Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🌏 | Russia to abolish the age limit for volunteers


写真 

Russia passes bill to abolish age limit for volunteers

 
If you write the contents roughly
The Russian army has been hit hard by the Ukrainian war.
 

[Reuters] – The Russian Parliament passed a bill on the XNUMXth to lift the age limit for volunteers.To Ukraine ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Russian Federation Army

Russian Federation Army(Russian Renpogun,Russian: Armed forces of the Russian Federation, Abbreviation: Russian Armed Forces,English: Armed Forces of the Russian Federation) IsRussian FederationMilitary.

Collapse of the Soviet UnionAfter1992/OldUSSR Ofnuclear weaponsincludingSoviet Union ArmyIt was established by inheriting the main force of.

mechanism

Service / Independent Military Service

As of 2018, the Russian Armed Forcesarmy, Aerospace Force (foreign countriesair forceEquivalent to),NavyTwo ofServiceAnd the Strategic Rocket Force,ParatroopersConsists of two independent military departments[2].

Military District, Operations and Strategy Command

The Russian Armed Forces have traditionally had the following sixMilitary district(Military district) Was divided.

However, on October 2010, 7(English edition,Russian versionAs a result, the above 6 military districts will be integrated into the following 4 military districts.[3].

By October 2010, this reform changed Russia's military district system as follows (the executive order set December 10 as the transition deadline, but it was achieved ahead of schedule).These military districts will be qualified as "Integrated Strategic Command" (OSK), allowing them to command the Army, Navy and Air Force units in the region in a unified manner.However, strategic rocket forces, airborne troops, space forces, which are strategic forces,ParamilitaryIs kept under the direct control of the High Command, and OSK has no command.Furthermore, on December 2014, 12ArcticOf the Navy to strengthen defenseNorthern FleetWas newly designated as OSK, and it was decided to unify the command of some of the forces that had belonged to the Western Military Division until then.[4].

In 2021, the Northern Fleet itself became independentMilitary districtPromoted toKomi Republic,Arkhangelsk Oblast,Murmansk Oblast,Nenets Autonomous RegionAlso has jurisdiction[5] [6].

Operations and Strategy Command (OSK)

Military decree and military administration

The whole armyMilitary decreeAbout the institution, "Russian Federation Staff Staff"Military administrationFor the relevant government office, see "Russian Defense MinistrySee.

Defense policy and military strategy

Nuclear strategy

Vladimir PutinPresidentJune 2020, 6, "Nuclear deterrenceSigned the National Policy Guidelines.It stipulates that the use of nuclear weapons will be decided by the president, and that Russia's nuclear force is "essentially defensive" but "retains the right to use".Conditions for using nuclear weapons include nuclear weaponsWeapons of mass destructionIs Russia and itsAlliesAimed at them as well as when used inBallistic missileObtaining highly accurate information on the launch, if any work is done to block the nuclear retaliation capability, or threaten the existence of Russia's stateConventional weaponClarified that it may also be used against attacks.In addition, the target of "military danger that may require nuclear deterrence"宇宙空間And around RussiaMissile defenseThe deployment of (MD) systems, ballistic missiles, hypersonic missiles, nuclear weapons and their delivery means was mentioned.[7].

Battle history

Stationed abroad

The detail is List of Russian Federation troops stationed abroadSee.

Former Soviet Union member states

Other than the former Soviet Union member countries

Disputed area

Paramilitary organization

The Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as "Russia") is under the jurisdiction of the Russian Armed Forces and other ministries and agencies.Paramilitary organizationExists.These are under the jurisdiction of each ministry during peacetime, but during the warDepartment of DefenseCome under the control of.

Total troops are said to be about 55[2].

Military spending

Russia's economic scale has grown rapidly in about 2000 years since 10[Note 1]Along with this, military spending is also increasing significantly.If military spending in the narrow sense is regarded as an item in Chapter 2 "Defense" of each year's budget, it will be 1999 million in 1155.RubleIn 2010, it increased 1 times to 2747 million rubles.[8].Russian Federation Security Agency (FSB)Russian Home MinistryIf you include the quasi-military institutions under the umbrella, the amount will be even larger.[9].

