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🌏 | "Rule of Law" condition is outrageous, Hungary and Poland do not break hard


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The "rule of law" condition is outrageous, Hungary and Poland do not break hard

 
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He said there was no momentum in the European Parliament or the Council to revisit the terms of the "rule of law" compliance.
 

[Budapest XNUMXth Reuters] – Hungary and Poland allocate European Union (EU) budget on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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European Parliament

European Union
European Union flag
European Union politics

 è¡¨-Story--History 

European ParliamentIs theDirect electionElected inEuropean UnionOrganization.European Union institutionsInEuropean Union Councilと と も にBicameral system OfLegislative officeThe decision-making authority lies in the board of directors.MemberIs 751 and the election isDemocraticWill be implemented inIndiaSecond most in the worldVotersHeld by, and the largest cross-border election in the world[1][2].

Direct regular elections have been held every five years since 1979. The European Parliament has legislative powers, but unlike most domestic parliaments, does not have the right to submit legislation[3].. With a few exceptions, legislation andbudgetShare the powers of decision making and oversight with the board. And the European Union policy enforcement agencyEuropean CommissionIs accountable to the European Parliament, in particular the European ParliamentEuropean Commission ChairHave veto power over the appointment of[3].

ChairFrom July 2019Social Democratic Progressive Alliance (S & D) AffiliationDavid SassoliA member of parliament (from Italy) serves. ChairEuropean People's Party Group (EPP) and Social Democratic Progressive Alliance 2 congressional groupsParliamentary groupManages the crowded European Parliament. The most recent elections held across the European Union2019年Was done to. European ParliamentStrasbourgAndブ リ ュ ッ セ ル OfEsperth LeopoldThere will be meetings in two places, especially in the latter, where a committee and an additional plenary session will be held. Responsible for the operation of the European ParliamentLuxembourg CityIt is located in

History

Like the rest of the European Union, the European Parliament is different in form from when it first opened on 1952 September 9. Originally the European ParliamentEuropean Coal and Steel CommunityWas established as a "joint general meeting". The Joint General Assembly was an advisory body of 78 members selected from the members of the Member Parliament and had no legislative power.[4][5].. Regarding changes from the establishment of the joint general meeting to the present,Manchester UniversitySays David Farrell of[6].

For a long time in its history, the European Parliament has been rightly referred to by the phrase "a multi-lingual debate without execution." But that expression no longer applies. The European Parliament is now one of the most powerful legislative bodies in the world, with both legislative and policy enforcement oversight authority.

The development of the European Parliament since its establishment is proof that it has evolved without a clear "master plan" with the institutions of the European Union.Washington PostSome say, Tom Reid of the United States said, "There is no other company that deliberately attempts to design a complex and excessive operating mechanism like the European Union."[7].. Even the plenary hall of the European Parliament is located in two places, and the place where the plenary session is held may change, but this is also the result of various agreements and it can not be said that the agreement has been made conversely. Is also a thing[4].

Advisory body

Originally the European ParliamentSchumann DeclarationWas not mentioned in the original text. HoweverEuropean Coal and Steel Community Establishment TreatyWas agreed to establish a balance with policy-executive bodies and to adopt an independent council as an oversight body while giving democratic justification.[4].. Under the European Coal-Steel Community Establishment Treaty, leaders of each country hoped that more than ordinary advisory bodies would be established using the phrase "citizen's representative", and implied that direct elections would be held. ..European Political CommunityThe importance of the Joint General Assembly at its inception was shown by the task of drafting a treaty for the establishment of the. On September 1952, 9, a "special" conference on the drafting of the Convention was established.[8],European Defense CommunityThe concept was abandoned, and this conference body did not fulfill its mission[9].

The European Political Community initiative was abandoned, but in 1958Roman treatiesIs effectiveEuropean Economic CommunityとEuropean Nuclear CommunityIs launched. The three communities, including the European Coal Community, had different policy enforcement bodies, but shared an advisory council, which was renamed to the European Parliamentary Council. 3Integrated treatyAlthough the governing bodies of the three communities will be merged by the entry into force of the European Union, the name of the European Parliamentary Assembly was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 3 before that.[4].. In 1970, the European ParliamentCommunity budgetWas given authority over some areas of the. In 1975, its scope was expanded to include full budget authority.[10].. The Treaty on the Establishment of the European Economic Community stipulated that the European Parliament would be elected. However, to implement the election, the board of directors had to formulate a unified election system among the member states, but it was difficult to formulate it. The European Parliament told the CouncilEuropean Court of JusticeWarned that he would sue him. This led the board to agree to hold the election, but to put it off further on issues of the election system.[11].

Conducting elections

1979 years,Direct electionFirst time byEuropean Parliament electionsWas carried out. Due to the election being held, it has become an appointment systemEuropean CouncilThe YaPan-African ParliamentIt was decided to make a clear distinction from the parliamentary organization on a regional scale such as[4][12][13].. After the first election, the first session of the new parliament was held on July 1, 1979,Simone WeilWas elected chairman. Weil was the first female chairman since the establishment of its predecessor, the General Assembly.[14].

