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🌏 | China's economic recovery is not solid, and further efforts are needed = Prime Minister


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China's economic recovery is not solid, and further efforts are needed = Prime Minister

 
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He noted that it is also extremely important for the wealthiest regions of China to accept migrant workers and support their income.
 

[Beijing XNUMXth Reuters] -China's Prime Minister Li Keqiang said that although the Chinese economy is recovering, the foundation is not solid and it is one step further ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


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Foreign worker

Foreign worker(Aliens, aliens,English : Foreign worker) Is from another countryWorkerIs the name given from the perspective of the host country.Migrant worker(Migrant worker)friend.From a foreign countryMigrant worker TheMigrant workerinclude.

Factors of labor movement

Factors that create foreign workers include economic disparities with neighboring countries.On the other hand, so-called since the end of the 20th centuryGlobalizationIt should also be noted that the movement of international people has become more active.

In the traditional way of thinking, the factors that cause foreign workers are classified into push factors (causes on the sending country side) and pull factors (causes on the receiving country side).

The push factor is that economic development is delayed on the sending country side, employment opportunities are insufficient, and the labor force becomes excessive.The pull factor is the labor shortage caused by the host country's high economic growth.Developed countryInLow birthrate and aging populationMay also be the cause.It is said that the combination of these two causes the movement of the labor force.In this case, the disparity in wages and income between the two countries becomes important.

on the other hand,GlobalizationThere is also a strong opinion that analysis of bilateral relations alone is not enough when considering labor migration.

In addition, the movement of regional integration seen in recent years is also considered to have a great impact on labor movement.Regional economic integrationIt is predicted that the movement of specialist engineers will be freed in the short term, while the economy will be activated in the long term to suppress the generation of excess labor and the movement of labor in the region will become stable. Has been done.howeverEUThe economic disparity between member countries is relatively small, but the disparity is large.AFTAIn such cases, comparative advantage between countries will become apparent, and there is a risk that a large amount of surplus labor will be generated as the industrial structure is reorganized.

In addition to labor migration due to economic factors, blood-related factors, those associated with technology transfer, forced displacement, etc. also cause the inflow and outflow of labor.In recent years, the development of transportation and communication networks has also facilitated the movement of labor.

Classification of skilled and unskilled workers

Foreign workers are treated as unskilled workers (simple workers, sometimes referred to as migrant workers) who work in fields that do not require specific skills or experience, as well as professional and technical fields. It is roughly divided into skilled workers who are active in Japan.In the past, international movement of professionals was rare, so unskilled workers were the subject of discussion when discussing the issue of foreign workers.Developed countries once accepted a large number of foreign workers from neighboring countries due to labor shortages when they reached high economic development, but later adopted restrictions because they would put pressure on their own labor market if the economy stagnated. ..Nevertheless, the influx continues, and many countriesIllegal stayHolding a person.SerpentThe commercialization of illegal immigration is also progressing by mediation groups such as.

On the other hand, the movement of workers in the professional and technical fieldsGlobalizationIt has increased with the progress of.Especially when the field of information and communication technology began to be emphasized, each country began to develop laws that make it easier for engineers to enter the country in order to strengthen its international competitiveness.ITThe largest sending country in the fieldIndia, The host countryThe United States of America.

problem

There are various problems with foreign workers.The main debate is the "brain drain" problem from the perspective of the country that sent the workers.Developed countryThere is competition for engineers among them, and the pros and cons of accepting unskilled workers (workers in fields that do not require specific skills or experience).In particular, unskilled workers are often regarded as serious problems because they are linked to criminal issues and human rights issues.Illegal entrySome people see it as a hotbed for various incidents, as it often involves people's problems.

Economic impact

When introducing unskilled workers at low wages, there are concerns about a decline in wage levels and an increase in involuntary unemployment in the country.However, scrutinized empirical studies using data from the United States, Canada, Japan, and Europe have not found such a negative relationship. (See Nakamura et al.)[Source required]

January 2015Bank of EnglandPublished a study on the link between wages and immigrants, with a 10 percent increase in the proportion of immigrants for unskilled workersAverage wageShowed a 2 percent drop[1].

Full-scale acceptance of unskilled workers, labor laws and regulations社会 保障If this is done, there is a concern that wages will rise and the financial burden will increase. (However, in an economy with a declining birthrate, new workers can share the social security of the current elderly generation more widely, which will reduce the burden on the younger generation as well).[Source required]

It is also thought to bring about economic revitalization in the medium to long term.Especially in developed countriesLow birthrate and aging populationIs progressing, and the proportion of the youth labor force is declining.For this reason, there is an opinion that the import of labor is indispensable to maintain the economic scale.[2][3].

Social integration

In European countries, host countries have traditionally assumed temporary stays for foreign workers.However, their stays have been prolonged, and they have tended to settle down due to family calls, which has caused various new social problems.Under such circumstances, measures such as what kind of position to give foreign workers in their own country and how to incorporate the foreign community already in the country into the local community, that is, "social integration" will be considered. Became.(Note: In this case, "social integration" meansAssimilation policyDoes not mean. )

First of all, in the early stages, prevention of exploitation and improvement of an appropriate working environment can be mentioned.These are also important for short-term employment.

Next, there are issues such as prevention of conflict with local residents and housing problems.In non-speaking countries, there is a tendency for the country's people to become more dependent on their communities as their stays longer, but this in itself also creates silent pressure on the surrounding community.

It is often difficult for foreign workers to secure housing due to various certifications.In addition, unskilled workers tend to gather in areas where rent is low, and in such cases, the conflict with the local community becomes even stronger.If you do not take appropriate measuresSlumThe risk of conversion increases.If you settle down by calling in your family or getting married locally, you will have problems with your child's education.Schools have difficulty responding to poor language proficiency and often receive complaints from locals.FurthermorepensionSuch as社会 保障And how much legal status is allowed.

If the influx and settlement of foreign workers progresses without taking these measures properly, it is thought that they will be pushed to the bottom of society, and as a result, they will be more likely to commit crimes and radical thoughts and religions.However, these integrated policies inevitably come with considerable social costs.