In the past, up to 7% of the defense budget was devoted to maintenance costs such as personnel costs, welfare costs, fuel, food, and utilities.However, since it is necessary to renew aging equipment in the future, we intend to increase the ratio of equipment procurement costs to the defense budget in the future.Equipment procurement for military organizations, including the Russian army, is called the National Defense Order (GOZ). In 2010, new procurement costs were 3193 billion rubles, repair and modernization repair costs were 639 billion rubles, and research and development (NIOKR) costs were high. It is estimated to be 1080 billion rubles, totaling about 4911 billion rubles.Furthermore, it is expected that the GOZ after 2011 will be further increased in line with the implementation of the large-scale equipment renewal plan "National Weapons Plan by 2020 (GPV-2020)" after 2011.[Note 2]..We are also actively exporting weapons,2011/Is said to exceed 1 trillion yen.

In the 2010s, it continued to increase by more than 10% year-on-year to 2015 billion rubles in 3, but in 2740 it turned to a 2016% year-on-year decrease in defense costs due to the deterioration of economic conditions.[11]..However, due to the budget revision, the execution amount was increased to 3 trillion rubles.[2].. In 2017, the budget was reduced to 2 billion rubles.[2].

Conscription system

Russia has been in the last 3rd century (Russian EmpireSoviet UnionOver time)Conscription systemAs of 2009, men aged 18-27 are required to serve for one year and are obliged to accept recruitment.note thatUniversityStudents are allowed to delay military service, and Russian universities have military disciplines that supplement the conscription system.

2002/XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Russian House of RepresentativesAdopted a bill on alternative service (),Conscientious objection to military serviceWas stipulated in substance and institutionally.After the collapse of the Soviet Union1993/Was established inRussian Federation ConstitutionIt is,ReligiousIt guarantees the possibility of alternative service to those who refuse military service because of other beliefs.However, no law stipulating specific arrangements for alternative service had existed until then, causing corruption such as frequent escapes from the military and bribes to refuse military service. According to a bill passed in 2002, military service could be replaced by three and a half years of alternative service in civilian installations or three years in military installations.Also, if you are a college graduate, the service period is only half.However, it is unlikely that you will be able to work near your home or family, as the conscription committee will determine the location of alternative ministers.This law is2004/It came into effect on January 1st.

In the Russian army, in the armyBullying,殺人There is no end to criminal acts such as, and the Russian conscription system is very unpopular among the Russian people, and among young people.Draft evasionIs widespread[Note 3].. Draft evasion rate of 2004% or more in 90[Note 4]Defense Minister Ivanov said that he had reached[12]There is also an evaluation that Russia's conscription system is becoming a mere corpse and is on the verge of bankruptcy.[13][14].

Dysfunction of the conscription systemYoungerTherefore, in 2014, the number dropped to about 100 (sufficiency rate 77%) against the fixed number of 77 million, but in 2019 it will be about 90.alsoVolunteer systemThe transition to the main body is in progress, and the number of contracted military personnel targeted for non-commissioned officers and soldiers exceeded the number of conscripts in 2015.[15]..Excluding this officerProfessional soldierThe number is 38Noncommissioned officer100% became a volunteer system[2]..In addition, about 2017 million people can be mobilized as reserves as of 200.[2].

Military reform

initial

The predecessor of the Russian Armed ForcesSoviet armyHas about 522.7 million troops[16][17]HaveUnited States ArmyIt has been said to be the strongest army in the world along with, but at the end of the Soviet Union, it became vulnerable due to aging equipment and disordered military regulations.Those problems were carried over to the Russian Federation Army, which took over about 282 million troops from the Soviet Army at the time of its inauguration.1994/ OfChechen conflictIn, the weak swing was exposed at home and abroad.Even after that, the number of staff was significantly reduced mainly due to financial difficulties, and the procurement of weapons also decreased sharply. There were 5 servicesair forceAir defense With the 1998 merger of (PVO) and the Strategic Rocket Force becoming an independent service in 2001, it has become a common three service.It was also under the jurisdiction of the Federal Railroad Forces Bureau.TrainThe unit was also under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense. On July 1997, 7YeltsinThe administration stipulated in a presidential decree to reduce the number of troops to 1999 million from January 1, 1.[18].

