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🌏 | Russia releases model of new space station, likely to develop space alone


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Russia reveals model of new space station

 
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Former Roscosmos president Dmitry Rogozin has hinted that the new space station could be used for military purposes if needed.
 

[XNUMXth Reuters] – Russian state-owned space company Roscosmos said on the XNUMXth that it will build a new space station on its own. → Continue reading

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military purpose

    Space station

    Space station(Universe station,British: space station,dew: Orbital station,: Space station) Is地球 OfOrbitAbove etc.宇宙空間InA humanIs designed to continue living thereArtificial celestial bodyThat is.

    Overview

    The space station is, in a broad sense,Space shipIt is a kind of form.However, unlike a manned spacecraft that functions independently, it does not necessarily have equipment for launching, propulsion, and landing with astronauts on board.It mainly refers to those designed specifically for long-term orbital life.To transport personnel and supplies between the Earth and the space station, manned spacecraft with the function to do soSupply shipIs required separately.

    All the space stations realized so far are on the earthSatellite orbitBuilt on top, it is aimed at scientific research, especially the effects on the human body during long-term stays in space.In addition, some were conducting military missions, and some were armed.

    Space is weightless, so the astronauts on board live in a floating state.The inner walls are filled with various devices so that there is no need to walk inside the ship.

    generation

    Former Soviet Union(AfterRussia), The space station was classified into the following three generations.

    1th generation
    A space station with a limited length of stay that is not expected to replace or replenish passengers.
    2th generation
    A space station that can be docked with a spacecraft with substitutes and a supply ship for supplies while the return spacecraft is docked, and can be operated at all times without leaving the station unattended.
    3th generation
    A large space station that has a large number of docking ports and consists of modules with multiple different functions.

    Space station that is no longer in operation

    Salut
    Soviet UnionSpace station.It is the world's first space station launched, and Nos. 1 to 7 were built.
    1971から1985Operate up to.1991The last No. 7 re-entered the atmosphere.
    Almers
    Another name for Nos. 2, 3, and 5 built for military purposes, for self-defenseMachine gunWas equipped with.
    Cosmos 557
    Originally it was the third salut, but due to a failure, it became impossible to put it into the target orbit, and it re-entered the atmosphere without being operated as a space station.alreadyWestern countriesBecause it was captured by the radar ofCosmos satelliteIs disguised as.
    Sky love 1
    AmericaSpace station.1973から1974Operate up to.
    Although it was launched four times, Nos. 4 to 1 after Skylab 2 are manned spacecraft used for round trips to Skylab 4.1979Re-entered the atmosphere.
    meal
    A space station of the Soviet Union developed as a successor to Salut.1986から1999Operate up to.It was the first space station to consist of multiple modules, and many modules were added after the launch, and it was finally composed of seven modules.
    2000Received a major repair for commercial use, but later decided to dispose of it2001Re-entered the atmosphere.
    Tiangong-1
    ChugokuSpace station testing machine (docking target machine).
    It is a test aircraft for the construction of a full-scale space station, and was positioned as a "target aircraft" because its main purpose is to acquire rendezvous docking technology.[1]..For this reason, astronauts could stay for a short period of time, but they had a small laboratory.2011Launched in February2012Manned operation has been carried out twice since June.
    Shenzhou 2013 was the last manned mission to dock and return in June 6.[2]Since then, unmanned operation has been continued, but it is thought that the function was lost in March 2016.[3]Re-entry into the atmosphere on April 2018, 4[4].
    Tiangong-2
    ChugokuIt is a space station experimental aircraft, and is positioned as a space laboratory.2016It was launched in November.
    Initially, the No. 1 spare machine (8.5 ton class) andLong March 5There was also a plan to launch an enlarged tester (22 ton class) using a rocket, but in the end it was decided to launch an improved version (2 ton class) of No. 2 using the Long March 1 FT8.6.
    An unmanned refueling vessel with an automatic docking function developed based on the design of Tiangong-1 and a replenishment capacity of about 1 tons + 6 tons of fuel, which has been extended from No. 2 and improved experimental equipment.TianzhouA replenishment mission by Unit 1 is also envisioned.On October 10, the same yearKamifune No. 11Docked and manned operation began[5]..The following day, November 11th, Shenzhou 16 was cut off and manned operation was terminated.There are no plans for manned operation after that[6], Replenishment by Tenshu was also unmanned in April 2017[7].
    Tiangong-2 made a controlled fall into the South Pacific on July 2019, 7, and re-entered the atmosphere.However, it was still in orbit at the time of the first attempt, and there was some confusion, though not as much as No. 19.[8].
    Genesis
    Bigelow AerospaceCompany space station.2006In 7 monthGenesis I,2007In 6 monthGenesis IIWas launched.A module for conducting unmanned tests in orbit at a space station that was first put into orbit by the private sector.[9] .
    TranshubThe inflatable module based on the design of is adopted, and the manned practical module to be developed after that.BA 330Manufactured in one-third the size of.

