Angle: Cyber attacks on US government agencies, repairs could take more than half a year
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Adair has been supporting NASA's cybersecurity measures for five years.
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US Aerospace Agency
US Aerospace Agency(America Universe,English: National Aeronautics and Speace Administration, NASA), orNASA(Beikoku Kokkakou Kuuchikyukyoku)It is,The United States of AmericaWithin the governmentSpace developmentIt is a federal agency responsible for planning related to.19587/29, Preceding under the National Aeronautics and Space ActNational Aerospace Advisory Board It was established as a developmental solution to the (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA).It was officially started in 195810/1It was that.
NASA further enhances America's national efforts in space exploration than beforeApollo projectIn(I.e.firstMoon landing,Skylab planLong-term space stay in space, and space planespace shuttleAnd so on.CurrentlyInternational Space Station Operational support for (International Space Station, ISS),Orion spaceship,Space Launch System,Commercial crew transportationWe are developing and supervising.
In addition to space exploration, NASA's important mission is宇宙空間 Of平和A long-term exploration of purpose or target.Artificial satelliteIt was used地球Exploration to itself,Unmanned probeIt was usedSolar systemExploration, in progressPlutoProbeNew Horizons Exploration of the outer edges of the solar system, such as (New Horizons), and evenHubble Space TelescopeUsing, etc.big BangThe main role is to explore the entire universe, including.2006Announced in February, NASA's goal was "always a pioneer in exploration of outer space, scientific discovery, and the development of state-of-the-art aircraft."
Space development competition
195710/4,Soviet UnionIs the first in human historyArtificial satelliteSputnik 1The success of the project made the American people aware of the fact that "how poor their space development technology is" (Sputnik shock).ParliamentIs americanSecurityAnd warns that technology pioneers are under threat,Federal governmentPrompted him to take some action immediately.
Receiving this,President EisenhowerAnd their aides carefully considered countermeasures and after several months of debate, "To carry out space activities for non-military purposes,Army, Navy and Air ForceEtc. should change the state of independently promoting space development and unify the command system. "Defense Advanced Research Projects Bureau (Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA) was also established at the same time.
1957From the end1958At the beginning,NACAThe National Aerospace Advisory Board has begun to consider ways to delegate the role it has played to new non-military agencies, and several committees to scrutinize the concept. Was launched. 19581/12, NACA has established the "Space Technology Special Committee" chaired by Guyford Stever.Stever's CommitteeSecond World WarLater in AmericaCitizenshipEarnedWerner von BraunAs a leaderUS Army Ballistic Missile BureauHe also had the task of consulting the giant rocket development plan proposed by the "Space Rocket Development Group". 19581/14Hugh Latimer Dryden, Secretary of NACA, announced the "National Research Plan for Space Technology," stating:
|"||Considering both Japan's prestige and military need, it is an urgent and important task to vigorously promote the research and development plan for space conquest, which was hit by this challenge (Sputnik). is there. (Omitted) Therefore, it was proposed that scientific investigations should be conducted by non-military state agencies. (Omitted) NACA has the ability to rapidly expand and extend its outcomes by taking the lead in space exploration technology.||'|
19581/3110:48 pm (USAEastern Standard Time),Explorer 1(International designator (Given "1958α") was launched and became the first artificial satellite in the United States.3/5, President of the National Advisory Committee for Science and Technology, James Killian, sends President Eisenhower a letter entitled "Organization for the Private Space Program" to extend the research program with minimal delays By the organization that strengthened and reorganized NACACivilian controlHe urged the creation of a type of space program.At the end of March of the same year, NACA was planning at that time.hydrogenとFluorine100 million pounds (453) propellantT, 445 millionNewton), A report entitled "Proposals for Space Exploration" was released, including a development plan for a three-stage rocket with thrust.