As an elected organization, the European ParliamentEuropean CommunitiesIt came to propose the function of. In 1984, he drafted the "European Union Establishing Treaty Draft" (concept) in the wake of the European political community that he once worked on. Although the draft treaty was only passed by the European Parliament (rejected by Parliament), its concept was later incorporated into the Basic Treaty.[15].. Furthermore, since the 1980s, the European Parliament has voted on the personnel matters of the European Commission President, although it is not legally binding.[16].

Once the elections are held,German reunificationThe number of members of the European Parliament also increased as the number of member countries increased. In this situationNice TreatyLimits the number of members to 732[4].

Like other institutions, the European Parliament had no fixed location.European CommissionThe Council and the Council were placed in Brussels, while the interim arrangementsStrasbourgIt was stipulated to be placed in. In 1985, the European Parliament built a second parliament in Brussels and moved its activity base to it, despite some reaction from some countries, in consideration of cooperation with other institutions. About the base of 2European CouncilFinally, the final agreement was reached, according to which the formal location of the European Parliament was to hold 12 plenary sessions each year as Strasbourg, and other activities of the European Parliament to be held in Brussels. .. The fact that there were two bases in this way received a backlash from the European Parliament, but laterAmsterdam TreatyWas officially established in. However, the location of the European Parliament has been a source of controversy to this day.[17].

recent years

Every time the European Parliament amends the Treaty,Joint decision procedureThe areas determined by the law were expanded, and its legislative authority was strengthened.[18].. Also in 1999Sunterre CommitteeCaused a situation where he was forced to resign[19].. At this time, the European Parliament has questioned the alleged dishonesty and scandals of the Sunterre Commission and rejected the budget proposal for the following year. At this time, the two main parliamentary groups within the European Parliament clashed and forced the Sunterre Commission to resign. This is the first time that the European Commission has resigned, and just before the European Parliament resolved its distrust of the Commission.[20].

Largest in history for a cross-border scale in 2004electionAfter that, the European Council appointed a member of the largest political party, the European People's Party, to be chairman of the next European Commission, but the European Parliament again pressured the next Commission. It was At the hearing of candidates for the next European Commission, the Civil Liberties, Judicial and Interior Affairs Committee willHomosexualitySome members of the Diet were skeptical about some of the candidates for the Commission, such as disagreeing with the personnel affairs of the European Commission because of a problem in the way of thinking. Barroso defended Buttiglione, but the European Parliament urged him to remove Buttiglione, the first case of the European Parliament's rejection of the next Commission.[21][22].

In addition to expanding co-decision procedures, the European Parliament's democratic mandates have been strengthening legislative control over other European Union institutions. In its 2006 vote, the European Parliament adopted a majority of legislation with more than 400 amendments to the original. About this processFinancial TimesArgues that:

The European Parliament suddenly came to its full potential. This means that there is a change in power among the three major institutions of the European Union. At the same time as the expansion made it very difficult to negotiate within the Council and the European Commission, last week's vote was important for European Parliamentarians elected by direct elections, despite their diverse ideology, ethnicity and history. It also shows that it has started to unite as an effective European Union institution.
—Financial Times[23]

2007 years,Schengen Information System II In spite of the fact that the European Parliament was originally to be consulted on only part of the relevant legislation,Franco FlattiniAsked the European Parliament to discuss the entire system. From this point onwards FlattiniLisbon TreatySuggested that the European Parliament seek involvement of the European Parliament in all new judicial and criminal cases that will be empowered.[24].. The Lisbon Treaty came into effect on 2009 December 12, giving the European Parliament full authority over the European Union's budget, and legislative powers in almost all areas of the Council with equal authority and the European Commission. The appointment of the chairman of the parliament is now linked to the European Parliament elections[25].

authority

The European Parliament and the CouncilBicameral systemThe legislative bodies are juxtaposed like each other, and the treaty's legislative power is evenly distributed to each institution. However, unlike domestic parliament, neither in principle has the right to submit a bill. The boardBetween governmentsAlthough it has authority over the matters discussed by the European Commission, it has the right to submit bills to the European Commission, which is the executing agency, in other fields. So although the European Parliament can amend or reject the bill, the European Commission must first draft the bill before enacting legislation.[26].. However, there are doubts about the right to submit such a bill, and even if the domestic parliament submits the bill without the support of the executive body, only 15% is passed.[27].. On the other hand, former President of the European ParliamentHans-Gert PetteringThe European Parliament has the de facto legislation, as it has the right to ask the Commission to draft a bill and the Commission has come to support the proposal of the European Parliament. Claims to have the right to submit[28].

In addition, the European Parliament has an indirect but significant influence on non-legislative resolutions and hearings on the Commission, and it also sends its ideas across Europe through Brussels-based press. AlsoForeign policyIndirectly, the European Parliament can decide whether or not to take all development assistance, including outside the region. To give a specific example,Iraq warSupport laterIran's nuclear developmentCancellation talks must also be approved by the European Parliament. Alsoアメリカ合衆国Had to agree with the European Parliament on the transatlantic passenger data sharing measures between[29].