2000/Was established inPutinThe administration embarked on rebuilding the Russian army,Munitions industryOn the other hand, we established boarding schools in various places to train cadets and set out to develop "human resources who protect Russia with strong patriotism."The Putin administration has set the goal of composing all troops with "strong patriotic volunteers."[19].. In 2001, the Putin administration approved the "Army Construction Plan by 2005", and the presidential decree on March 3 of the same year set the number of troops to 24 million.[20]However, this was not done.

In 2003, at that timeDefense Minister IvanovAnnounced a reform plan (so-called "Ivanov Doctrine").The document states that maintaining strategic deterrence, increasing constant readiness and establishing integrated units, improving operational training, converting part of the army from conscription to contract military personnel, modernizing equipment,LogisticsAnd improvement of technical support and development of education and research activities were mentioned as measures for reform, but many did not come true.[21].

Sergekov reform

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, military reforms have always been discussed in Russia, but in 2008Anatoly SerdyukovLittle progress has been made until the start of full-scale reforms led by the Defense Minister.Despite minor changes, organizational and operational doctrine remainsCold WarInfluenced by the idea of ​​large-scale war during the period, he was not in a position to flexibly deal with the small-scale conflicts that increased after the Cold War.[22][23].

The Russian Army, for example, has a large number of troops in preparation for a major war, despite a significant reduction in troop strength.DivisionWas maintained.As a result, most divisions have become "skeleton divisions" with only HQ personnel and equipment, and over time a large number.Reserve roleI couldn't get ready for battle without mobilizing.On the other hand, only about 17% of the Russian Army and 155 of the 5 Air Regiments in the Air Force were ready to move to combat immediately (2008 figures).[24].

Also, the equipment is becoming obsolete.[2],In particularPrecision-guided munitions,C4ISR.The penetration rate of the system isWestern countriesIt was very low compared to.As a result, in the South Ossetian Conflict in August 2008, the United States andIsraelWas actively introducing high-tech equipment fromGeorgian armyOn the other hand, the Russian army was forced to struggle.

In response, Defense Minister SR-2008 Vektor announced a comprehensive military reform plan in the fall of XNUMX, indicating his intention to radically change the regime of the Russian army.Since then, various reform plans have been announced in stages, but the main contents that have been clarified so far are as follows.[25].

