First Ukrainian grain ship unloads part of cargo in Turkey, then to Egypt
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Ukrainian Infrastructure Minister Kubrakov said on Thursday that a cargo ship carrying more than 11 tons of grain destined for Ethiopia is expected to arrive on Thursday.
[ISTANBUL/KYIV (Reuters)] – The first cargo ship to resume grain exports from Ukraine… → Continue reading
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- World Cargo Ship History
Type of cargo ship
Classification by shipment
- Conventional Cargo Ship
- General-purpose vessel. Although it takes time to load and unload, the fare is low because there is no special equipment. It is suitable for carrying specially shaped freight as there are no obstacles on the boat.
- Roll-on/roll-off ship
- A vehicle like a semi-trailer or riding on itMarine containerA ship for carrying (simply abbreviated as "container").Since the vehicle enters the cabin by self-propelled, it can finish cargo handling quickly.Generally, it is labeled as a RORO ship.Unlike car ferries, there are no rooms.According to the rules, it is possible to carry passengers up to a capacity of 12 people, and some RORO ships have guest rooms, but most of them operate exclusively for freight transportation without carrying general passengers.
- Roll-on/roll-off Container ship
- Car roll-on/roll-off cargo handlingMarine containerA ship capable of loading and unloading cranes.
- Mixed Car Carrier (CGC)
- AutomobileAnd ships that can roll on and off general cargo.
- Pure Car Carrier (PCC)
- A ship for carrying automobiles. In order to improve the efficiency of shipping, the rampway and the height of each floor in the boat are optimized.
- Railway ferry (cargo freight that only transports rolling stock is a freighter.)
- A ship for transporting railway vehicles. Tracks are laid on the car deck so that rail cars can be transported. Also,Car shippingSome have facilities.
- Container Ship
- A ship for transporting "sea containers".
- Full-container Ship
- ISO standardThe cargo handling time is a little longer than that of a ship that transports only marine containers, but it takes less than a quarter of the time required to handle conventional general cargo.Due to the high freight loading efficiency, the transportation efficiency is high, and it occupies a major position in marine freight transportation, including the efficiency improvement through cooperation with land trailers and rail transportation.Most ships have a "cell structure" that efficiently loads marine containers of a size that meets the standards.At the harborGantry craneEquipped with a large marine container cargo handling crane calledDedicated container wharfMost of the ships do not have cranes because they use.
- Semi-Container Ship
- A vessel that transports standardized marine containers and general cargo other than containers, and is equipped with a loading facility dedicated to containers.Even if a general cargo ship that does not have equipment for loading containers carries containers, it is not called a semi-container ship.They may have their own cranes for cargo handling in ports without cranes.
- A ship in which a marine container and other cargo are mixedly loaded in the cabin of a conventional general cargo ship.A type of versatile cargo ship.There were exceptions to the Convalcar, which had a cell structure dedicated to marine containers, but it was designed so that bulk and containers were not installed at the same time..
- Multi-purpose Cargo Ship
- A versatile vessel. Roll-on roll-off loading of vehicles and crane loading of containers and general cargo can be performed.
- Heavy Lifter, Heavy load carrier
- A ship for carrying heavy objects. Ship holds, decks and cranes have been strengthened. The LOLO (Lift on / Lift off) method, which uses heavy derricks to carry heavy cargo, the RORO (Roll on / Roll off) method, which involves loading and unloading the vehicle by loading it into the ship's hold, and immersing the deck below the water surface. There are FOFO (Float on / Float off) type ships that carry floating cargo.
- Refrigerated Cargo Carrier (Refrigerated Cargo Carrier)
- A ship with a ship cage and refrigeration/freezing equipment surrounded by heat insulating material.
- Lumber carrier (Log Carrier, Lumber Carrier)
- A ship that specializes in transporting timber such as timber and lumber.
