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🌏 | Beijing advises to curb new corona vacation season ahead


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Beijing advises to curb new corona vacation season ahead

 
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He emphasized that government officials and employees of state-owned enterprises should take the initiative.
 

[Beijing XNUMXth Reuters] – Beijing, the capital of China, will be on the XNUMXth, from January XNUMXst to February XNUMX Chinese New Year ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Government relations

State-owned enterprise

State-owned enterprise(Kokuyuukigyo,British: State-owned enterprise , Abbreviation: SOE) or Government-owned enterprise(Seifusho Yuukigyo,British: Government-owned enterprise , Abbreviation: GOE) is a country政府 所有ToCompanyThat is.

State-owned enterpriseIs a form of state-owned enterprise,managementIt is a company that does[1].

Overview

State-owned enterprises are also called government-owned companies, and the state or state agency (government agency) is the largest for the purpose of industrial development and national defense.[Question]Becoming an investor inCompany.

It is also called a government-owned company or a state-owned enterprise.

East-West camp and state-owned enterprises

So-calledSocialist countrySo most companies have been nationalized,West Of資本主義Countries andDeveloping countryButTrain,AirlinesCompanies that are responsible for transportation infrastructure such aselectricity-oilCompanies that develop and supply energy and resources such as these have been nationalized.

After World War IIFor the time being, not only in the eastern socialist countries as mentioned above, but also in the western countriesMixed economyThere were many state-owned enterprises as a policy, but the collapse of socialist countries andNeoliberalismCurrently, with the exception of state-owned enterprises worldwide due to the influence ofPrivatizationIs progressing, manyLtd.Is becoming.But still the central and local governmentsstockIn some cases, they own the majority of.In addition, companies that were previously privately owned may be treated as state-owned enterprises by placing them under government control for a short period of time to prevent bankruptcy.

Situation in each country

Gray is "state-owned enterprise monopoly", green is "coexistence of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises", yellow is "private entry is possible but only real state-owned enterprises", and colorless is "completely free market where there are no state-owned enterprises".