There is also strong opposition to the idea of ​​social integration.In Europe, in the 1990s, despite the high unemployment rate, a large influx of foreign workers led to an increase in nativism.Especially in GermanyNeo NaziNot only groups but also ordinary young people have clashed with the foreign worker community, causing casualties (in some cases).SolingenIncident etc.).It is also a big problem that the stratification is progressing among the resident foreigners.In many countries, there is a growing polarization between those who are integrated into society and those who are left behind due to differences in language ability.Under these circumstances, in 2005London simultaneous bombing terrorismThere has occurred.Although the background remains unclear, Islamic immigrant crimes have cast great doubts on the process of social integration.Also in 20052005 Suburban Paris Riot CaseIs also occurring.

Cultural friction

In Japan, a district where many foreign workers live (for example, there is an automobile-related factory nearby).GunmaOta City,Oizumi Town,ShizuokaHamamatsu city,AichiToyota CityEtc.)supermarketIn some cases, local Japanese customers are shunned, and service providers such as travel agencies are born from food and clothing stores for foreign workers and their families, barber shops, and video rental stores. In some cases, it looks like a foreigner's town.It is also caused by the incomprehension of language and culture.Cultural frictionIt is also serious, and there are cases where the following troubles occur among residents due to differences in lifestyle.

  • Despite being an apartment for singles, several residents live in, ignoring the rental contract, and there is noise in life day and night.
  • Burning garbage, plastic, bottles and cansSorting methoddo not understand
  • Culturally too foreign to understand

These problems are especially serious in areas where the number of foreign workers has increased rapidly, and there are cases where private shops are at the mercy of the outlandish behavior of foreign workers who are customers, because they cannot understand the language at shops. There are also situations in which the store is closed due to disgust.On the other hand, there are cases where foreign workers who are not familiar with the local community, which has been cultivated among local residents for a long time, are isolated.

Human rights violations of foreign workers

Human rights violations of technical intern trainees have become a major problem in Japan.A Vietnamese technical intern trainee was tricked into decontaminating work[4], Was working at a wage below the minimum wage[5] There is a problem such as.

Crime and security

Alien crime

Foreigners are one of the reasons why they are reluctant to accept foreign workers in developed countries.crimeThere are concerns about an increase in the number of people.Crime statistics often show that in some developed countries the crime rate of foreigners is higher than that of the Japanese (although there are various opinions about the interpretation of crime statistics).

Some of those who cross the borderdrug-FirearmIt is often considered that there is a thief group formed by an unspecified number of foreigners and smuggling.Most of the time, those who are involved in these acts are considered to be criminal acts for the purpose of their arrival, but in recent years (such as carrying luggage requested by an acquaintance without knowing the contents), the person himself / herself does not know. Being a smuggler, or being dazzled by a large amount of compensation, he undertakes transportation that connects domestic criminal organizations with foreign buyers, and is in need of food to help criminal groups. There are also cases where it ends up.

Also, in areas where foreign migrant workers who have vaguely sought work (especially when the domestic acceptance destination is uncertain) are densely populated, the problem of theft caused by squeezed workers and their miscellaneous Security problems that can be exacerbated by criminals fleeing abroad among residents are also becoming grave.

In June 2020, a 6-year-old unemployed Filipino national who lived unemployed was railroaded for a free ride on the Shinkansen from Tokyo to Hakata in order to head for Nagasaki, which has no resident status and is registered as a resident, with a special fixed-amount benefit in Korona-ka. Fukuoka Prefectural Police Hakata Station arrested on suspicion of violating the Business Law[6]..Foreign workers sometimes do not move to the registered resident area and become non-resident, leading to delinquency in residence tax and national health insurance tax.

Riot

Riots by foreign workers are occurring in each country due to the working environment and human rights violations.

  • 2005 Suburban Paris Riot Case
  • Riots of foreign workers across Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain in 2005
  • In 2006, UAE, Dubai reportedly suffered $ 2500 million in riots by 100 foreign workers[7]
  • In 2010, hundreds of African migrants rioted in Italy, residents counterattacked and about 70 (mostly foreign workers) were injured.[8]
  • In 2013, 400 foreign workers riot after the death of Indian foreign workers in a car accident in Singapore[9]
  • Thousands of African workers riot in Saudi Arabia in 2013[10]
  • Strikes by foreign workers in Malaysia, Johor and Malacca in 2013 led to riots (due to postponement of minimum wage implementation)[11]
  • Riots by migrant workers and immigrants in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, since May 2013[12]
Riot in Japan

The types of riots by foreign workers in Japan include those caused by groups of specific nationalities or multiple nationalities independently seeking social security (living protection), dissatisfaction with society due to disparity / poverty, discrimination, etc. It can be divided into two groups: domestic dissatisfied elements that have organized students, workers, farmers, and women, and those that are synchronized with immigrant workers.

Sexual and social abuse of housekeepers

In a special feature on modern-day slavery, the British newspaper Guardian reports that 2013 Filipino women were protected in the first half of 600 alone for the abuse of foreign housekeepers working in Qatar.Qatar officials have denied pointing out that it is a slave state[13].

Victims of trafficking and criminal organizations

In connection with recruitment and travel of workersHuman traffickingIs also seen in some cases.

There are many cases of human trafficking related to employment in Japan,SerpentPart of Japan and JapanGangsterIs recruiting local personnel and arranging travel expenses, means, domestic workplaces and places of residence in Japan, but is carrying a lot of debt.When you arrive in Japanpassport,Alien Registration CardTo take upForced laborThere is also an incident of letting them do it.Especially for women, these tricksprostitutionThere are many cases of being forced to suffer damage.The problem had already become apparent since the 1980s,2004To米 国Since then, Japan has developed into a situation in which it is designated as a country requiring monitoring of human trafficking.

For this reason, the Government of Japan has aimed to strengthen trafficking monitoring since 2004.Immigration Control LawAs a result of the amendment, the victims of trafficking in persons are being protected publicly and supported to return to their home countries at national expense, and the suspects in trafficking in persons are allowed to stay in Japan during the trial period to investigate criminal acts.AlsoNational Police AgencyIs also prone to become a hotbed for these criminal actsSex sexProstitution sales office (non-store sales type)Delivery healthIn the direction of monitoring and cracking down)Customs business lawObligation to report business to the non-store-type sex prostitution industry, whose substance was unclear in particular in items such as "Regulations on non-store-type sex customs special business" in Chapter 4, Section 2, Subsection 2 And other detailed business content regulations were incorporated, and it was strengthened in terms of application of penalties.