In April of the same year, Eisenhower addressed Congress, stating his intention to establish a new private-sector-led space development agency and a budget for NASA. NACA's role up to that point should have changed in terms of scale, progress, management, and operation, even if one research activity was taken.7/16Congress approved the budget and at the same time made some mention of the "National Aerospace Resolution," which provided the concrete basis for NASA's establishment.Only two days later, a working group led by von Braun submitted a preliminary report in which various institutions were assigned to the current US space exploration, lacking mutual cooperation and overlapping national efforts. He criticized him for being there.Stever's Space Exploration Commission agreed with Brown's group's criticism, and a final draft was submitted in October.
Launch of NASA
19587/29, President Eisenhower signed a national aerospace resolution, where NASA was officially launched.same year10/1As soon as the practice started, NASA immediately became a 46-year-old NACA organization (8 employees, $ 1 million annual budget, and three major research facilities (XNUMX major research facilities).Langley Aviation Institute, Ames Aviation Research Institute, Lewis Flight Propulsion Research Institute) and two small experimental facilities) were absorbed as they were.
The Army Ballistic Missile Department, to which Dr. von Braun belonged, and the Navy Research Institute were also annexed to NASA. NASA once made an important contribution to entering the Space Race with the Soviet Union during World War II.GermanyIt was a technology developed in the rocket project led by von Braun.ThereRobert GoddardThe results of his early research are also incorporated.Early-stage research conducted by the Air Force and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency was also taken over by NASA. In December 1958,California Institute of TechnologyOperated byJet Propulsion LaboratoryAlso came under the command of NASA.
The first thing NASA went to wasCold WarFierce with the Soviet Union belowSpace development competitionWas carried out inManned space flightIt was a plan. Started in 1958Mercury PlanIs still almost groping, and started by investigating the rudimentary question of whether humans can survive in outer space in the first place.Alsoland-海-air forceA representative was also sent from to support NASA.The selection of aviators is of the already selected armyTest pilotIt was relatively easy because all I had to do was narrow down the candidates.
19615/5, First selection aviator "Mercury SevenIs one ofAlan Shepherd (Alan Shepard) Astronaut Mercury spacecraft "Freedom 7For 15 minutesBallistic flightSuccessful, America's first宇宙 飛行 士It became.afterwards19622/20ToJohn Glenn (John Glenn) AstronautFriendship 7For the first time, I flew for two and a half hours.Orbit around the earthWas successful.
After the completion of the Mercury project, to solve various problems necessary for lunar flight and conduct experimentsGemini planHas begun.The first flight with an aviator on board19653/23 OfGemini 3so,Gus GrissomとJohn YoungOrbited the earth three times.In the following 3 manned flights, stay in space for a long time and with other satellitesRendezvousProven to be dockable,WeightlessnessMedical data on the human body was collected.In parallel with this, NASASolar systemLaunched various spacecraft for exploration.First manned flight in history (Vostok No. 1)the same as,Behind the moonThe first photo of the side was taken by a Soviet spacecraft, but other than Earth.惑星(Venus) Was first explored by NASAMariner No. 2was.
Apollo projectWas conceived with the aim of landing humans on the moon and safely returning them to Earth.HoweverApollo 1Then, a fire accident occurred during training on the ground, killing three aviators.This willApollo spacecraftWas forced to make several unmanned test flights before boarding humans.8 No.と10 No.Orbited the moon and brought back a large number of photographs.19697/20,Apollo 11Landed on the moon,Neil ArmstrongとBuzz AldrinBoth aviators(I.e.As (also born on earth)Biology For the first time, other than EarthCelestial bodyI landed on top of it.13 No.Then on the way to the moon, the spaceshipoxygenAn accident occurred in which the tank exploded, but the three astronauts succeeded in returning to Earth safely.A total of six lunar landings took place at Apollo, bringing back valuable scientific data and nearly 3 kg of rock samples.AlsoSoil mechanics,Meteoroid,Seismology,Heat transfer,Laser beamUsing to measure the exact distance between the Earth and the Moon,magnetic field,Solar windMany scientific experiments were conducted.