Always ready for the entire army
The entire army will always be a quick response unit, and the "skeleton division" will be dismantled.
Force reduction
The number of troops of 113 was reduced to 4 million in 2012, especially the number of officers was reduced from 100 to 35 by more than 5, and the logistical forces responsible for procuring military suppliesPrivatizationAnd the number of staff will be reduced to one-third.On the other hand, the number of junior officers will be increased, and the salaries of military personnel will be raised to improve the efficiency of the command system.
Reform of the General Staff
The command and operation of the Russian army has been around for a long time since the Soviet era.Chief of StaffHas been in charge, but since 2004 it has been redefined as a pure staff organization whose main task is to formulate plans for military development.The size of the General Staff Operations Bureau was almost halved, and much of the equipment procurement authority was stripped and transferred to the Federal Weapons and Military Special Equipment Procurement Service.alsoGeneral Information Bureau, Chief of Staff(GRU) SubordinateSpecial operationsbrigadeThe authority was reduced, such as the policy of reducing the number from 8 to 5 and transferring it to the subordinates of the military district.[21].
Reform of chain of command
Of the four-level chain of command consisting of the conventional "military district-army-division-regiment", the "division-regiment" part has been consolidated into a brigade.As a result, the entire chain of command will be a three-tier system, and it is expected that the efficiency of command transmission will be improved.
The brigade has a fixed number of 4500 to 6500, which is smaller than the division (constant of 8000 to 1), but the new brigade is always responsive and the number of personnel is high, so the actual fighting power is rather low. Expected to improve.
The Air Force has also decided to abolish the conventional "air division-air regiment" system and establish a new operational unit "air base" to operate a large number of aircraft efficiently.[21].
At a higher level, the military district has been qualified as an "Integrated Strategy Command (OSK)" (as mentioned above), and the military has also been qualified as an "Operational Command", strengthening the integrated operational system. Will be done.
Improved mobility
In order to cover a large land area with reduced troops, it is conscious of improving intra- and inter-theater mobility.
In the past, the method of airlifting troops in remote areas together with equipment by air was taken, but in this reform, "weapon equipment repair and storage bases (BKhRVT)" that depot equipment have been set up in various places, and personnel The method of transporting only was adopted.This enables emergency deployment of troops in a much shorter time than before.
Logistics reform
The equipment department and the rear (logistics) department within the Ministry of Defense have been integrated, and a system has been created to carry out the procurement and transportation of all goods in a unified manner.
Furthermore, in the future, the conventional rear security regiment will be upgraded to a logistics brigade, and two will be placed in each OSK.
In addition, the school lunch, laundry, bathing work, etc. that the soldiers have done by themselves so farPrivatizationBy doing so, costs are being reduced and reforms are underway to dedicate soldiers to combat training.
Equipment update
Since 2007, the "National Weapons Plan for 5 (GPV-2015)" has been started with an investment of about 2015 trillion rubles, but in fiscal 2009, 41.9% did not reach the target on an issue basis and 69.9% on a product basis. However, the target was not achieved, and the update did not proceed slowly.Also, the new weapons introduced were only improved versions of those developed during the Soviet era, and were criticized as outdated.Therefore, GPV-2015 was reorganized into the "National Weapons Plan by 2020 (GPV-2020)", and at the same time, the munitions industry modernization plan (total of 3 trillion rubles) was started.
In addition, a state-owned enterprise "" was set up to undertake the maintenance and maintenance of equipment, repair and modernization, and housing construction, as well as the procurement of equipment in a lump sum.
In addition, Defense Minister Sergekov imposes fines on companies with soaring prices and late delivery.France OfMistral-class amphibious assault shipWe also started to introduce foreign-made weapons, such as concluding an import contract with[21].

After taking office as Shoygu

The Sergekov reform mentioned above received strong opposition from the military and munitions industries.In addition to the opposition from military personnel due to the reduction of personnel, the munitions industry, which was concerned about losing its share due to the introduction of foreign-made weapons, also called for opposition. Sergekov announced his resignation in November 2011, replacing himSergey ShoigServed.

Occurred during the reformUkraine invasionThen,Ukrainian armyThe Russian army's reputation has changed in Europe due to the overwhelming difference in troop strength and the exposure of many problems.[26].

Chief of Staff

The General Staff, which was deprived of operational command authority by the SR-Vektor reform, was not only restored to its previous state by the 2013 Presidential Decree "Problems of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation", but also coordinated the activities of a wide range of other ministries. Given stronger authority such as abilities.

Army formation

The division of "divisions" was abolished in principle due to the Sergekov reform, but in 2013 the two divisions (2th Independent Motorized Infantry Brigade and 4th Independent Tank Brigade) stationed near Moscow were given honorary titles since the Soviet era. And the division system was revived.This is not just an honorary title, it is actually reorganized into a division.Behind this move is the military's concern that brigades will not be able to counter the outbreak of a large-scale war.Sergekov's reforms were based on the premise that the risk of such a war outbreak was low, but military strategists tended to abandon political judgment and think about things from a physical military balance.Yu KoizumiPoints out[21].

Mitigation of troop reduction

The reduction of officers to less than half in the Sergekov reform was eased to about 2011 in 22.The reorganization period has also been postponed, and the reduction to a fixed number of 100 million people will be implemented by 2016.[15].

Establishment of the Aerospace Force

In 2015, it was an independent military departmentAerospace Defense Forces air forceMerged withAerospace ForceWas established. In 2012, the Air Force commander indicated his intention to revive the "air division-air regiment" system, and the Sergekov reform was rewound.