Existence of state-owned enterprises in each country
Country (alphabetical order)PostTrainDrug retailgamblingLiquor retailMedicalUniversitycommunicationbroadcastoilEnergy
Iceland flag アイス ランドDe facto ()There is no railroadNoneThere is no gamblingYes ()CoexistenceCoexistenceNoneCoexistence (coexistenceIceland National Broadcasting)There is no oil industryCoexistence
Irish flag アイルランドYes (en: An Post)Yes (Irish National Railways)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceen: Prize Bond)NoneCoexistenceCoexistenceNoneCoexistence (coexistenceRTE, TG4)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceESB)
United States flag The United States of AmericaYes (USPS)Coexistence
(AmtrakPassengers and cargo are privately owned)
NoneCoexistence (state lottery)Varies by state (en: ABC store states)CoexistenceCoexistenceNoneCoexistence (coexistencePublic broadcasting service)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceVAT)
British flag The United KingdomCoexistence (coexistenceRoyal mail)Coexistence
Northern Railways, East Coast) (Network rail)
NoneCoexistence (coexistenceen: Premium Bonds)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceNHS)Coexistence (coexistenceBuckingham University, BPP HD)NoneCoexistence (coexistencewith the BBC, Channel 4, S4C)NoneNone
Italian flag イタリアYes ()Yes (FS
(Italian National Railways)
)
NoneNoneNoneCoexistence ()CoexistenceNoneYes (Italian Broadcasting Corporation)Coexistence (coexistenceEni)Coexistence (coexistenceEnel)
Indian flag IndiaYes (en: India Post)Yes (Indian Railways)Yes (IDPL)NoneNoneCoexistenceCoexistenceCoexistence (coexistenceBSNL)Coexistence (coexistenceen: Doordarshan)Coexistence (coexistenceONGC)Yes
 IndonesiaYes (id: Pos Indonesia)Yes (id: PT Kereta Api)YesNoneNoneCoexistenceCoexistenceYes (PT Telkom Indonesia)CoexistenceCoexistence (coexistencePertamina)Yes (id: Perusahaan Listrik Negara)
Uruguay flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euYes (en: Correo Uruguayo)Yes (en: State Railways Administration of Uruguay)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceen: Casinos del Estado)CoexistenceCoexistenceCoexistenceCoexistence (coexistenceen: ANTEL)Coexistence (Channel 5)Coexistence (coexistenceANCAP)Yes (en: UTE)
 PostTrainDrug retailgamblingLiquor retailMedicalUniversitycommunicationbroadcastoilEnergy
Australian flag AustraliaYes (Australian Postal Service) Exclusive letters weighing less than 250gCoexistence (varies by state)Coexistence (funding only) (no retail competition)Coexistence (varies by state)NoneCoexistence (coexistence(English edition))CoexistenceNoneCoexistence (coexistenceABC) (SBS)NoneCoexistence (varies by state)
Dutch flag NetherlandsNoneCoexistence (coexistenceDutch railwayPassengers and cargo are privately owned)NoneYes
()
NoneCoexistenceYesNoneCoexistence (coexistenceDutch Public Broadcasting)NoneNone
Canadian flag カナダYes (Canadian Post)Coexistence
(VIA RailPassengers only, freight is private)
NoneVaries by stateVaries by state (LCBO, SAQ, SLGA)CoexistenceCoexistenceVaries by state (en: Sasktel)Coexistence (coexistenceCanadian Broadcasting Corporation)CoexistenceVaries by state (Hydro-Québec, en: BC Hydro, en: Hydro One, en: Manitoba Hydro, en: Nalcor Energy, en: SaskPower)
Greek flag Greecede facto
()
De facto (,)NoneCoexistence
()
NoneCoexistence ()YesCoexistence ()Coexistence ()Coexistence ()Coexistence ()
 ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢Yes ()NoneNoneEtesavaries by departmentNueva EPSUniversidad Nacional plus various local ones() ()Coexistence ()()(ISA[Avoid ambiguity] )
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³De facto (Post)De facto (SJ)Coexistence (coexistencesv: Apoteket)YesYes (sv: Systembolaget)CoexistenceYesCoexistence (coexistenceTerrier)Coexistence (coexistenceSVT)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceVattenfall)
Kingdom of Thailand flag ThailandYes (Thai Postal Service)Yes (State Railway of Thailand)None (Pharmaceutical Corporation)Yes (Treasure Bureau)Alcohol PermitCoexistence (coexistencePharmaceutical Corporation)(University)Coexistence ()Coexistence (coexistenceMCOT)Coexistence (coexistencePTT)Yes ()
German flag GermanyCoexistence
(German post)
Coexistence (coexistenceDB)NoneNoneNoneCoexistence (coexistenceBG)CoexistenceCoexistence (coexistenceDTAG)Coexistence (coexistenceARD)??
 PostTrainDrug retailgamblingLiquor retailMedicalUniversitycommunicationbroadcastoilEnergy
Turkish flag トルコYes (PTT)Yes (TCDD)NoneNoneNoneCoexistenceCoexistenceNoneCoexistence ()Coexistence ()Coexistence
Japanese flag Japande facto
(Japan Post)
None (with public institution-funded companies)NoneYes (other local sponsors)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceNational Hospital Organization)Coexistence (coexistenceNational University Corporation)Coexistence (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)Coexistence (coexistenceJapan Broadcasting Corporation)Coexistence (coexistenceThere are government-controlled companies)Coexistence (coexistenceTEPCO HoldingsSuch)
 New ZealandYes (NZ Post)Yes (en: KiwiRail)NoneNoneNoneCoexistenceYesNoneCoexistence (coexistenceTVNZ)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceen: Genesis Energy Limited, en: Meridian Energy, en: Mercury Energy, en: Solid Energy, en: Transpower New Zealand)
 ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼Yes (no: Poster Norge)Yes (Norwegian National Railways)NoneYes (no: Norsk Tipping)Yes (no: Vinmonopolet)YesYesCoexistence (coexistenceTelenor)Coexistence (coexistenceNRK)Coexistence (coexistenceEquinor)State owned (no: Statkraft) and various municipally owned companies
 ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰De facto (Itera)De facto (VR)NoneYes
(fi: Veikkaus, RAYHABER, fi: Fintoto)
Yes (fi: Alko)Coexistence (coexistencemunicipal)YesCoexistence (coexistenceTerrier)Coexistence (coexistenceYle)De facto (Neste)Coexistence (coexistenceFortum)
Philippines flag フィリピンYes (PhilPost)Yes (PNR)NoneYes (PAGCOR)NoneYesYes (UP)NoneYes (PTV)Coexistence (coexistencePNOC)Coexistence (coexistenceNAPOCOR)
Brazilian flag BrazilYes ()Coexistence (,)Coexistence ()Yes ()NoneCoexistence ()CoexistenceNoneCoexistenceCoexistence (coexistencePetrobras)Coexistence (coexistenceBrazil power)
French flag FranceYes
(Post)
Yes (French railway)NoneCoexistence
(en: Française des Jeux (lottery))
NoneCoexistenceCoexistenceCoexistence (coexistenceFrance TV)Coexistence (coexistenceFrance TV Radio Division)NoneCoexistence (coexistenceFrench power)
 PostTrainDrug retailgamblingLiquor retailMedicalUniversitycommunicationbroadcastoilEnergy