Legislative process

The powers of the European Parliament were expanded with each amendment to the Treaty. Mainly about the powers of the European ParliamentEuropean Union legislative proceduresIs defined through. In the method of legislative procedure, onceJoint decision procedureThe procedure referred to as "the European Parliament and the Council have equal powers" is now referred to as "ordinary legislative procedure" and is now applied in the adoption of almost all bills[3].. In this ordinary decision procedure, the European Commission submits the bill to the European Parliament and the Council, and after a maximum of three readings, the two institutions will pass the legislation. .. At the first reading, the European Parliament can send amendments to the Council, which can either adopt the amendments or send back a "common position." The European Parliament may approve of it in common, or it may reject the bill with absolute majority, or it may adopt the revised version with absolute majority. If the Council does not pass the amendment adopted by the European Parliament, a "Mediation Committee" will be established. The Mediation Committee, which is composed of an equal number of both the Council and the European Parliament, seeks a compromise. When an agreement is reached by the Mediation Commission, the European Parliament can pass a simple majority to the proposed agreement.[3][30].. Such a procedure is based on the fact that the European Parliament is the only direct democratic mandate of the European Union, especially in the 2006 Volkestein Directive. It became a case showing that it has strong legislative authority.[23].

"Special legislative procedures" apply in some areas, such as justice/home affairs, budgeting, and taxation. In these areas, the Council or the European Parliament independently establishes legislation[31].. Whether special legislative procedures apply depends on the form of the legislation[3].. The most powerful form of law isRuleAnd the rules themselves have direct effect on member countries.instructionWill bind Member States in that they will reach specific goals, which means that Member States will reach the Directive's goals through national law, and policies for their implementation can be independently determined.DecideIs intended for specific individuals or groups and has a direct effect. Also, it is not legally binding as a form of lawRecommendationAnd some opinions[32].. In addition, it does not depend on legal procedures,Westminster SystemThere is also a "written declaration" similar to. This is a document proposed by up to five members of the European Parliament and will be used to initiate discussions in that area on the activities of the European Union. The proposal document will be posted at the entrance of the main conference hall, and the signature of the member of the Diet will be invited. A document is handed over to the chair when a majority of the members agree, and the proposal is declared at the plenary session before it is sent to another body.[33].

budget

The powers of legislative bodies regarding the budget of the European Union are stipulated in the two treaties of the 1970s and the Lisbon Treaty. The EU budget usually uses legislative procedures. The European Parliament holds one reading session and has equal authority over the budget with the Council. If the position on the budget is different from that of the board, an arbitration committee will be established as in the case of ordinary bill deliberation. When the Mediation Commission fails to reach an agreement, the European Parliament can adopt its proposal as a budget[31].

The European ParliamentEuropean Accounting AuditorIt is possible to suspend the execution of the budget until the previous year based on the annual report of. The European Parliament rejected budget proposals in 1984 and 1998, respectively, with the latter being forced to resign from the Santère Commission.[11][34].

Control of enforcement agencies

Parliamentary Cabinet SystemUnlike most Member States, in the European Union between executive and legislative bodiesSeparation of powerAnd when it comes to such relationships, the European Parliament is moreUnited States CongressIs similar to[27].. To show this, the next European Commission chairman proposes candidates by the Council based on the latest European Parliamentary elections. Under the Basic Treaty, the European Parliament will approve and “election” the Chairman with a simple majority for this proposal. In response to the approval of the European Parliament, the next chairman of the European Commission will submit the matters concerning the membership of the next European Commission based on the persons presented by each Member State. Candidate members will be heard by the Commissions of the European Parliament in their assigned areas of responsibility. After that, the European Parliament voted for approval of the European Commission as a whole[16][35].. The European Parliament has never rejected a candidate for the next chairman or a proposal for the next commission, but it is likely to be rejected for approval by the first Barroso Commission. In response to the pressure of the European Parliament, Barroso once withdrew the personnel matters of the Commission and changed some of the candidates for the Commission so that it would be easier to accept the Commission.[21].. This series of events is evidence that the functioning of the European Parliament has been enhanced, and that the European Parliament had the ability to be accountable rather than just stamping on the Commission. .. Furthermore, in voting for the next committee's personnel cases, members of the European Parliament express their intentions according to the policies of the political parties to which they belong, not their countries of origin. In response to such movements of the European Parliament in terms of cohesion and influence, the leaders of Member States and other institutions of the European Union, despite the low voter turnout in the European Parliamentary elections, To be more focused[36].

The European Parliament also has the power to adopt a no confidence resolution that allows the European Commission to resign by a majority of two-thirds. Although no vote of no confidence has been adopted in the past, there have been occasions when a vote of no confidence was about to be passed on the Sunterre Commission. He also has oversight authority over the activities of the European Union, for example requesting the European Commission for reports and answers to parliamentary questions,Presidency of the Council of the European UnionCan be asked at the beginning of its term to set out a policy of action, the Commission or the Council to develop draft legislation or policies, or to ask other institutions[16][35].. At present, members of the European Parliament can ask questions on all agendas, but in July 2008, the European Parliament limited the agenda to those relevant to the authority of the European Union, and asked offensive or personal questions. Voted to ban[37].