Some people sell off household goods and houses as travel expenses and stay expenses, but some of them mediate smuggling.mafiaIt has been reported that they were deceived and forced to participate in forced labor and crimes as a shortage of travel expenses, and some people lose too much as a price to dream of getting rich. be.

However, in the human trafficking in Japan pointed out by the United States, it is also said that he pointed out the hostess employment of a Filipino talent who visited Japan about 8 a year, and in the United States it is a business that started from a geisha culture like a Japanese cabaret club. There was a misunderstanding that the system was not understood and that it was a sex industry.At that time, the Japanese government, whose primary goal was to become a permanent member of the board, immediately admitted it as a personal trade and imposed significant restrictions on box office visas. A protest rally was held in front of the Japanese embassy in Japan, asking the Japanese side to maintain the immigration of Japan.[14].

また restaurant,Water business,Sex shopThere are many cases in which foreign managers are arrested for promoting illegal employment of foreigners.[15][16].


Acceptance status in each country

Germany

West GermanyThen.Second World WarAfter that, it showed tremendous economic growth, but the labor shortage became serious along with it.For this reason, the government has signed bilateral agreements with each country, established "Germany Commissions" in major cities of each country, and conducted labor recruitment activities in cooperation with the institutions of the home countries.InitiallyItaly,Spain,Berlin WallAfter constructionPortugal,ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アWorkers gathered from such reasons, but the most influx wasTurkeyI was from.

the first timeOil crisisThe economy was hit by.ShimoBaby boomAs it was predicted that the generation's entry into the labor market would begin in earnest, the government would stop recruiting foreign workers in principle and at the same time.Labor market testWas introduced.However, the number of foreigners has been increasing due to the long-term stay of foreign workers in Japan and the invitation of their families.The effects of policies such as the provision of return incentives were only temporary.

For this reason, their social integration was planned, but the attempt became difficult due to the economic downturn after the unification of East and West Germany.Unemployment increased in the former East Germany region, andCold WarThe end ofBalkan PeninsulaEconomy from other countries due to worsening situationrefugeesInflowed in large quantities.As a result, the labor market became unstable, domestic sentiment toward foreign workers worsened, and foreign attack cases continued.

Currently, Germany, like other developed countries, is tightening restrictions on the acceptance of unskilled workers and is actively recruiting workers with specialized skills. In 2000, in the information and communication field, a green card system was launched to simplify the acquisition of work permits only for those with a certain educational background and skills.In addition, in order to promote these policies, the new immigration law was enforced in 2005, and various systems were put in place.On the other hand, it has signed bilateral agreements targeting Eastern European countries and accepts unskilled workers in a limited way for the purpose of economic assistance.

Since 2016, the number of foreign workers from Balkan countries outside the EU has been increasing.People from these countries were allowed to stay in Japan due to humanitarian considerations because the situation was not good, but this was eliminated due to the improvement in the situation and the switch to work qualifications progressed.[17].

Information technologyThere is an urgent need to accept people due to the delay of the domestic industry, but the current situation is that the acquisition target has not been reached due to language barriers.

France

FranceThe labor force has been in short supply since the beginning of the 20th century,Second World WarIt required a large number of workers during the later economic reconstruction period.for that reasonSpain-Portugal-アルジェリアfromImmigrationThere are many.

InitiallyWhiteThere were many immigrants, but graduallyEuropeThe number of immigrants from the outside has increased and friction has started to occur.They are also often forced into harsh workplaces with low wages and in their place of residence.SlumBy aliens and foreignersLabor disputeVarious problems have occurred.Primary in such a situationOil crisisHas occurred, and it has become desirable to stop accepting foreign workers.

1974Became presidentGiskar DestinDecided to stop accepting immigrants. In 1976, a subsidy was provided to those who wished to return to Japan, but it was not very effective.In addition, the total number of foreigners increased rather because foreign workers were not prohibited from calling their families.Social integration will become a major issue for those who are settling down.

However, confusion continued over what rights foreign workers would be granted.1981MitterrandThe administration broadly guaranteed rights to foreigners in the country, but the rights were gradually diminished as the right wing emerged.1993Amendments to the revised Immigration Act (Pasqua Act) and the Nationality Act have resulted in strong immigration restrictions and significant restrictions on the rights of foreigners.In addition, the Immigration Law of 97 did not allow foreign workers to renew their residence permit. The 98 amendment made these regulations looser.In accepting workersLabor market testIs used, but due to the high unemployment rate, acceptance is rarely permitted.

In 2006,Nikola SarkozyThe new immigration law, which was being promoted by the Interior Minister, will be passed.The essence of this bill is called "Immigration choisie" and it is the stricter selection of immigrants' eligibility to stay.The law includes stricter examination of residence qualifications for French spouses, new residence qualifications for highly skilled and talented foreigners, and mandatory French education for immigrants and French citizen education. There is.

United Kingdom

Switzerland

SwitzerlandHas accepted many foreign workers, mainly seasonal workers, but since the 1970s, a quantity allocation system has been introduced to curb excessive inflows.

Residence permits issued to workers in Switzerland include seasonal residence permits, year-round residence permits and short-term residence permits.A seasonal residence permit is issued to solve a temporary labor shortage in the agriculture, construction and tourism industries.EUandEFTALimited to those within range.A labor market test is to be conducted when issuing a year-round residence permit.

Swiss writerMax Frisch"We called the labor force, but it was humans who came," Wir riefen Arbeitskräfte und es kamen Menschen. "

ルーマニア

In the 2010s, the people moved to rich countries and the labor force became insufficient due to the declining birthrate and aging population.As a result, acceptance of foreign workers from outside the EU has begun to increase.In particular, the number of Vietnamese workers has increased since 2017, and a memorandum of understanding was signed with the Vietnamese government in 2018. Vietnamese were the most new work permit in non-EU member states in the first half of 2019[18].

Poland

Accepting Belarusian and Ukrainian workers due to the ongoing outflow of human resources[19]..In particular, there are many Ukrainian workers, and it is said that there are about 100 million in the country.However, it is still expected to be understaffed, so we entered into bilateral intergovernmental talks to accept workers from the same Catholic country, the Philippines.[20][21].