- Bulk Carrier, Bulker
- Ships that carry dedicated cargo by bulk loading. A ship that can fully open the ship holds a huge cargoOpen hatch bulkerCalled. Forest products such as newspaper, pulp, and lumber cannot directly nail cargo. In the case of an open hatch bulker, the cargo holds are box-shaped without unevenness, so you can prevent cargo collapse by packing the cargo tightly. Equipped with a gantry crane such as a UFO catcher, it can load cargo vertically. They used to have an oligopoly on transportation because they used to have few shipping companies. Gear bulk,en: Star Shipping etc.
- Grain Carrier
- A ship for specialized transportation of grains, which are powder fluids with a low specific gravity.
- Ore Carrier
- A ship with dedicated equipment for loading ores of high specific gravity. There are many ore carriers that specialize in transporting iron ore, but there are also ships that specialize in transporting nickel ore, bauxite, copper ore, phosphate rock and the like.
- Chip carrier
- A ship that specializes in transporting wood chips, the raw material for wood pulp.
- Cement Tanker
- A ship for transporting cement in bulk.
- Bulk carrier (Combination Carrier)
- A ship that can carry cargo with completely different properties.
- Ore Coal Carrier
- A ship with dedicated equipment for the safe transportation and handling of flammable coal.
- Ore Oil Carrier
- A ship specializing in carrying heavy ore and petroleum.
- Oil tanker (oil tanker, tanker, oil carrier)
- A ship with facilities for loading and transporting liquid combustibles such as crude oil and fuel oil. Those that exceed 20 tons are called VLCCs, and those that exceed 30 tons are called ULCCs.
- Chemical Tanker
- A ship equipped with equipment for safely handling and transporting highly dangerous chemicals.
- LPG tanker (LPG Tanker, LPG Carrier)
- Pipes, tanks, for safe transportation of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)Security deviceWith a ship.
- LNG tanker (LNG Tanker, LNG Carrier)
- LNG (liquefactionNatural gas) Ships for transporting. It has an insulating structure tank for transporting liquefied natural gas at low temperature or a pressure tank for transporting by pressure.
- Barge Carrier
- A ship carrying dozens of "barge" (barges). Equipped with a lift mechanism at the stern, the barge on the water is lifted by the FO method. Next, the rails will be horizontally moved and installed in the storage areas of 1st to 3rd floors inside the unshipped boat hold. LASH (Lighter Aboard Ship) and SeeBee are the main formats.
- Pusher Barge
- A ship that pushes a barge of about one to a dozen boats to proceed. The whole including the barge is called the "barge line". From small ones that go along rivers and canals in Europe to "ocean barges" that are tens of thousands of tons across the open ocean.
Classification by flight type
- Liner (Liner)
- A vessel that regularly sails a certain route.
- Tramper (Tramper)
- A ship that does not set a specific route and is operated each time depending on the presence or absence of cargo.
There is a ship called a "liper" that is designed to handle both regular and irregular ships.
Fares and contracts
The main ocean shipping contract methods are those that carry individual luggage using a regular freighter (individual transportation) and those that carry an irregular freighter by charter.
- LCL: In the case of cargo less than 20 feet marine container (LCL, Less than Container Load), it is calculated at 1 ton, and in many cases, the larger volume tonnage and deadweight tonnage are taken.
- FCL: In the case of cargo (FCL, Full Container Load) that can be loaded into a marine container, it is calculated by the number of 20-foot or 40-foot size marine containers.
In the case of individual item transportation or container transportation, it is often the case that the contract on the back side of the B/L is followed without making an individual contract. When contracting, it is necessary to clarify where the transportation is from. Clarify whether the costs for loading and unloading work are also included. The freight conditions including loading and unloading onboard cargo are called Berth Term, and if the shipper bears the loading and unloading costs separately,FioIt is called (Free in and out). What the shipper bears the loading and unloading costsFI(Free in), the one that bears the cargo handling cost of unloadingFONote that each is called "Free out" and each is a Free seen from the shipping company side.