Supervisory authority

The European Parliament is mainlyEuropean Union TreatyGranted general supervisory authority by[38].. The European Parliament also has the power to set up a commission of inquiry,Bovine spongiform encephalopathyProblems orUnited States Central Intelligence AgencyWe dealt with secret camp issues. The European Parliament will ask other European Union bodies to answer their questions, and, if necessary, if other European Union bodies violate European Union laws and treaties.European Union Court of JusticeCan be sued to[39].. In addition to the European Parliament, a member of the European Accounting Auditor[40],European Central BankHas the power to appoint the president and the officers of the board. President of the European Central Bank is obliged to submit the annual report to the European Parliament[39].

Member

Distribution of seats by member country (total 705 seats)
German flag ドイツ
96 (12.8%)
French flag France
74 (9.9%)
Italian flag イタリア
73 (9.7%)
Spanish flag スペイン
54 (7.2%)
Polish flag ポーランド
51 (6.8%)
 ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢
32 (4.3%)
Dutch flag Netherlands
26 (3.5%)
Belgian flag ãƒ™ãƒ«ã‚®ãƒ¼
21 (2.8%)
Greek flag ギリシャ
21 (2.8%)
 ãƒ ェ コ
21 (2.8%)
Portugal flag ポルトガル
21 (2.8%)
 ãƒãƒ³ã‚¬ãƒªãƒ¼
21 (2.8%)
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³
20 (2.7%)
 ã‚ªãƒ¼ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒªã‚¢
18 (2.4%)
 ãƒ–ルガリア
17 (2.3%)
 ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯
13 (1.7%)
 ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰
13 (1.7%)
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
13 (1.7%)
Irish flag アイルランド
11 (1.5%)
Croatian flag クロアチア
11 (1.5%)
 ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢
11 (1.5%)
Flag of Slovenia スロベニア
8 (1.1%)
 ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢
8 (1.1%)
 ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢
6 (0.8%)
Cyprus flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
6 (0.8%)
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg
6 (0.8%)
Malta flag マルタ
6 (0.8%)

Every five years the members of the European ParliamentGeneral electionWill be reelected. Also in the hospitalPolitical partyAre formed. Prior to 1979, it was a system of appointment of national parliaments of member countries[9][41].

The number of seats by member country is distributed almost in proportion to the population, and the maximum number of seats is 751. However, if there is a new member of the European Union during the term of office of the European Parliament, the upper limit may be exceeded. For example, from January 2007 when Romania and Bulgaria joined the European Union until June 1, the maximum number of seats at that time was 2009, which was 6.[9][42].. 751 elected members in the elections, but the chairman is not allowed to participate in voting during his tenure[43].. Furthermore, the upper limit of the number of seats by member country is 96 and the lower limit is 6. The distribution of seats by member country isDiminishing proportionThe principle is that the number of citizens represented by one member of parliament is larger in a country with a larger population.[44].. Note that2009 European Parliament electionsSince the Lisbon Treaty was not in force,Nice TreatyBy law, 736 members were elected. In this election, 18 observers who will be elected after the necessary procedures such as the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty were taken. In addition, the transition period from the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty to the 2014 election is a transition period, and the number of seats in Germany, which has exceeded the upper limit of the number of allocations by member countries, is not reduced during this period, so the total number of seats during this period Was 754[45].

Until 2009, members of the European Parliament received the same compensation as members of the national parliament of their country of origin. However, in 2009, a new parliamentary regulation came into effect, and members of the Diet will be paid 1 euros per month. This remuneration is taxable by the European Union and the country of origin. Members of the parliament can retire at age 7,000 and receive a full pension from the European Parliament. In addition, transportation expenses are not fixed, but actual expenses are paid.[46].. In addition to this, the European Parliament has many privileges. To ensure a round trip to the European Parliament, parliamentarians are given the same facilities from their country of origin as foreign officials from their country of origin and from countries other than their country of origin to enter the diplomatic missions abroad. There is. He is also given the same criminal immunity as a member of the National Assembly when staying in his country of origin and the privilege not to be arrested or criminal prosecuted when staying outside his country of origin. However, current criminals cannot claim criminal immunity and the European Parliament can deprive parliamentarians of immunity[47].

Political party

Seven in the European ParliamentHospital groupIs formed. On the other hand, about 30 members do not belong to these groups, Non-Inscrits Called. Among the parliamentary groups, the European People's Party group and the Social Democratic Progressive Alliance are particularly large. The two denominations have long led the European Parliament, and they have collectively accounted for 50 to 70 percent of the total seats. However, neither parliamentary group occupied a majority by itself.[27].