    Space station in operation

    International Space Station (ISS)
    1984Was conceived in the United StatesFreedom Space StationBased on the plan, Russiameal2 (later Zvezda) and the new space station (later Zarya),EuropeEach countryJapanThe world's largest space station consisting of multiple modules redesigned by integrating the modules planned in.
    America, russia,Canada, Japan, ESA member countries (Belgium,Denmark,France,Germany,Italy, Netherlands,Norway,Spain,Sweden,Switzerland,United Kingdom) Jointly developed by 15 countries (and others)BrazilCooperates indirectly through NASA) as a major research instituteUS Aerospace Agency (NASA),Russian Federation Space Agency (RFSA),Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA),Canadian Space Agency (CSA),European Space Agency (ESA) is participating.
    1998It is still in operation since the start of construction, which began with the launch of. Consisting of more than 50 modules and parts, it weighs about 420 tons and is the largest man-made object in Earth's orbit.Even after the completion, the interior and exterior equipment has been updated / changed and modules have been added at any time. Initially, the operation was scheduled to end in 2016, but extension to at least 2024 is being considered.
    • BEAM (Similar to Genesis, a test module connected to the ISS by Bigelow Aerospace.)
    January 2016Falcon 9Was launched by.After that, it was installed on the ISS and succeeded in expanding to the planned size in May the following year.[10].. Astronauts also set foot in June, but the main purpose is a two-year endurance test, which is basically unmanned except for maintenance.[11].
    Amamiya (completed type)(css)
    ChugokuSpace station.Completed version of the Amamiya series2022Aiming for completion, it can accommodate up to 3 astronauts with a capacity of 6 people.
    The experimental modules "Qianten" and "Yumeten" are fixedly moored in the core module "Tenwa" with 5 docking ports, and the spacecraft "Tenwa" for going back and forth and mooring is in the remaining ports.ShenzhouTwo ships and the unmanned supply ship "Tenshu" are docked.Initially the total weight was 2 tons, but later designs were 80 tons, the former Soviet Union'smealThe scale is comparable to that, and there is still room for future expansion.[12].
    With ChinaUnited Nations Space Agency(UNOOSA) has the opportunity to use "Tengu"United NationsWe are planning to accept astronauts and space experiments from other countries by concluding an agreement to open to member countries.[13], Japan out of 27 applications from 42 countriesTokyo UniversityNine experiments were adopted by 17 institutions in 23 countries.[14].
    2021The first module "Tenwa" will be released on April 4th.Long March 5 Bwas launched and construction began.The first spacecraft heading to the same place was a supply ship launched on May 5th of the same year, and successfully docked on the 29th of the next day.[15], separated on March 2022, 3, and made a controlled fall into the South Pacific on March 27, 3.[16].First manned mission in June 2021Long March 2Fmanned spacecraft launched inKamifune No. 12and returned on September 9 after carrying out a long stay.[17]. On 2022 July 7 (CST) the second module Monten docked[18].