SkylabIs the first United States to launch in orbit around the globeSpace stationIs. The aircraft weighs nearly 100 tons (91 tons to be exact)1973から1979Continued to orbit the earth until 19731974The aviator boarded the aircraft three times.Initially in Skylab, other planets in the solar system have an effect重力The displacement of the nation was to be investigated, but the mission was reduced as the public lost interest in space exploration and the budget was cut.During the experiment, we investigated the effect of microgravity and used the on-board telescope.(I.e.It was also included to observe the activity of.at firstspace shuttleIt was planned to dock with and move to a higher safe orbit, but in 1979, before the shuttle made its maiden flight.Re-entry into the atmosphereAnd disappeared. After the third crew member (SL-3) disembarked in February 4, the sun became more active, resulting in the Earth'satmosphereIs warmed upAtmosphereInflates and hangs on the aircraftAir resistanceThe time for re-entry has been accelerated due to the increase in the number of vehicles.Skylab in 19797/11Re-entry around 16:37 (UTC)AustraliaFrom the westIndian OceanDebris was scattered over the area, but some debris was recovered.
Apollo-Soyuz test plan
Apollo-Soyuz test planIt is,1975With America in JulySoviet UnionThis is the first joint flight plan between the two.For the United States, this is the last flight of the Apollo spacecraft, and1981Manned spaceflight was suspended until the Space Shuttle was launched in April.
Space Shuttle Era
NASA's biggest eye in the 1970s and 80s wasspace shuttleMet.Shuttle1985By now, four reusable aircraft have been manufactured, the first of which.Colombia The19814/12It was launched for the first time in.
Shuttle news wasn't always bright for NASA.The cost of the launch was much higher than initially expected, and the public lost interest in space exploration as launches became more commonplace.Under such circumstances1986Happened toChallenger explosionReminded us of the dangers associated with space flight.
Meanwhile, laterInternational Space Station Develops into (International Space Station, ISS)Freedom Space StationThe plan was started as the focus of manned space flight, but such a planVoyager planUnmanned likePlanetary explorationThere was even an argument within NASA that it might be too expensive.
On the other hand, the shuttleHubble Space Telescope Innovative projects such as (Hubble Space Telescope, HST) have also been successful. HST with NASAEuropean Space Agency It was jointly developed by the (European Space Agency, ESA), and this success paved the way for cooperation with space agencies in other countries. The budget spent on HST is less than $ 20 billion,1990Since its operation in Japan, it has been sending many clear astrophotography.Among them, the pioneer "Hubble Deep Field (Hubble Deep Field) "is especially famous.
1995ByロシアThe joint plan with was also resumed.mealWhen the shuttle docked, it was no longer a complete space station.This cooperation between the two major giants in space development, the United States and Russia, has continued until the 21st century in the construction work of the ISS (International Space Station).2003,Colombia aerial disassembly accidentThe strength of the relationship of trust between the two is clear, as NASA relied on Russian spacecraft to maintain the ISS while the shuttle's flight was suspended for two years.
The ISS relies on the shuttle for all major equipment transportation.1986Challenger and2003In the Columbia accident, Shuttle lost two aircraft and 2 astronauts. New in the 14 accidentEndeavorWas manufactured and the lost aircraft was compensated for, but the 2003 accident did not provide such reinforcement, and the new spacecraftOrionThe transition to was decided.
ESA and JapanJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency Other countries that have invested in station construction, such as (JAXA), have expressed concern about the completion of the ISS, while Space Operations Director William H. Gerstenmaier is flexible in planning. There is a sex shuttle2007He explained that he had successfully made three flights in six months and that NASA is capable of responding to critical dates.