ParliamentaryEuropean partyIs the mother. Congregation before 2009European Socialist PartyOn the other hand, there is a kind of group that formed a socialist group by itself,European Liberal Democratic UnionThere are some parliamentary groups such as those formed by multiple European parties, domestic parties, or members who do not belong to a political party.[48].. In order to be recognized as a parliamentary group, it is necessary to have at least 7 members from at least 25 countries.[49].. If you are certified as a parliamentary group, you will benefit from financial support from the European Parliament and the distribution of committee members.

Grand coalition

Since the European Parliament does not build a government like the Parliamentary Cabinet System, the politics of the European Parliament is not to create a majority by political parties or affiliated parliamentary groups, but to focus on concluding an agreement. Has been developed. In fact, the European Parliament has formed a coalition of people from the European People's Party and the European Socialist Party. Both parties have cooperated while seeking compromises in their respective groups, and have passed the bill with the majority of both parties.[50].. However, there are cases in which there is a conflict between the parties, especially the resignation of the Sunterre Committee.[20].

When the Sunterre Commission's allegations of injustice came up, what was in the middle of it belonged to the European Socialist PartyEdit CressonとManuel MarineMet. The European Parliament said that the European Parliament would consider refusing to approve the budget on this alleged fraud.Jack sunterreSaid the denial of the budget was equal to distrust of the committee. The socialist group endorsed the Sunterre Commission to address this issue.1999 electionPrior to that, he believed that the European People's Party would undermine the European Socialist Party. A representative of the socialist group attempted to hold a vote of confidence on the Committee of Saint-Are, and the European People's Party filed a motion to the contrary. The relationship between the two parties at this time was in the form of a conflict between the ruling and opposition parties, with the European Socialist Party supporting the executive body and the European People's Party leaving the government and trying to put in distrust.[20].. These political issues are increasing, and in 2007London School of EconomicsSimon Hicks of, said:

Our research shows that politics in the European Parliament is increasingly dependent on political parties and ideologies. Even in the voting, it came to be divided into the right side and the left side, and especially in the fourth and fifth parliaments, the unity of the political parties was dramatically strengthened. As a result, policy agreements are also being made in each parliamentary group.
—Simon Hix,[6]

From 1999 to 2004, the great coalition that had existed so far collapsed, and a center-right link between the European Liberal Democratic Union and the European People's Party group was formed.[51].. The chairman's post of the European Parliament, which until now was divided between the European People's Party and the European Socialist Party, wasEuropean Liberal Democratic Reform PartyDivided by[52].2004 electionThe European Liberal Democratic Union later expanded its seats to 88, making it the third largest member of the European Parliament by then.[53].

Parliamentary groupCEOideologyNumber of membersEU 2020.svg
 European People's Party Group (EPP)Manfred WeberConservatism(Parent FU)187
 Social Democratic Progressive Alliance (S & D)(English edition)Social democracy147
 European renewal (Renew, oldALDE)Datian ChorocheLiberalism98
 European Green Group/European Freedom Federation (Greens-EFA)(English edition)
(English edition)
Green politics-Regionalism67
 Identity and democracy (ID)(English edition)Far right-Nationalism76
 European Conservation Reform Group (ECR)(English edition)
(English edition)
Conservatism(European skeptics)61
 European Union Left/Northern Green Left Alliance (GUE / NGL)(English edition)Socialism-Euro communism40
 Independent (OR)N/A29
Source: List of European Parliament members as of June 2020[54]Total705

election

Every five years since 1979, direct elections have been held in all Member States, the eighth in the 5 election. In the countries that have joined the European Union during their term of office, elections are held to elect the members at the time of joining. Six such elections have been held, most recently 2014 in Croatia. Elections span multiple days depending on the customs of each country or regionProportional representationMember countries have chosen the specific election method. Many countries have a single constituency, but some countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, divide the country into multiple constituencies. The number of seats is distributed to each member country in proportion to their population.[55].

The most recent election, which took place throughout the region of the European Union, took place in June 2014. The elections at that time became the world's largest simultaneous elections that cross borders. Looking at the percentage of female winners,1979 electionWas 16% of the total, but it rose to 2009% in the 35 election.[56].. Also, many measures have been taken to attract public attention to the election. Among them, it is particularly noteworthy to relate the result of the election to the election of the next chairman of the European Commission. This is a method in which each political party of European scale is made to appoint a candidate for the European Commission chairperson in elections, and the president of the European Commission is elected from the largest political parties like the parliamentary cabinet system.[57][58][59].. The trial took place in the 2004 elections, but in fact it was the election of the European Commission chairman in election campaigns throughout the European Union.European Green PartyWas only[60].. At that time, the European Green PartyDaniel Corn-BenditMet[61].. On the other hand, in other political parties, the European People's Party only nominated four or five people.[62].. In the 2009 elections, the European People's Party officially appointed incumbent Barroso as chairman of the next European Commission, but the leaders of some of the Member States of the European Socialist Party supported Barroso, Couldn't conclude agreement on standing next European Commission candidate[63].