State-owned enterprises in each country

The companies that the state or the state institution provides 50% or more of the funds are shown below (*Public corporation-Public corporationIncluding corporate entities called etc.).Since there are many local government-owned enterprises, we will omit them here.

Japan

In Japan, the so-called "privatization" route of the 1980s led to the privatization or conversion of state-owned enterprises (current business) into joint-stock companies, and there are no state-owned enterprises in the narrow sense.Strictly speaking, the following are not "state-owned enterprises" (current business)Special companySo, the government is a shareholder with management rights.Depending on the law, it may be treated like a joint-stock company, which is a private company rather than a public company, and there are many cases in the market where it is a member of free competition or is routinely managed independently of the country.Also,Independent administrative agencySome of them, for exampleUrban regeneration mechanismSome people, such as, are considered to be engaged in normal corporate activities.

Government (Minister) wholly owned company
Other

History of privatization

The United States of America

The following is based on a special lawGovernment support organizationIt is a company that is not originally funded by the government, but by reliefnationalizationWas done.

The United Kingdom

India

Indonesia

エチオピア

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

カナダ

South Korea

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

スイス

People's Republic of China

1992Chinese Communist Party held inAll fourteen tournamentsIn the above, the distinction between the two terms was stipulated as "a" state-owned enterprise "has both management and ownership rights in the country, but a" state-owned enterprise "has ownership in the country but management rights in the company." In light of the same definition, all companies that were close to "state-owned enterprises" had an economic policy to thoroughly make them state-owned enterprises.[2]..In response to this market economy policy1993 OfConstitutional amendmentIt was reformed from a socialist public ownership system to a socialist market economy, and the corporate unit, which was a division under the government, changed to another company under government capital, and the name was changed from "state-owned enterprise" to "state-owned enterprise". Changed.

For state-owned enterprisesState Council OfState-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Committee(National Funds Commission) Under controlCentral companyとProvince / autonomous region / cityThere are companies under the control of the government.The State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Committee, which controls the central enterprises, aims to monitor and supervise the management of the state-owned enterprises.1988Inaugurated in, appointment of officers and management, asset management,stockBuying and selling, etc. and companiesdecreeThe business is maintenance.

In the spring of 2015, the top of state-owned enterprises such as oil and automobiles were replaced one after another by the appointment of the party center and the State Council, and in September of the same year, the "guidance policy on deepening reform of state-owned enterprises" was announced. In September 9, the integration of Baosteel Group and Wuhan Iron and Steel Group was reported, and there is a tendency for corporate integration in policies in areas where overproduction was an issue. In 2016, it was reported that some of the so-called central enterprises under the direct control of the government, which were funded by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Committee and managed by the central government, were reorganized to about 9 companies.The following are some.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

Czechoslovakia

Germany

Socialist countryWas oldEast GermanyThen,People's Commune (VEB)A state-owned enterprise or a company in which the state owns all the shares (MitropaEtc.) existed,East and West Germany unificationIt was later privatized. In the 1990s(German version)Etc. were also privatized.

ハンガリー

Brazil

France

ポーランド

ロシア

Recently, many of the former government businesses are "owned by employees"Public Co., Ltd.And thatManagement buyoutIn many cases, the company becomes a management buyout (MBO) and is listed on the stock market.

United Arab Emirates

footnote

  1. ^ "Political and Economic Glossary" edited by the Political and Economic Education Study Group, Yamakawa Shuppansha, November 2015, 11, 15st edition, 1nd edition.
  2. ^ Chinese corporate system (Professor, Faculty of Foreign Studies, Reitaku University, Masamichi Sanba HP)

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