Engineering 88" pp.76-80
    4. ^ a b c "New System Civil Engineering 88" pp.81-88
    5. ^ a b "New Edition Water Supply Equipment Handbook" pp.6-8
    6. ^ "Water Services Book", p. 52
    7. ^ a b c d "Water Services Book", p. 54
    8. ^ "About the reservoir" Kagawa Prefectural Agriculture and Fisheries Department Land Improvement Division

    References

    • Ryuichi Iida ed., "New System Civil Engineering 75 Dam Design" Gihodo Publishing, 1980,ISBN-4 7655-1175-8
    • Yoshitaka Utashiro, Tadahiro Kunitomi "Intake Facility" Chijin Shokan, 1970
    • Supervised by Kazunori Kawakita "Water Supply Engineering" Morikita Publishing, 2005,ISBN-4 627-49284-7
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks Bureau Water Supply Equipment Technology Study Group "New Edition Water Supply Equipment Handbook" Asakura Shoten, 1971
    • Norihito Tanbo "New System Civil Engineering 88 Waterworks" Gihodo Publishing, 1980,ISBN-4 7655 1188-X-
    • Shoichi Takado, "Book of Waterworks", Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, November 2011, 11, first edition, 16st edition, publishedISBN 9784526067808

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      Around 18:4 am on the 45rd


       

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