By implementing these measures, democratic legitimacy was enhanced, and it declined with each election, with the aim of reversing the voting rate of less than 1999% in the 50 election.[59][64].. Voter turnouts were sluggish at 2007% and 28.6%, respectively, in the 28.3 elections for both Bulgaria and Romania.[65][66].

Proceedings

A year of European Parliamentarians attend weekly debates on committee reports, meetings of parliamentary delegations, weekly debates on the activities of parliamentary groups, and plenary sessions in Strasbourg for three and a half days. It's a weekly repeat. In addition to these, I also attend six plenary sessions that are held in Brussels for two days, six times a year. In addition, 1 weeks can be devoted to devoting time to activities in each constituency. However, there are no scheduled meetings in the summer. The European Parliament reserves the right to hold meetings without the convening of other institutions. The meetings of the European Parliament are held in some parts by the Basic Convention, but in other parts, they are held in accordance with their own rules of the House of Representatives.[67].

At the plenary session, members of the parliament can speak under the nomination of the chair for a limit of one minute. Also representatives of the Council and members of the European Commission may attend and speak in the deliberations.[68].. The need for translation and the European Parliament's nature of consensus at meetings have made discussions more gentle and polite than the Westminster system.[69].. Voting is mainly thumbs-up/thumbs-down, and electronic voting is conducted if requested.[70].. Whichever method is used, the pros and cons of individual members are not recorded,Name roll call votingIf you do, the record will remain. Name roll calls are made by reading the names of the legislators in alphabetical order, and the legislators pros and cons, but they are only implemented when important votes or one-fifth of all legislators ask. In addition, the name roll call is conducted by the election of the chairman etc., but the secret vote is thorough[71][72].. All recorded votes, along with minutes and legislation passedEuropean Union GazetteIt is recorded in. In most cases, the voting will not take place immediately after deliberation of individual cases, but will take place collectively at noon on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. This is because it is difficult to predict how long it will take to vote, and if there is a time that exceeds the scheduled time, it may be impossible to hold discussions and meetings that are supposed to take place on that day.[73].

The seats of members of the parliament are determined by the parliamentary group to which they belong. However, some small groups are located around the parliament. All seats are equipped with microphones, translation headphones and electronic voting devices. The representatives of the parliament sit on the front bench in the center, and in the center is the podium for guest speakers. There is a step on the side opposite to the seats of the members of the parliament, and the seats of the chairman and parliamentary staff are located on it. There is another bench between the parliamentary seats and the chairman's seat, where the parliamentary representatives sit, the left side is the representative of the Council and the right side is the members of the European Commission. The main conference halls in Brussels and Strasbourg have almost the same arrangement. The plenary hall also incorporates elements from the United Kingdom, where different parliamentary groups face each other, in France, which is semi-circular, and in Germany, where members of a row are facing the podium. It is designed. Although the plenary hall is almost semi-circular, the politicians who are the opposite of each other are facing each other in the front.[74].. Entrance to the hospital is restricted and the entrance is controlled by the gatekeeper. In addition to assisting lawmakers in the hospital, such as handing over documents, this gatekeeper also acts to maintain order, such as removing lawmakers who interfere with the conference. Many of the duties of the European Parliament wereFrench RevolutionIt is performed in a French style that has developed since then. The European Parliament has 180 gatekeepers wearing black tailcoats and silver chains. Also, the chair has a dedicated guard[75].

組織

The President of the European Parliament proceeds in plenary, and the Chair signs all laws and regulations adopted in legislative proceedings and the budget of the European Union. Since July 2019, David Sassoli, a member of the Social Democratic Progressive Alliance, has been serving. The Chairman also externally and legally represents the European Parliament and, within the House, applies the rules of the House of Parliament to operate the European Parliament. The chairman's term of office is two and a half years, with one reelection during one term of the European Parliament.[76][77].. In most countriesProtocolIn orderHead of stateIs ranked first, but in the European Union, the European Parliament is the first body to be listed among the main bodies in the basic treaty, so the President of the European Parliament becomes the leader in the ranking of protocols in the European Union. .. As an example of this, the goods presented to high-ranking officials of the European Union are named after the President of the European Parliament. From SpainJosep BorrellWas created by an artist from Barcelona,European Union Charter of Fundamental RightsWas given a crystal cup with a portion of the carved[78].

Many prominent figures have been chaired by the European Parliament, or its predecessor. The first chairman is called one of the founding fathers of the European UnionPaul-Henri SparkIs also the father of the establishmentArcide de Gasperi,Robert SchumannAlso chaired. She was also chaired by a woman, and Simone Weil, who became the chairman of the European Parliament, elected in the first direct election in 1979, and was appointed in 1999.Nicole FontaineThere is. Inaugurated in 2009Jez BuzekIs the former Prime Minister of Poland, formerlyEastern countriesBecame the first head of a major European Union institution[79].