Mass production of AI weapons

As an emergency phaseNuclear accidentMech robotShoygu, who has experience in introducing, is from the perspective of reducing the casualties of soldiers.Artificial intelligenceEquipped with (AI)Military robotDroneLed the formation of troops by (drone)[27].

problem

Budget shortage

Russia's military budget is againstGDPThe ratio is around 3%, which is high among the current major developed countries, but it is said to be significantly smaller than the western army. The military budget for 2007 was US $ 354 billion, which was one-twentieth of the United States while being the seventh largest in the world.For this reason, even the labor cost, which accounted for 7% of the military budget, was small in absolute amount, and at that timeGeneralEven the class was $ 500 / month, and the general drafted soldiers were $ 3-5 / month.[Note 5]..In modern Russia, which has achieved remarkable economic growth, it is difficult to maintain a high level of vocational awareness with such treatment.For this reason, in 2012, the salary was tripled and various allowances were abolished, and the amendment was made to increase the salary by about 3%.[20]..In addition, in order to change the conscription system to a contract system by volunteers, a defense budget is required to improve salaries and housing, which greatly limits the transition to the contract system.

Amount of troops

In RussiaGreat Patriotic War(Napoleonic WarIn1812 Russian campaignRussian name)Great Patriotic War(Second World War OfGerman-Soviet battleAlthough the French and German troops invaded the western part of the country with the Russian name), they mobilized a large number of troops to defeat the enemy who was superior in combat experience and weapon technology, and defeated them. The idea that a large number of mobilizable troops that can quickly build a thick line of defense that can prevent the invasion of the enemy is essential to defend the vast and rugged land is still deep-rooted.However, Russia's population has been declining since 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.Birth rateHas been recovering to around 1.75 in recent years, but like other developed countriesLow birthrate and aging populationRussia, which is also troubled byPeople's Republic of ChinaAgainstHuman tacticsIt is becoming more difficult to adopt a type of combat form (although for China as well).Home consciousnessWith tradition that emphasizesone child policyThere is also an analysis that it is difficult to have a human-wave tactical battle form that involves a great deal of sacrifice).Also, in modern timesTotal warThere is also a question in Russia whether it is necessary to maintain even the fixed number of 100 million people at all times due to the low possibility of this and the above-mentioned conscription failure.Former House of Representatives Alexei Albertov, director of the Security Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for World Economics and International Relations, does not have to stick to the 100 million scale, but first reduces it to 80 and then gains knowledge of science and technology. It should consist of 55-60 elite contract soldiers who are well-trained.

If you compare Russia's troops with neighboring countries, if you compare Japan and Russia,JapanRussia, with a population of 1 million, just over 2,700 million,SDFIt will maintain 25 million troops, which is about four times the number of troops (a little less than 4 troops) (however, the ratio of troops to the total population of Japan isUnited Kingdom,GermanyEtc.EuropeLess than in other countries).on the other hand, South KoreaComparing Russia with Russia, South Korea, which has a population of just over one-third of Russia, has about 3 troops, and its ratio of troops to the population is higher than that of Russia (however, South Korea is nominally still today).north koreaWar stateIs.In addition, North Korea has 120 million troops, the ratio of troops to the population is even higher than that of South Korea, and the number of troops is more than that of the Russian army).TurkeyIn comparison with Russia, Turkey, which has a population of about 7,500 million, has about 65 troops, and the ratio of troops to the population is almost the same as that of Russia.

Bullying

Against recruits in the corpsBullying(ДеДoвщина) Is intense and is a major cause of escape.Officially, there were 2002 deserters in the first half of 2,265 alone, but the Union of the Committees of Russian Soldiers said it was ten times that number. According to official figures for 10, the number of deaths due to bullying was 2005, the number of suicides was 16, and the number of accidental deaths was 276, but this number was questioned in Russia.[29].. The death toll of Russian soldiers in the first half of 2004 reached more than 500[12].

crime

As mentioned above, due to the cut-off of the defense budget due to the lack of tax revenue after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian army with low salaries, from high-ranking executives to terminal soldiers, will commit some crime or corruption to compensate for the low income. There are many cases, and the disorder of the morals has become a serious problem.It is still a good example for officers to lend soldiers to the private sector as labor and gain private profits, and it is said that acts such as diversion of weapons and food and threatening goods from recruits are routinely performed. Be done[29].. Happened in 1993Russian Pacific FleetmalnutritionIt has been a long time since the death of four recruits, but no fundamental improvement has been made. It is said that 4 million rubles were misused by crime from defense spending in the first half of 2004 alone.[Note 6].