In the case of shipping by sea container, LCLLoading CY(container yard From Container Yard)Land CYUp to FCLLoading CFS(Container freight stationFrom Container Freight Station)Landing CFSAll freight and cargo handling costs up to are included in the sea freight.However, the cost of packing and unloading containers in the loading and unloading CFS is usually charged separately to the shipper as a CFS charge. Working with CY as wellTHC(Terminal handling charge) and CY charge may be charged separately to the shipper, so it is necessary to confirm.
In the case of charter, there are two types of contract.
- Voyage charter contract: Contract per ton
- Ship charter contract: A charter contract for one ship
Type and quantity of freight, freight and loading and unloading land, date of shipping to ship and termination date at loading and unloading, laying period (Lay days), bearer of onboard loading and unloading charges (Demurrage), Create and contract a chartered charter that describes the fast-disbursement fees (Despatch money).
Cargo handling equipment
The work of loading and unloading cargo on a ship is called "cargo handling," and the machinery and equipment that performs cargo handling is the cargo handling device (Nieki Sochi, Cargo Gear).
- Derrick(Derrick) is the most common and basic cargo handling device used in the cargo handling of relatively small cargo ships.Derrick in the general sensecraneIt has a simple structure consisting of one post, one boom, two winches, several pulleys, and two wires.
- Cranes are almost the same as those used on land and can be classified into two types: jib cranes and gantry cranes.
- Jib crane
- Due to the similar shape of the Jib crane, the Jib crane, named after the triangular sail Jib, can be mounted on multiple types of cargo ships. There are many.
- Gantry crane
- Gantry crane(Gantry crane) is a large crane that moves from one end to the other in front of and behind the ship, straddling the hatch like a bridge.Large cargo ships, especially container shipsRush shipOften provided in.
Internationally, even freighters are allowed to carry up to 12 passengers, and in the 1970s and 1980s, there were times when cheap overseas travel by freighter became popular among young people in Europe and America. .. 1950s, conductorSeiji OzawaFor music trainingFranceI use a freighter to get to.Passenger plane OfEconomy classWith the advent of, it becomes possible to move at low cost and high speed, and the number of people choosing as a cheap travel means decreases,Cheap airlineWith the advent of, there was no merit of cheap overseas travel. Also, in the past, if you asked the freight company about the vacancy and headed to the port and paid the fare, you could get in, but in the present age, taking into account the risk of terrorism and pirates, you are wary of passengers with uncertain identities and you are not directly recruiting. However, it is not prohibited because it is a valuable partner for long-term cruises,Travel agencyBy intermediary with, the risk of terrorism is reduced by having the identity verification performed on your behalf. (Currently, prices vary, it is not cheap depending on the route, but rather expensive) Depending on the route, it is possible to go around the world at a low price, but visitors who are interested in interacting with passengers rather than price will visit. Say.
- Water transportation
- Shipping -Transportation by sea.
- sailboat -Wind-powered vessels. Cargo ships built in recent years also use wind power to improve fuel economy.
- Houseboat -A ship for hosting parties on the water.
- Freighter -Vessels for transporting cargo and passengers.
- Passenger ship -Vessels for transporting passengers.
- Transport ship -Transport goods and personnelwarship
- Convoy -Transport ship (freighter) fleet with escort of warships
- Panama Canal -A canal connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Many freighters pass here every year. The largest ship that can pass through the Panama CanalPanamax"Type" "Panamax class" and so on.
- Suez Canal -A canal connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Many freighters pass here every year. The largest ship that can pass through the Suez CanalSuez max"Type" "Suezmax class" and so on.
- Offshore mediation
- Convenience store
- Baltic Shipping Index
- Super eco ship
- ^ Ichiro Watanabe, "The Story of a Container Ship," Narishando Bookstore, December 2006, 12, first edition ISBN-4 425-71371-0
- ^ What is a "container ship trip" that allows you to travel around the world at low cost? - GIGAZINE
- Muneo Ikeda, "ABC of Ship Knowledge" Narishando Bookstore 2nd Edition ISBN-4 425-91040-0
- Hiroshi Takumi, "The Story of Ships and Shipping" Narishando Bookstore November 2007, 11 Revised and expanded edition issued ISBN 978-4-425-91122-6