In the plenary session for electing the chair, the predecessor chairman will proceed, and if the predecessor chairman is not a member of the European Parliament, one of the former vice-chairmen will proceed. Before 1, the oldest member of the parliament was in the process of electing the chair.[80]Becomes the oldest member of parliament after the 2009 electionJean-Marie Le PenAmendments to the House of Representatives to prevent people from sitting in the chair[81].

There are 14 vice-chairpersons under the chairperson, who act for the proceedings when the chairperson is absent. In addition to this, many organizations and positions that manage the European Parliament have been established. Among them, the secretariat in charge of finance and management, and the parliamentary representatives' meeting, which is responsible for the operation, are the main organizations. In addition to this, six treasury officers have been set up to make a profit in terms of the finances and management of lawmakers.

Committee, delegation of representatives

There are 20 standing committees in the European Parliament, each of which consists of 28 to 86 members. The committee meets twice a month to develop and revise the bills and reports submitted to the plenary session.[82].. The committee's La Porteur (reporter) was supposed to take the view of the committee, but not always. Despite the fact that the Budget Oversight Committee decided to give a close agreement to the budget proposal, La Porteur reported that it should reject the budget proposal in contradiction to the Commission's decision, which resulted in I had a situation where I had to resign[20].

The committee can also set up subcommittees and special committees to handle specific areas. The chairpersons of each committee cooperate through the chairperson meetings[82].. The introduction of the co-decision procedure has increased the power of the European Parliament in many areas, especially strengthening the functions of the Commission on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. Traditionally, the Environmental, Public Health, and Food Safety Commissions have not been recognized for their activities, and therefore, among the members of the Diet, "CinderellaIt has been regarded as a “committee”, but its role has been gaining attention as its importance has increased.[11].

The character of the Commission of the European Parliament is different from that of the National Parliament, which is smaller than the Commission of the United States Congress, but the Commission of the European Parliament is much larger than the National Parliament of Europe, There are 8 to 12 full-time employees and 3 to 4 assistants. If necessary, the entire parliament can freely use preserved materials and research resources.[27].

The European Parliament has a delegation of deputies to interact with parliaments outside the European Union. There are 15 delegations of approximately 34 members, each of whom chairs as well as co-chairs of the committee. Parliamentary delegations include the "Inter-Parliamentary Parliamentary Delegation", which interacts with parliaments outside the European Union, and the "Joint Parliamentary Conference", which interacts with parliamentary candidates for the European Union and cooperating countries.Africa/Caribbean/Pacific countries -European Union Joint Assembly delegation, delegation, etc.[82].. Parliamentarians are also involved in international activities such as and election monitoring in third countries.[83][84].

Translation interpretation

Speaker in the European Parliament23 official languages ​​of the European UnionYou can speak in any language. Simultaneous interpretation is provided at all plenary sessions and the final text of the statute is also translated into these 23 languages. With 23 languages, the European Parliament is the most multilingual parliament in the world.[85], Also the largest in the world to hire interpreters, with 350 full-time, and possibly 400 more freelance interpreters to hire[86].. And citizens against the European ParliamentBasque language,Catalan language-Valencian,GalicianYou can make an offer at[87].

Usually a language is translated from a foreign language into the translator's native language. However, since the number of target languages ​​has increased, since 1995, some small languages ​​may be translated in the opposite direction from the mother language of the translator to another language. In addition, because there is no interpreter, statements made in a small language may be translated via a third language.[86].. Interpreters are required to be fluent in two European Union official languages ​​in addition to their native language. In addition, interpreters must properly convey the political meaning of their remarks, regardless of their views. For that purpose, it is necessary to understand politics and the parliamentary terminology in detail, and enormous preparation is required in advance. Especially difficult is the interpreter when a member of the Diet uses various languages, jokes, word games, or speaks quickly.[86].

While some legislators think that speaking their mother tongue is an important part of their identities, and make statements to inspire their debate, others criticize translation and its costs. European Parliament memberAlexander StubAccording to the 2006 report by, translating into 21 official languages ​​of the European Union (then) would cost €1 per day,English,French,GermanPointed out that if only it could be reduced to 8,900 euros[88].. Many legislators are thinking of unifying it into English because of its widespread use, but let's assume that French is more clear and accurate for legal purposes, so let's make all legal texts into French. There is a move to. Although these movements do not directly affect the translation at the plenary session, French will be used in the discussion of the bill.[89].

Location

The European Parliament has its bases in multiple buildings in three different cities. According to the Protocol to the Amsterdam Treaty, 3 plenary sessions per year are held in Strasbourg, the statutory seat of the European Parliament.[90]It will be held in Brussels, and committee meetings and additional plenary sessions will take place in Brussels. In addition, the European Parliament Secretariat is located in Luxembourg. As a result, the European Parliament is the only parliamentary body in the world where the plenary session is held in more than one place, and one of the few that cannot be located.[91].

Strasbourg's Plenary Hall is considered a symbol of the French-German settlement. The Strasbourg area was once a region where both countries fought. However, there are doubts about the cost of having two plenary halls. Strasbourg is the statutory seat of the European Parliament, but Brussels is home to other major institutions of the European Union, and most of the European Parliament's work is done in Brussels. As a result, there are skeptical opinions that the main conference hall is located in Strasbourg.[92].