Singapore

SingaporeThen, in the 1970s, high growth began and the labor force became scarce.On the other hand, the country has been promoting the introduction of foreign labor force.Especially for workers with specialized skills, the acceptance criteria are relaxed and the aim is to actively acquire them.

The employment tax and employment rate system is used to regulate the acceptance of unskilled workers.Employment tax is a system that pays a certain amount of tax when hiring foreigners.The employment rate sets an upper limit on the percentage of foreign workers in each company.By combining these two, it is possible to perform fine control while using the market principle, but there is also a problem that the cost of employment tax is likely to be passed on to workers.

Malaysia

MalaysiaThen, the economy developed steadily from the 1960s, but skilled workers in urban areas went abroad, and rural workers flowed into the cities to make up for the shortage of labor, resulting in labor in rural areas. There was a chain phenomenon of lack of power.for that reasonPlantationInIndonesiaEmployment has progressed centered on people.

In the 1980s, foreign workers became involved in the manufacturing and construction industries, and a large influx occurred from neighboring countries.As they work in urban areas, they create friction with the general public, and eventually an exclusionary movement begins.

In the 1990s, Malaysia frozen the employment of foreigners, severely punished smugglers and their employers, and took various measures such as promoting Amnesty International for illegal immigrants.However, smuggling from neighboring countries is constantly occurring and is nowIllegal stayIt is said that there are more than 100 million people.

On the other hand, the outflow of skilled workers to developed countries continues, and labor control has become the most important issue.

South Korea

South KoreaThe structure surrounding foreign workers within Japan has many similarities to Japan.Traditionally, in South Korea, as in Japan, the status of residence system (positive list) has limited acceptance to those with specialized skills.HoweverSeoul OlympicsAs the economy grew around the same time, the labor shortage became noticeable.So the government in 1991Developing countriesIntroduced an industrial training system in the name of technical improvement, and accepted virtually unskilled workers.However, the trainee disappeared at the training site in search of higher wages.Illegal employmentThere were a lot of things to do.The government has taken a number of measures, but they have no effect, and in 2002, 8% of all foreign workers wereIllegal stayIt came to be.

For this reason, we made (legalization) for illegal immigrants in 2003, and in 04 the following year.Labor market testWe started a foreign employment permit system using the above, and started full-scale acceptance of unskilled workers.

The United States of America

The United States of AmericaAcceptance of foreigners inImmigrationAlthough policy is the main focus (United States historySee also), here non-immigrant trends, most of whichMexicoDescribes the workers from.

When the United States and Mexico were connected by rail in the early 20th century, many Mexicans headed to the United States and were involved in railroad construction and agriculture in the southern and western states.especiallyWorld War IAfter that, the inflow increased sharply due to labor shortage.But laterGreat DepressionMany of them returned to Japan due to unemployment, government incentives for returning home, and racial discrimination.Second World WarWhen the outbreak broke out, labor shortages began to occur again, especially in agricultural labor in the south.Therefore, the United States has bilateral agreements with each country to accept workers.1942I pushed forward from.CaribbeanCountries andCanadaThey also signed an agreement, but most of the acceptance was from Mexican workers.1965Although the Bracero program was abolished, many foreign workers did not return to Japan, and the problems of illegal immigration and smuggling became serious.

1986Was enforced, and the legalization of those who have stayed illegally for a long period of time was stipulated, and the punishment of employers for illegal employment and the strengthening of crackdowns on border guards were stipulated.Since then, various law revisions have taken strict measures against illegal immigrants.

1990Was revised.The short-term work visa system has been reorganized, reducing acceptance of unskilled workers and establishing a new H-1B visa for professionals.Such legislation later led to the acquisition of a large number of engineers, mainly in the IT field.

Currently, non-immigrant employment is regulated by the status of residence system, and unskilled workers are regulated.Labor market testIs used.In addition, regarding illegal immigrants, there is a movement to allow primary labor against the background of tight labor force (2007).[22].

Taiwan

In Taiwan, foreign workersForeign laborIt is called (abbreviation: foreign labor).The scale is 2017 as of November 11[23].Manufacturing industryI work in a simple labor field.wageIs cheap, and in some cases it is about half that of Taiwanese workers[24].

Russia

oldUSSRIt is,1967ThanSiberia OfNorth Sea woodAt logging sites, etc.north koreaStarted accepting workers from[25].2017,united nationsSecurity CouncilBy North KoreaNuclear testとMissile launch experimentIf a sanctions resolution is passed against Russia, Russia will also be granted a residence permit for one year.[26] Shrink to and stop accepting new[27],2019Policy to return all North Korean workers by the end[28] Is starting to be repatriated[29].

Also, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many foreign workers from Central Asia have been accepted.[30].

in Japan

概況

Second World WarBefore, the labor force was rather surplus,ImmigrationIt was releasing the labor force in the form of.It was in excess for some time after the war.High economic growthThere was concern about a temporary labor shortage during the period,Baby boom generationThere are abundant young workers consisting ofGroup employmentThe labor force problem was solved because the labor force could be secured only in Japan through flexible distribution.Howeverthe 1980sAs the population structure changes and young people are becoming more educatedBubble economyWas welcomed.By this time, the "maturation" of society has progressed, and unskilled labor is "tight, dirty, and dangerous" (so-called ""3K") And so on.This caused a serious labor shortage.on the other handSoutheast Asia,South AsiaInthe 1970sBy that time, migrant workers to other countries had been structured,Middle EastThe boom in oil money has come to an end, and migrant workers have lost their place.Under such circumstances, Japan's booming economy attracted attention.

Already in the early 1980s South Korea-フィリピンAsian women, mainly in the food and beverage industry, were flowing into Japan under the pretext of a box office visa.During the bubble eraSouth America OfNikkei, ThenPakistan,バングラデシュ,Furthermore(I.e.Workers came one after another from the Middle East.Japan does not allow the acceptance of simple workers, but many of them came to Japan on tourist visas, student visas, and training visas, and engaged in the construction and manufacturing industries in the form of illegal employment.1990ToImmigration LawHas been amended, the status of residence has been improved, and Japanese-Americans are now allowed to work in Japan without restrictions depending on the type of job.It was founded in 1981 for the purpose of economic development in developing countries.Foreigner training systemWas deregulated in 1990,Chamber of commerceA group supervision type was introduced. In 1993Skills training systemHas been started, and foreign trainees who are recognized as having reached a certain level are now allowed an additional year of training (actually working) for up to one year (later extended to two years).