    Planning stage space station

    OPSEK
    RussiaPlanning space station.2024It is planned to be built independently by Russia by the end of the ISS operation.
    Several new modules will be launched, and the modules will be docked in sequence as part of the Russian module of the ISS. Become. Although it is smaller than the ISS, it maintains the same functionality and aims to be a miniature version.
    US-Russia Joint New International Space Station
    AmericaRussiaThe successor to the ISS, which is seeking to be built between them.There are reports that an agreement has been reached between the two countries,CrimeaConflict between the two countries over2014 Crimea crisis), And the situation is in flux. It is expected that the space technology standards will be unified between the two countries more than the ISS, and that it will be the base for the Mars manned exploration mission.
    Lunar orbit platform gateway (LOP-G)
    America OfNASALed byLunar orbitOrLunar orbitPlan to build a new space station in.laterRussia OfRoscosmosHas also announced its participation and plans to start construction in the 2020s.
    It is a miniature size and can accommodate up to 4 astronauts.The configuration modules are also simple, with four modules: "electric power / propulsion", "residential", "transportation", and "airlock".If successful, it will become a space station located farthest from the Earth, and a large spacecraft used for the manned exploration of Mars scheduled for the 4s.Deep Space Transport (DST) (Weight 41 tons, 4 crew members can live for 4 years round trip to Mars. It is not disposable, but can be reused by replacing crew members and replenishing supplies with LOP-G)・ It is planned to be used as a supply base.
    Japan Space Station (JSS)
    JAXAA small space station envisioned in.
    It was conceived when the ISS operation schedule was short, and it has a design life of about 10 years from the module that is discarded at the end of operation.KiboCollected and developedHTVIt was planned to launch and combine its own habitation modules, docking modules, solar cell arrays, and propulsion modules (in some cases, the HTV pressurization carriers and propulsion modules used for the launch would be used).
    Japan has successfully developed a number of artificial satellites and unmanned probes, but on the contrary, it does not yet have manned transportation technology or a life support system that can operate for a long period of time, so it is just a concept.
    Indian Space Station
    A 20-ton small space station originally planned by India. In 2019ISROIt was announced by and will be built in the next 10 years.
    It is a development of the 3.7-ton capsule-type manned spacecraft Gaganyan, and has a crew of two to three.It does not assume constant manned operation, and the length of stay is about 2 to 3 days (it is enough to conduct scientific experiments with microgravity), but it is not disposable and it has been replenished from a spacecraft for several years It is said that it can be used.
    Commercial space station
    い く つ か のPrivate space flightConstruction is planned by the company.
    Bigelow AerospaceCompany
    It consists of an inflatable space station module similar to Genesis.
    Space Complex Alpha
    Practical inflatable space station moduleSun dancer With 2 aircraftBA 330 A manned test space station consisting of one aircraft.
    Space Complex Bravo
    A larger manned practical space station consisting of four BA-4s, redesigned from the Alpha and eliminating the Sundancer.2016It is aiming for the launch of.
    CSS Skywalker
    BA 330 A concept to create a space hotel by connecting many.Interplanetary navigation was also possible as it was.
    BA 2100
    Inflatable space hotel under development.The volume of this unit is 2250 cubic meters, which is about 330 times that of the BA 7 and nearly double the total volume of the ISS.
    Orion Span
    Space hotel "launched in 2021 and planned to operate from 2022"(English editionHas been announced.2 people including 6 crew members can stay[19].

    Future space station

    outer wall

    All space stations operated during the 20th centuryRigid bodyHowever, since the 2000s, the development of an inflatable space station made of soft material (which has the strength of concrete after expansion) has been underway.This type of station has the advantage of providing a large living space for weight and price.The test space station launched by Bigelow Aerospace has an inflatable structure, and is being considered by public space development agencies such as NASA.[9][20].

    Artificial gravity

    Space stationfree fallBecause it is inside, the inside is as it isWeightless state(Actually microgravity).Therefore, by living for a long time筋肉Is waningboneからcalciumHas an adverse effect such as melting.In addition, in a weightless state, things will be scattered if care is not taken, so it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the handling of things, especially liquids and powders.Therefore, a space station has been devised that can create an environment similar to the one in which gravity is generated by using centrifugal force.

    At the experimental level, a module that creates gravity by centrifugal force even at the International Space StationCentrifugeWas scheduled.This was actually being developed in Japan, but it has not been put into practical use because the US side that operates it decided to cancel it in 2005.After that, a new evaluation experiment of artificial gravity will be conducted at the International Space Station.ISS Centrifuge DemonstrationIs also envisioned.