Throughout the 90s, NASA has faced budget cuts due to parliamentary fiscal cuts.Daniel Goldin, the ninth Secretary and creator of the "faster, better, cheaper" slogan, said that a variety of planetary exploration projects underway (Discovery Program) Proposed that it is possible to continue by reducing costs.1999ToMars Climate Orbiter (Mars Climate Orbiter)Mars Polar Lander The two failed Mars Polar Lander were criticized for this cost savings, while the Space Shuttle2006By December, it had successfully made 12 flights.
NASA Space Flight Plan
By the early 21st century, NASA had successfully completed numerous space programs, including 150 manned space flights.The most famous one is11 No.A series of, including the first ever landing on the moonApollo project.space shuttle TheChallengerとColombiaThe accident caused a major obstacle in which the lives of all 14 crew members were lost.ShuttleロシアSpace stationmealDocked with Russia and now RussiaJapan-カナダ-European Space AgencyIt is possible to dock to the International Space Station, where many countries in the world are jointly participating.
Many unmanned flight plans are also underway, with seven planets in the solar system (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,).Uranus-海王星), The spacecraft visited at least once,1997Was launched intoCassini (Cassini) The spacecraft2004In the middle of Saturn's orbit, Saturn's surfaceThat satelliteIs exploring.Cassini is from NASAJet Propulsion LaboratoryIt was the result of more than 20 years of international cooperation by the European Space Agency.AlsoPioneer 10-11 No.andVoyager 1-2 No.4 aircraft left the solar system. NASA is currentlyAsteroid beltIt is the only space agency that has sent a spacecraft beyond the solar system to the outside of the solar system.Several小 惑星And the comet, the spacecraft is approachingNEAR shoe makerMade the first landing on an asteroid in history.
Mariner program,Viking planFollowing the launch in 1996, "Mars Pathfinder (Mars Pathfinder) ”landed on Mars the following year for the first time in 20 years and was launched at the same time.Mars Global Surveyor (Mars Global Surveyor) ”observed Mars from the sky.
Launched in 2001, "2001 Mars Odyssey (Mars Odyssey) "has been observing from the sky above Mars as of early 2011, and was launched in 2003.Mars Exploration Rover (Mars Exploration Rover, MER) "rover"Spirit (Spirit) "and"opportunity (Opportunity) ”2004Since the beginning of Gusev crater,Meridiani Planum It has been in operation for 17 times longer than originally planned for (Meridiani Planum). In 2005, "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) ”was launched, and observations have continued from above Mars as of early 2011. In 2007, "Phoenix (Phoenix Mars Lander) ”was launched,20085/25On marsArcticAfter landing in the vicinity, a soil excavation survey using a robot arm in June of the same year found something that looked like ice in the soil.
20085/25, Alan Stem, Deputy Secretary of Science Missions, nicknamed "Strong Arm" and "Reformer," has resigned.Hearsay says he is in office4/11, Alain ordered a budget cut for "2001 Mars Odyssey" and "Mars Exploration Rover (MER)", but was overturned by Secretary Griffin.This reduction plan isMars Science LaboratoryIt was to offset the excess of expenses."The reason I resign is not related to MER," Alain said. "I'm not the person who tried to cut MER's budget."During his one-year career, he was hailed as "rebuilding NASA's important scientific experiment plan and making a big difference," but quit because of "healthy plans and politically subtleties." This was to avoid stopping basic research that involved problems. "Mr. Griffin has a tendency to cut the budget for sober parts such as basic research, and it is said that his refusal may have led Alain to resign.
NASA Scientific Research
20st centuryFrom the middle of the year, NASA has increased its plans for earth observation and conducted environmental surveys.One of the results is the "Earth Observing System (EOS)" launched in the 1980s.ozone layerGlobally like the destruction ofEnvironment issuesIt became possible to monitor.
Evaporation and energy management of salt lakes
NASA is south as one of the national-scale natural restoration plansSan Francisco BayBy the government of 61 square kilometersSalt lake OfReclamationWe are observing how the project is affecting the surrounding environment using satellites.