By the end of the 1990sJob shortageAgainst this background, the labor shortage in the blue-collar industry was resolved, butLow birthrate and aging population,GlobalizationThere was concern about labor shortages in the midst of this, and with a sense of crisis about economic competitiveness and requests for acceptance from neighboring countries, discussions on acceptance again took place, centered on the industrial world.The government has maintained its traditional policy and is tightening its crackdown on illegal immigrants.on the other handEPABy foreignersnurse-care workerAccepting candidates[31] The acceptance of foreign workers has expanded, such as allowing some foreign students to work.

In 2019, the revised Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act came into effect, which has taken a major step toward expanding the acceptance of foreign workers.[32].

In 2021, Vietnam has the largest number of people in Japan, followed by China, the Philippines, Brazil, and more than 10 people.[33][34]..Besides that, NepalAmerica-Indonesia- South Korea-IndiaThere is an influx of workers from.In some cases, houses including household goods are sold off in an attempt to make travel expenses and accommodation expenses.There are many cases where you come to Japan by borrowing travel expenses in advance from a mediation broker, but this is because the broker has a lot of debt.Human traffickingIt is pointed out that it corresponds to.In Japan, the acceptance of highly skilled foreign workers is small, but unskilled and low-wage labor is carried out by foreign workers, especially.Manufacturing industryIs in a situation where it cannot stand without foreign workers[35][36].

As a characteristic of foreign workers in Japan, NikkeiPermanent residencyThe point is that they have acquired migrant workers and are shifting from migrant workers to settling.[37].

In areas where the number of foreign workers has increased, there are problems with living standards due to cultural conflicts between old residents and new foreigners.[37].

"The company and electric factories are concentrated, and Japanese companiesSouth AmericaThe following problems exist in local cities where people live.
  1. The number of South American children who cannot speak Japanese in elementary and junior high schools is increasing, education is confused, and even school is not attended.Not attending schoolProblems with children.
  2. The problem of friction with the local community over lifestyle.
  3. SecurityThe problem of deterioration.
  4. NikkeiLocal tax,Social insuranceUnpaid problem.
Several of these serious problems are occurring. "[37]

The number of foreign children with Japanese proficiency is on the rise, from 1991 in 5,463 to 2018 in 40,485.[38] Approximately 1 of them have not received support[39], The number of teachers who can teach Japanese is absolutely insufficient.[40] ..Even if you say settledNaturalizationIf you are aiming formarriageThere is no big difference from other foreigners living in Japan who come to Japan.However, some foreign workers intend to return to their hometowns if they can settle down, even if they settle down.In this way, the backgrounds of foreign workers are diverse, and it is difficult for uniform living services to meet their needs.In any case, it can be said that how to solve these social problems at the local and living level is indispensable for accepting foreign workers.

National Health InsuranceUnder the system, the national health insurance tax (fee) will be reduced in the first year because there is no previous year's income in Japan, and the next year will be the normal insurance premium (tax) amount, but in the case of returning to Japan with delinquency. It is said that there are many[41].ToshimaIn the FY30 budget, the number of foreign insured persons is increasing rapidly, accounting for one-fourth of all insured persons in the ward. Especially, the number of Vietnamese insured persons is increasing rapidly, and delinquent households. It states that the number and the amount of delinquent payments are also increasing rapidly. Since there is a tendency for delinquency to occur due to understanding of the national health insurance system and low awareness of payment, we have started to assign counselors who can speak Vietnamese.[42].. As of 27, more than 2% of the members of the National Health Insurance are foreigners, and half of them are international students. Among them, there are a large number of international students from Vietnam recently, and the storage rate of Vietnamese students is about 36%, which is quite low. Has been done. For this reason, the National Health Insurance Division is promoting payment recommendations for Japanese language schools.[43].. In March 2019BoliviaWith tripletsbirthAs a Bolivian company officer in multiple municipalities of national health insuranceLump-sum birth allowanceAs if you cheatedArrestHas been done. It is estimated that the damage amount is 1 million at a time, less than 121 cases with the same method, and about 40 million yen.[44]..Since the lump-sum childbirth and childcare allowance can be received even if the child is born overseas, it will be paid only if there is a birth certificate issued by the local hospital, but it is reported that the government has not confirmed whether it is genuine or not. ing[45].. AlsoArakawaOf the 28 National Health Insurance lump-sum payments for childbirth and childcare overseas, China accounted for 31 cases, accounting for 6% of the total.[46].

Kobe CityThen, in 26, a Vietnamese woman who stayed illegally was a younger sister.National health insurance cardFor a total of 2 million yen or more for 1 years or moreHIVWas being treated[47].

ChibaFunabashiBut of the households that were delinquent in their insurance premiums for FY29 at the National Health InsuranceHead of householdHowever, the storage rate of foreign households is 54%, which is lower than the overall storage rate (98%), so from 90, native speakers will call in Vietnamese and Nepali. We have started to encourage payment and are taking measures by creating a pamphlet translated into 27 languages ​​(English, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Nepal, Sinhala).[48].Matsudo-shiHowever, as a result of the 29 financial results, more than 1% of the delinquent amount is foreigners, and as part of the collection strategy from this year, the number of Vietnamese delinquents is increasing, so we cooperate with the Japanese language school that Vietnamese attend. We asked them to do so and provided guidance and publicity on the national health insurance system.It is reported that 11 delinquents have been seized against foreigners as of the end of November.[49].