During the time of President Yeltsin after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the national budget was on the verge of collapse or collapsed, so the defense budget approved by the parliament was not in a situation where it could be spent, but the official figures are the second in the world after the United States. It was a military power of the rank.During this period, it was not surprising that there was a big difference between the nominal and actual expenditures of defense spending, and it became a source of fraudulent involvement for military personnel and bureaucrats in the position of managing and executing budgets. A September 2 investigation report by the Cheong Wa Dae points out that "customs" continue.[12].YeltsinIn the administrationMinister of Foreign AffairsServed asAndrei Kozyrev"The Russian government has spent the last 20 years trying to modernize its army." "Most of its budget has been stolen.CyprusLuxuryヨ ッ トIt was used for such things.However, military advisers could not report this to the president and lied.It ’s a false army. ”[26].

Weapon procurement

Due to the turmoil after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the outflow of skilled workers and the succession of technology to young people do not proceed as expected, and even if a budget is set due to the aging of engineers, production tends to be impossible as planned.In addition, failures due to simple mistakes are increasing.In the future, it was planned to order a large amount of weapons and proceed with modernization under the national equipment plan up to 20 with a budget of about 2020 trillion rubles, but depending on the budget situation, the immediate response force will be prioritized and the latest equipment will be deployed. The rate was over 58% for immediate response units only.[2]..However, while the aerospace force is 66%, the navy is 47%, which is a disparity depending on the service.[2].

事件

2011/June 6, in the Midwestern part of RussiaUdmurt RepublicA large-scale explosion followed a fire at a military ammunition depot in Tokyo, killing two residents and injuring 2 people, including firefighters.As a result, about 57 residents in the area were evacuated.Approximately 2 tons of ammunition and other items are stored in the ammunition depot, and local authorities believe that there is a high possibility of misfire.[30].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the eight years 2000-2007GDP(GDP) is about 2,000 billionU.S. dollarHas grown six-fold from US $ 1 trillion to US $ 2,000 trillion.
  2. ^ ザヴァルジン委員長によれば、2011-2013年のGOZにおいて、装備調達・修理・近代化改修のための費用は、4596億7400万ルーブル(対前年度比約20%増)、2012年が5955億9140万ルーブル、2013年度が9800億6300万ルーブルとなる。また、新規調達:修理・近代化改修:研究開発の各予算比は、2011年度が64:15:20、2012年度が66:15:18、2013年度が70:14:16となる見込み。[10]
  3. ^ PutinWith the Prime MinisterIvanovThe former Defense Minister, and his two sons, all chose military training at the university and escaped military service.
  4. ^ The draft evasion rate is 90.5% in Russia as a whole and 97% in metropolitan areas.
  5. ^ As of 2006, the ArmyLieutenantThere is also information that it is 150 US dollars / month[28].
  6. ^ Most of the weapons used by Chechen rebels were illegally diverted by the Russian Armed Forces and the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs security forces.Irish Republican (IRA)Tamil Elam Liberation Tiger It is said that the same is true for armed struggle organizations such as (LTTE).for exampleAK-74If you sell one automatic rifle at a selling price of US $ 1, you can get a profit of US $ 600-100 even if you subtract US $ 200-400 for the brokerage fee, which is equivalent to the salary of a lieutenant or captain class for three months. It is said that it is.A particular threat from other developed countries is that it was made in Russia even in 500.Shoulder-type anti-aircraft missile The fact is that (MANPADS) are missing on a scale of tens of thousands.It is said that 15% of crimes in Russia are committed by the Russian Armed Forces.It is also noteworthy that the weapons themselves manufactured in the Russian weapons industry, as well as inside the army, are sold through illegal routes.[28].