    SFThere are many such facilities in the work, and a wheel-shaped space station centered on the axis of rotation has been devised. Sci-fi movie "2001 Space JourneyThe space station that appears in 』is a typical example.This type of space stationSpace colonyIt also overlaps with the living space that uses centrifugal force as pseudo-gravity.

    Timeline


    footnote

    1. ^ "China's space station project is moving forward again! Launched "Tiangong-XNUMX" Space Laboratory”. Sorae.jp (August 2016, 9). April 2016, 9Browse.
    2. ^ "Chinese manned spacecraft "Shenzhou 10" returns safely to Earth”. Sorae.jp (August 2013, 6). April 2015, 11Browse.
    3. ^ "CHINA'S OUT-OF-CONTROL TIANGONG-1 SPACE STATION TO CRASH BACK TO EARTH EARLY 2018". April 2017, 9Browse.
    4. ^ "Chinese module "Tiangong-1" rushes over the South Pacific Most of it burns out”. Sorae.jp (August 2018, 4). April 2018, 4Browse.
    5. ^ Naoki Tsukamoto (September 2016, 10). "Chinese manned spacecraft successfully docked in space laboratory" Tiangong-30 "to a XNUMX-day stay mission".sorae.jp. http://sorae.info/030201/2016_10_19_china.html April 2016, 10Browse. 
    6. ^ Naoki Tsukamoto (September 2016, 11). "Chinese aviator returns safely from space laboratory" Tiangong-1 "and succeeds in staying mission for about XNUMX month".sorae.jp. http://sorae.info/030201/2016_11_19_china.html April 2016, 11Browse. 
    7. ^ "Successful docking of the unmanned supply ship "Tianzhou XNUMX"!With the Chinese Space Laboratory "Tiangong-XNUMX"”. Sorae.jp (August 2017, 4). April 2017, 4Browse.
    8. ^ "Chinese authorities, space laboratory" Tiangong-2 "and" still in orbit "after news of confused fall"Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun. (December 2019, 7). https://www.nikkan.co.jp/articles/view/00524786 April 2019, 7Browse. 
    9. ^ a b "Succeeded in launching a private space station test module! Expanding and deploying in space --MYCOM Journal”. As of May 2006, 7originalMore archives.April 2007, 1Browse.
    10. ^ Naoki Tsukamoto (September 2016, 5). "The" BEAM module "aiming for Mars exploration and space hotels, inflates for the second time".sorae.jp. http://sorae.info/030201/2016_05_30_beam.html April 2016, 5Browse. 
    11. ^ Naoki Tsukamoto (September 2016, 6). "Swell Hello to the universe of the house" BEAM "!Astronaut first boarding ".sorae.jp. http://sorae.info/030201/2016_06_07_house.html April 2016, 6Browse. 
    12. ^ "China builds space station with capacity of 22 people around 3 years". April 2019, 11Browse.
    13. ^ "China “Opens” Space Station Agreed with United Nations for Developing Countries". Sankei News (September 2016, 7). April 2019, 12Browse.
    14. ^ "China opens space station internationally, accepts 9 space experiments including the University of Tokyo". April 2019, 6Browse.
    15. ^ "Chinese space freighter" Tianzhou 2 "successfully docked with Core Module". AFPBB NEWS. (May 2021, 5). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3349124 April 2021, 5Browse. 
    16. ^ "Tenshu 2 fulfills its mission”. AFP BB News (May 2022, 3). April 2022, 8Browse.
    17. ^ “China's manned spacecraft Shenzhou 12 returns safely”. AFP BB News(July 2021, 9). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3366826 April 2021, 10Browse. 
    18. ^ "Experimental module "Monten" docked to space station”. AFP BB News (May 2022, 7). April 2022, 8Browse.
    19. ^ "Space Hotel "Aurora Station" Plan Approximately 12 Billion Yen in 10 Days, Orion Span Announces”. Sorae.jp (August 2018, 4). April 2018, 4Browse.
    20. ^ David Shiga (February 2010, 2). “NASA sets sights on inflatable space stations”New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18566-nasa-sets-sights-on-inflatable-space-stations.html April 2010, 2Browse. 

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