TokyoShinjukuにある総合病院では、1990年から2001年の間の外国人の分娩数は12年間で656例であり、総分娩数に占める外国人の割合は1990年には4.2%であったが,年々増加し、1997年からは全分娩の約16~19%を占めた。公的保険加入は、加入している者が66.0%(433例)、保険に加入していない者(未加入者)は30.6%(201例)、WelfareIt was 1.0% (6 cases) and unknown 2.4% (16 cases).There are 21 cases of diving delivery, 3.2% of all foreign delivery cases, and the breakdown of the nationality (hometown) of 21 cases is "Thailand" 66.7% (14 cases).[50].Dive birthIs a pre-existing illnessInfectionSince it is an act of childbirth without knowing whether or not it is present, there is also a problem that the risk of infection of medical staff is higher than usual. In 2007,Japan Midwifery AssociationAccording to the managing director, many unexamined pregnant women who lead to diving childbirth were women who had given birth before, but recently, there are many <XNUMX> young pregnant women <XNUMX> foreign women <XNUMX> economically deprived families. It is reported that there is a tendency[51].

In addition, in 2014Accounting OfficeAccording to "Regarding the application status of dependent deductions for dependent relatives residing outside Japan", foreign countriesSupportCompared to domestic dependents, the average number of deductible dependent relatives per taxpayer is large, and there are many who are dependent on distant relatives and working age groups from the perspective of taxpayers.Since many foreign dependent relatives are eligible for the dependent deduction, the amount of foreign dependent deduction applied is large.income taxMany were not taxed.Whether or not the deductible dependent relatives are aliveAddressThere was also a defect in the documents to confirm[52]..If income tax is exempted, National Health Insurance premiums andLong-term care insuranceIn addition to fees, children's publicNursery,KindergartenChildcare fees,Public housing OfrentIt has been pointed out that the tax exemption limit will be the lowest level.[45]..The selection of nursery school admission is done by indexing the working hours and family situation, but when households with the same score are lined up, the number of local governments that give priority to households with low income has increased recently.[53] It is assumed that foreigners who are tax-exempt households will have an advantage.Even if there is a tax delinquency,National tax collection lawProperty investigation and foreclosure will be difficult if there are no domestic assets.[54], Since the name notation is not unified even in the asset survey, the domestic asset situation may be concealed as a result.[55].

Resident taxWith regard to, delinquency is likely to occur because there are many people who do not collect special salaries and collect them normally.Although it is usually levied by collection, delinquency occurs frequently due to differences in tax consciousness and reasons such as giving priority to living expenses.It is the same as Japanese people to dispose of delinquent payments, but there are many cases where cultural and language barriers do not make progress.In the first place, it is said that by having a job with a small salary, they are exempted from special collection from each business establishment and are repeating short-term employment that does not meet the requirements for special collection.In addition, although it is legally necessary to carry out transfer procedures at the time of departure, there are many cases of leaving without permission because there are no penalties, and there is no way for municipalities under the current law to know the departure in advance.For this reason, after leaving Japan (returning to Japan), it is often virtually impossible to collect.[56].Hamamatsu cityでは平成23年現在、ブラジル人を中心とした外国人約2万7千人が居住しており、浜松市全人口の約81万8千人の約3.3%を占める。しかし市民税の現年課税分普通徴収においては、市全体の収納率が92%を超えるのに対して、外国人に係る収納率は57.93%と市平均を大きく下回り、市民税の現年課税分普通徴収の滞納額については、市全体の滞納額約9.6億円のうち、外国人の滞納が約11%を占めている状況にある。このため、外国人特有の言語の問題等で、税の制度を理解できない外国人に、基本的な税の知識不足を解消するため、日本語の習得教材を兼ねた資料を配布、特別徴収事業所の拡大と退職時の個人住民税の一括徴収を推進するため、外国人を雇用する企業の協力を求めるなどの取り組みをしている[57]..There is an urgent need to educate foreign students and workers about the tax payment system through schools, businesses, and foreign embassies in order to ensure tax fairness.

In addition, Aichi Prefecture, where many foreign workers liveToyota CityAnnounced on the long-term stay and aging of foreign residents at the Foreign Residents' City Conference, and from the questionnaire, only 6% of all foreign residents are enrolled in the pension, of which the enrollment rate is 4 for permanent residents. Although it is a percentage, 4% have made it clear that they want to live permanently.It is said that 1% of all people do not join the pension because they do not want to pay.If a foreigner returns to his / her own country, the pension will be with Japan.Social security agreementIf the signing is not concluded, the stake in Japan will be wasted, but the signing countries are limited.Toyota City recommends that the signatory countries be promoted[58].

Currently, Japan is in a labor shortage and in 2019Hello WorkThe ratio of job offers to applicants is 1.59 times.[59], The number of foreigners working in Japan reached a record high of 146 million[60]..Many technical intern trainees work in the manufacturing industry, and many international students work in the service industry.[61]..For information on how to hire foreigners,White collarWorkers Temporary staffing specializing in foreigners,Blue collarWorkersJob adsIs the mainstream.

Points to keep in mind regarding employment

Immigration LawInStatus of residenceSince residence activities are permitted within the range of, it is considered that the work is within the range of the status of residence.On the receiving side, the company, etc., regarding the immigration requirements, period of stay, and whether the work is within the prescribed scope of work permitted.passport,Residence cardThere is an obligation to confirm in such cases.

Status of residence becomes "College Student"StudentsIn the case of, employment is not allowed in principle. After the enforcement of the revised Immigration Control Act in July 2012, "permit of enrolled school" etc.Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActOnly international students who have been granted "permits for activities outside the qualifications" based on Article 19 (2) are now authorized and regulated for part-time jobs.However, this does not apply to international students who are not eligible for a residence card and have a period of stay of 3 months.Public order and moralsIf you exceed the specified range, such as work content that is contrary to the above, or work that exceeds the permitted time, it may be considered illegal work.[62].

problem

Criticism of acceptance system and qualifications

Foreigner training system-Skills training systemThere are criticisms that the actual situation is a system for accepting unskilled workers.In fact, in one case in Kagawa Prefecture, a business establishment that used trainees only as cheap workers and, unfortunately, deducted further clothing, food and housing costs from salaries and paid less than half of the contract. there were.This is just the tip of the iceberg, and there are many examples of the same kind. (→ → Institutional problems ) In addition, there are strong voices that technology transfer to developing countries, which is the original purpose, is insufficient.Regarding the acceptance of international students, there is a concern that it will lead to illegal employment.