Source

  1. ^ Reiwa 2nd Year Defense of Japan
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Russia basic data --Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
  3. ^ newsinfo.ru May 2010, 5.http://www.newsinfo.ru/articles/2010-05-28/cxzrr/732032/>
  4. ^ Russia rapidly strengthening the defense of the Arctic insists on "renewal of existing troops"WEDGE Infinity(2014 12 年 月 日 19)
  5. ^ "Russia Northern Fleet promoted to military district NATO restraint to effective control of the Arctic Circle"SankeiBiz(Delivery on December 2021, 1) Retrieved on November 15, 2021
  6. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 21.12.2020 № 803 «О Северном флоте»Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (December 2020, 12). 2020/12/23Browse.
  7. ^ "Nuclear use guideline dew counters US arms race / Mr Putin aims to recover centripetal force" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition March 2020, 6 (international side)
  8. ^ Julian Cooper, Military Expenditure in the Russian 2010 draft budget: research note,http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/milex/publications/unpubl_milex/cooper0912>
  9. ^ Yu Koizumi "Unknown Russian Armed Forces Ministry" "Military research』May 2008 issue
  10. ^ http://www.duma-er.ru/press/43629
  11. ^ "28 version Defense White Paper"
  12. ^ a b c Kensuke Ebata"Current Situation of Reform of the Russian Army and Ministry of Defense" "Military Research" January 2009 issue
  13. ^ Yu Koizumi (February 2014, 2). "Russia obliges non-prestigious college students to do military education, conscription in the face of collapse, twisting government executives ...". Japan Business Press. http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/39982 2014/2/22Browse. 
  14. ^ Yu Koizumi (February 2010, 11). "There are no soldiers! Bullying and murders occur frequently in the Russian conscription army at the crossroads, and professional military personnel are not progressing.". Japan Business Press. http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/4914 2014/3/7Browse. 
  15. ^ a b 2nd Year of the Defense White Paper Part I Security Environment Surrounding Japan Chapter 2 Defense Policies of Other Countries Section 4 Russia 2 Security and National Defense Policy
  16. ^ "Showa63 Defense of Japan] ”(quoted from“ Military Balance 1987-1988 ”)
  17. ^ According to Shiobara's "Russian Military Industry", the number was about 1988 million in 339.
  18. ^ Toshihiko Shiobara, "Where is Russia's Military Industry?" (Iwanami Shinsho, 2003)
  19. ^ NHK Special"Russia of Putin, a swaying power" broadcast on March 2009, 3 at 23 pm "Children of Putin" (Japan Broadcasting CorporationProduction)
  20. ^ a b Toshihiko Shiobara, "Latest Defense Analysis of Russia (2013 Edition)"
  21. ^ a b c d e 1982-, Koizumi, Yū ,; 1982-, Yu Koizumi, (April 2016.4). Gunji taikoku roshia: arata na sekai senryaku to kōdō genri. Tōkyō: Sakuhinsha. ISBN 9784861825804. OCLC 951723833. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/951723833 
  22. ^ Untitled article on December 2008, 12[Broken link]asahi.com
  23. ^ Yu Koizumi "Summary of the 2010 Russian Military Situation" "Military Research" January 2011 issue
  24. ^ Russian army not fit for modern war: top general, to Reuters, December 2008, 12http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE4BF5JM20081216>
  25. ^ Yu Koizumi "Is the Russian Army Reborn?" Toyo Bookstore Eurasia Booklet
  26. ^ a b "Surprising Vulnerability of "Russian Army" Exposed in Ukraine Invasion | The New York Times”(Japanese). 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (September 2022, 3). 2022/3/13Browse.
  27. ^ "Russia to form AI unit The leading role is the" soulless army "of murder robots and unmanned aerial vehicles". Tokyo Newspaper(July 2021, 9). https://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/132398 2021/9/27Browse. 
  28. ^ a b January 2009 issue of "Military Studies"
  29. ^ a b Hiroshi Kimura, Kenro Nagoshi, Hiroyuki Fuse, "A Prelude to the New Cold War", Hokuseidou Bookstore, December 2008, 12, First Edition, First Edition ISBN 9784590012452
  30. ^ "Explosion in the dew's military ammunition depot, killing two people and evacuating 2 people""Yomiuri Shimbun] June 2011, 6

Related item

外部 リンク

  1. ^ Russian Army Shrine Completed in the suburbs of Moscow 75 years of victory over Germany, becoming a symbol of patriotism"Mainichi Newspapers』April 2020, 6 (viewed June 23, 2020)

 

Back to Top
Fermer