Criticized as "mobile circus" for European Parliament's main chamber in two cities[93]There is also a strong movement to centralize the European Parliament in Brussels. In Brussels, the European Commission, the Council and the European Council are gathered together, which in effect serves as the "capital" of the European Union, which is the reason behind the assertion of relocation. For the transferees, the Vice-Chairman of the First Barroso Commission said, "What was once such a magnificent symbol of the European Union's reconciliation between France and Germany was the now wasteful, bureaucratic madness of Brussels. It has become a negative symbol of[94].. The European Green Party has also pointed out the environmental load, and there are several plenary halls that will cost 2 million euros and 20,268 tons of carbon dioxide will be wasted. Claims to have a negative impact on the position of the European Parliament and the European Union[93].. In addition, more than one million signatures gathered for the online plea by European Parliamentarians on the move[95].. In 2006, there was a suspicion that there was an illegal act in the rent setting of Strasbourg City for the buildings rented by the European Parliament[96].. In a survey of European Parliamentarians (response rate: 39%), 89% said they wanted a unified location, and 81% said that Brussels was better.[97].. In addition, academic research shows that 68% agree with the unification.[6].. However, the location of the European Parliament is stipulated in the Basic Convention, and revising it requires unanimous approval of the Council, that is, it cannot be realized if one country opposes it.[91].. EspeciallyFrench PresidentNikola SarkozySaid the location of the European Parliament is "incontroversial", showing that it has no plans to shake up the fact that the European Parliament is based in France.[98].

future

The Lisbon Treaty states that the European Council must consider the results of the last European Parliamentary election when nominating the next European Commission Chairman,European Constitution TreatyThe results of the elections were taken into consideration in 2004, when the agreement was discussed, and in 2009, before the Lisbon Treaty entered into force, in the appointment of the next chairman of the Commission. The basic treaty, amended by the Lisbon Treaty, uses the term "election" rather than the traditional "approval" for the passage of the European Commission's next European Commission chairperson case. In addition, the term "election"Constitutional monarchyAt the head of stateHead of governmentAs with the system in which the victorious party in the parliamentary elections actually appoints candidates to stand, even though they have the power to appoint a candidate for the next European Commission chairman appointed by the European Parliament Rather than accepting the above, it is said that each parliamentary group of the European Parliament is intended to appoint candidates for the next chairman of the European Commission. There was also movement that the political parliamentary group of the European Parliament had established its own candidate for the European Commission President before the election[58].. In 2009, the European People's Party supported Barroso's reappointment, while the European Socialist Party did not make a candidate.The European Green Party launched the election campaign in 2004 with the next candidate for the next European Commission chairman.[61].

Chaired in 2007 in line with the Lisbon Treaty's structural reformsHans-Gert PetteringLaunched a Parliamentary Reform Special Working Group to improve the efficiency and image of the European Parliament. The proposal for parliamentary reform included the activation of the plenary session and the introduction of textbook discussions.[99].. The introduction of special discussion on current affairs, which was one of the reform proposals of the working group, was opposed.[100]Of the European Union Liberal Democratic Union is leaving the working group[101].. On the other hand, although it was declared in the European Constitution Treaty, it was excluded in the Lisbon TreatyEuropean symbolsMany legislators supported increasing the opportunity to use the. These symbols were introduced by the European Parliament in 3, three years before the European Communities decided to use them as a whole.European flagHas been adopted as a symbol, which is why the European ParliamentAvant-gardeIs said to be[102][103].. An interim report was submitted in September 2007, and it was proposed to reduce the time for guest speeches and discussions on non-legislative documents. In 9, 2006 “voluntary” reports, which critiqued rather than legislate, were issued, with only 92% of the debate spending on debate, while 18 % Was spent on such reports. In July 22, the working group completed the final report, and by the elections in 2008 the final report's recommendations were to be put into action.[99]But Watson suspected that the right-left coalition in the European Parliament would try to push through a proposal that would receive opposition from more conservative lawmakers. Parliamentarians, such as co-representatives, were calling for more radical plans. However, in Bonn, he did not participate in the vote on the final report, stating, "It is psychologically important to show that we want to be a more political parliament."[101].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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外部 リンク

Coordinate: North Latitude 48 Degrees 35 Minutes 51 Seconds East longitude 7 degree 46 min 09 sec /48.597512 degrees north latitude 7.769092 degrees east longitude / 48.597512; 7.769092

Board of directors

Board of directorsWhat is (jijikai)?Corporation OforganAnd allDirectorIt consists of and makes decisions on the business execution of corporations.Ltd.As an alternative to the board of directorsboard of directorsThere is.

General FoundationIn, with the board of directors,CouncilorOrganize inBoard of TrusteesIs installed. In general incorporated associations, the highest decision-making body isGeneral meeting of shareholders), and important matters will be deliberated there, and the Board of Directors will decide matters concerning business execution based on this.Enforcement agencyBecomes

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