2001ToKSD caseWas discovered,Takao KoyamaRegarding the case where a member of the House of Councilors requested an extension of the period of stay in the technical intern training system in the DietKSD Small Business Owner Welfare CorporationHe was arrested on suspicion of consignment and bribery for receiving a donation from.Also in the same yearSakata Junior CollegeIt was discovered that a considerable number of the large number of Chinese students accepted by the government were working illegally, and their confidence in these acceptance systems was greatly damaged.In 2007, each ministry and agency began reviewing this system against the backdrop of criticism.

2019At Tokyo Fukushi University, it was discovered that out of the approximately 3200 international students accepted as "research students" this year, approximately 700 are unknown.It is believed that some international students have expired their school visas and have been left illegally, the Immigration Bureau and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology have started investigations, and the Board of Audit is also investigating the proper execution of subsidies.[63].

Working environment

These workers often have low social status, and in some cases they are in a harsh and inadequate work environment, and due to language problems,safe educationHowever, there are cases where it is not always sufficient.Foreigners since the bubble eraIndustrial accidentHowever, there were conspicuous cases of occupational accident concealment.

Companies are reluctant to bear the burden of social insurance and become foreign workersSocial insuranceIn recent years, the problem of not enrolling has been highlighted.In addition, some foreign workers refuse to take out social insurance because they may cut down on their living expenses or may discover illegal immigration.Foreign residents who do not have insurance have a very high self-pay, so non-payment of medical expenses has occurred frequently in various places.Against this background, medical institutions have even refused to accept foreigners.

in recent years,Nursing careDue to the labor shortage at the site, foreign care workers are being actively accepted, but the management of foreign workers is left to the discretion of each care company, so foreign labor There are many care providers who abuse people with low salaries, and there are cases where lawsuits are filed.[64].

Obligation to report under the Immigration Control and Refuge

As a cause of slow progress in tackling various problems related to illegal workersImmigration LawThe provisions of Article 62 can be mentioned.This is a countryLocal governmentIt is said that the staff of the company is obliged to report when they discover illegal immigration, so even victims of trafficking in persons may be forced to leave the country as soon as they find inadequate stay employment qualifications. On the contrary, I was sometimes pretended not to see it.

However, it gradually became more flexible, and in 2003, the Ministry of Justice notified that it would be okay to avoid the obligation to report the case of "violent damage from a spouse" depending on the purpose. However, since the only way to restore the status of residence is to obtain a special residence permit from the Minister of Justice, it is desirable to finally recommend appearance in immigration.[65].

footnote

  1. ^ The impact of immigration on occupational wages: evidence from Britain S. Nickell and J. Saleheen, Staff Working Paper No. 574, Bank of England (2015)
  2. ^ "Accept "immigrants" if you want to maintain "XNUMX million people"". 2018/6/22Browse.
  3. ^ "[Editorial] Accepting foreign workers is the fate of Japan". 2018/6/22Browse.
  4. ^ "Decontamination with low wages, appealing the actual situation Vietnamese technical intern trainee". 2018/12/16Browse.
  5. ^ "A popular women's clothing brand that refused to appeal to foreign technical intern trainees working at an hourly wage of 400 yen was on fire "embarrassing as the same Japanese"". 2018/12/16Browse.
  6. ^ "I want to apply for benefits" Suspicion of a free ride from Tokyo to Hakata "Asahi Shimbun Digital. (September 2020, 6). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN655GJBN65TIPE016.html 2020/9/2Browse. 
  7. ^ http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-03-23-dubai_x.htm
  8. ^ http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1953064,00.html
  9. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia-pacific/2013/12/singapore-deports-foreign-workers-after-riots-2013121712302378394.html
  10. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabia-riots-two-dead-after-clashes-between-locals-and-foreign-workers-in-riyadh-8931414.html
  11. ^ http://response.jp/article/2013/03/12/193316.html
  12. ^ http://webronza.asahi.com/synodos/2013070400001.html
  13. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/feb/26/qatar-foreign-workers-slave-conditions
  14. ^ US Treasury Announcement 2004 Trafficking Report(The link is translated into Japanese by the US Embassy in Japan)
  15. ^ Arrested Korean restaurant president suspected of promoting illegal employment February 2008, 10 Kyodo News
  16. ^ Arrested mom of a long-established Korean club Suspected of violating the Immigration Refugee Law Metropolitan Police Department September 2008, 10 Sankei Shimbun
  17. ^ "◆ From a poor country to a rich country, Eastern Europe is also in danger of declining population”. News Sphere. 2019/10/31Browse.
  18. ^ "Expanded work permit quota from non-EU areas such as Vietnam to 3”. JETRO. 2019/10/31Browse.
  19. ^ "Polish economy seen by Japanese trading companies”. JETRO. 2019/10/31Browse.
  20. ^ "To accept labor shortage Polish and Filipino workers”. AFP. 2019/10/31Browse.
  21. ^ "More serious than Japan! Bold policy taken by Poland in the face of "declining working population"”. Tokuma Shoten. 2019/10/31Browse.
  22. ^ Delivered on March 2007, 3 "Fuji Sankei Business Eye"
  23. ^ "Foreign workers march in Taipei seeking the right to participate in politics / Taiwan". 2018/6/23Browse.
  24. ^ "Street Corner: Taiwan Foreign Workers' Circumstances" Delivered on February 2008, 2 Mainichi Shimbun
  25. ^ "Earn moving Far East foreign currency!North Korea "human-powered export" business”. Asahi Shimbun (June 2013, 4). 2018/2/24Browse.
  26. ^ "Russian North Korean workers will not be deported. Stay permit period reduced to one year". Sputnik(July 2018, 2). https://jp.sputniknews.com/russia/201802094556676/ 2017/10/26Browse. 
  27. ^ “Russia also discontinues acceptance of North Korean workers.. Daily NK(July 2017, 10). https://dailynk.jp/archives/98011 2018/2/25Browse. 
  28. ^ "Russia repatriates all North Korean workers by the end of 2019 = Interfax”. Reuters (September 2018, 1). 2018/2/24Browse.
  29. ^ "Russia begins deportation of North Korean workers UN sanctions". AFPBB(July 2018, 2). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3161554 2018/2/25Browse. 
  30. ^ "Russia's economy made up of immigrants Prolonged recession, low-wage workers are essential (page 2/3)". 2018/6/22Browse.
  31. ^ "Acceptance of foreign nurse / certified care worker candidates from Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/10/31Browse.
  32. ^ "Revised Immigration Control and Refuge Government Policy". 2019/1/28Browse.
  33. ^ "Summary of notification status of "Employment status of foreigners" (as of the end of October, 3rd year of Reiwa)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2022/1/29Browse.
  34. ^ "List of notification status of "Employment status of foreigners" (as of the end of October, 3rd year of Reiwa)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2022/1/29Browse.
  35. ^ Summary of notification status of "Employment status of foreigners" (text) (as of the end of October 26)
  36. ^ Survey report "Current situation of increasing foreign workers"
  37. ^ a b c "Toyo Keizai" June 2007, 6 issue (Toyo Keizai Inc.)
  38. ^ "About the result of "Survey on acceptance status of children and students who need Japanese language instruction (28)"". 2019/3/17Browse.
  39. ^ "Over XNUMX foreign children / students speak Japanese "no support"”. BIGLOBE. 2019/5/5Browse.
  40. ^ Delivered on May 2007, 5 "21 foreign children who do not understand Japanese, a large shortage of teachers" (Yomiuri Shimbun)
  41. ^ Study Group on National Health Insurance Premium (Tax) Delinquency Problem. “Recommendations for improving the national health insurance premium (tax) storage rate ~ publisher = Public Interest Incorporated Association National Health Insurance Central Association". 2020/6/1Browse.
  42. ^ "FYXNUMX department budget formulation policy". Toshima ward. 2018/11/6Browse.
  43. ^ "1 XNUMXst Toshima Ward Storage Countermeasures Headquarters". Toshima ward. 2019/3/20Browse.
  44. ^ ""I gave birth to triplets in Bolivia" Suspected of fraudulent lump-sum birth allowance”. Asahi Shimbun. 2019/9/19Browse.
  45. ^ a b ""Health insurance" and "dependent deduction system" are preyed on by foreigners”. NEWS Post Seven. 2018/11/10Browse.
  46. ^ "Survey of lump-sum payments for overseas births Measures against unpaid medical expenses of foreigners”. Sankei Shimbun. 2018/11/6Browse.
  47. ^ "National Health Insurance, abuse of foreigners is hard to see through"Sankei Shimbun. (July 2018, 8). https://www.sankei.com/politics/news/180829/plt1808290027-n1.html 2020/9/2Browse. 
  48. ^ "Materials for the 30th regular press conference in 5 (held on October 30, 10)”. Funabashi City. 2018/11/21Browse.
  49. ^ "Minutes of the XNUMX XNUMXnd Matsudo City National Health Insurance Management Council”. Matsudo City. 2019/3/20Browse.
  50. ^ . Survey on the "diving delivery" of pregnant foreign women (Report). https://www.jschild.med-all.net/Contents/private/cx3child/2005/006404/003/0534-0541.pdf 2019/3/20Browse.. 
  51. ^ Rapid increase in "dive birth" (Report). http://www.cc.okayama-u.ac.jp/~mikiya/2007%20wadai%20tobikomisyussan.pdf  2019/3/20Browse.. 
  52. ^ "Regarding the application status of dependent deductions for dependent relatives residing outside Japan”. Board of Audit. 2018/11/6Browse.
  53. ^ "The truth of nursery school admission selection [1]”. PRESIDENT Online. 2018/11/6Browse.
  54. ^ "Problems related to delinquency due to internationalization”. National Tax Agency. 2018/11/12Browse.
  55. ^ "Laura's father also arrested Dengue fever overseas medical expenses 99 yen suspected of fraud”. Sankei News. 2018/11/23Browse.
  56. ^ "How personal residence tax should be in the global society”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2020/6/10Browse.
  57. ^ "23 city tax of Hamamatsu City (main part) Individual efforts 4". 2020/6/10Browse.
  58. ^ ""Environmental improvement for promoting participation in the social security system" Toshihiko Ota, Mayor of Toyota City, Nagano / Gifu / Aichi Block”. Foreigners' settlement city conference. 2018/11/23Browse.
  59. ^ "About general employment agency status (August 8st year of Reiwa)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/10/31Browse.
  60. ^ "The maximum number of foreign workers is XNUMX million, which is tripled in XNUMX years.". 2019/1/28Browse.
  61. ^ "128 million foreign workers, record high, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare”. Nikkei Newspaper. 2018/5/21Browse.
  62. ^ "Permission for activities outside the status of qualification (Article 19 of the Immigration Control and Refuge)”. Immigration Bureau of Japan. 2019/10/31Browse.
  63. ^ "XNUMX international students at Tokyo Welfare University, unknown location Investigated by the Board of Audit”. Sankei Shimbun. 2019/3/19Browse.
  64. ^ Hard work A malicious contract with a long-term care worker ... Apologize to the facility and settle Mainichi Newspaper March 2017, 2
  65. ^ "Ministry of Justice Immigration Bureau Director, Ministry of Justice No. 15 dated November 11, 17”. Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office. 2019/3/20Browse.

References

  • Goro Ono "Accepting Foreign Workers Will Ruin Japan" (Yosensha 2009)
  • Miki Nishio"Recommendations for" Labor Sakoku "" (PHP Bunko 1989)
  • Kanji Nishio, "Strategic" Isolation "Theory" (Kodansha, 1992)
  • "Japan in a Salad Bowl-Walking in the Field of a Foreigner'Dependent" Society ":Aki Wakabayashi・ Kobunsha:ISBN 978-4-334-93419-4
  • "Faceless Settlement-Japanese Brazilians and National / Market / Immigrant Network" by:Takamichi Kajita-Kiyoto Tanno-Naoto Higuchi・ The University of Nagoya Press, 2005
  • "Foreign Children's Schoollessness" Written by: Kosei Sakuma 2006
  • "Japanese Foreign Labor Force-Verification from Economics-" by Jiro Nakamura, Hisahiro Naito, Ryo Kanbayashi,Daiji Kawaguchi, Tomohiro Machikita, 2009

Related literature

  • "Skill Trainees and Japanese Language Education" edited by Junko Mashima, Osaka University Press, October 2021.ISBN 978-4-87259-738-7. (There is an electronic version)

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