NASA alsoEnvironmental destructionPrevention and energy reduction andWater resourcesAll the institutions are working on a plan that is directly linked to the securing ofDue to these facts, the U.S. governmentEnvironment issuesIt is clear that NASA is the specialized agency involved in this.
Earth science business
The main purpose of the Earth Science Enterprise is to deepen our understanding of nature and to know the changes that humans have made to the global environment.That's why NASA has been working with relevant agencies for many years to achieve that goal. The plans that the project had undertaken by the end of the 2000s are as follows.
- carbonCarbon sequestration for Carbon Management
- Early warning systems for air and water quality for Homeland Security
- EnergyMore advanced for predictionEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu (Enhanced weather predication for Energy Forecasting)
- Environmental indicators for Coastal Management
- Environmental indicators for Community Growth Management
- extinctionAt stakeSpeciesEnvironmental models for Biological Invasive Species
- Air pollutionRegional to national to international atmospheric measurements and predictions for Air Quality Management
- For water resource management and protectionWater cycleResearch (Water cycle science for Water Management and Conservation)
NASANational Renewable Energy Laboratory In collaboration with the (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), we are creating a global map of solar resources.AlsoDNAPLDue to heavy non-water solutionWater pollutionEfforts are also underway to evaluate innovative technologies to eliminate.19994/6, NASAUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Energy andair forceWith natural oxide film removal and heavy non-aqueous solutionRedox reactionSigned an agreement on two innovative technologies to correctKennedy Space CenterPromised to cooperate with the experiment.National Space Agency is military andDefense Contract Management AgencyIn collaboration with, the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention has been formed to continue efforts to remove pollutants.
In its current "space policy of the United States," NASA states that "for space exploration, development, and acquisition, manned orDroneWe will implement continuous and viable plans using the Earth, and use civilian spacecraft to further expand our fundamental scientific knowledge of the Earth, our solar system, and space. "Currently火星,Saturn such asDeep spaceAn exploration program for the Earth and a research program on the Earth and the Sun are underway.AlsoMercury,PlutoA spacecraft heading for has already been launched.In the planningJupiterIf the exploration plan for is realized, it will cover more than half of the planets in the solar system.
A more developed large mobile spacecraft "Mars Science Laboratory (Mars Science Laboratory) ”is currently underway and initially2009It was scheduled to be launched in October, but due to technical problems, there was a slight delay, and it was delayed.2011It was launched in November.
Pluto spacecraft "New Horizons (New Horizons) "2006Launched in2015I observed Pluto.Mercury probe "Messenger (MESSENGER) ”decelerates while repeatedly approaching Mercury,2011It went into orbit around Mercury in March.Other,Asteroid beltFor the purpose of exploration of "Dawn (Dawn) "and multiplecometThe spacecraft is in flight.The plan currently under preparation is to study the atmosphere of Mars.Mars Scout Program "(Mars Scout Program)" as part of "Maven (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, MAVEN) ".
Statement for the future
2002Since then, NASA has made the following statement in its budget and planning documents:
"Understanding and protecting this planet on which we live.Exploring the universe,lifeExploring the origin of.Inspiring the quest for the next generation ... Only NASA can do that.'
2006At the beginning of February, the statement was partially modified to remove the "Understanding and Protecting the Planet We Live in" section.Some thought the change was to protect NASA's civilization, while others thought it was by scientist James Hansen of the U.S. government.Global warming countermeasuresSome suspected that it was a criticism of their attitude toward. NASA has officially denied that such a thing has anything to do with it, and has set out a new policy for space exploration. NASA's motto is "Benefits for All".
Senate"Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs" executives in 20067/31Invited Secretary Griffin to express concern about this change. NASA had canceled several Earth exploration programs this year.
20041/14, SpacecraftSpirit10 days after landing on MarsPresident GW BushIs "Space development outlookNew space policy entitled "Constellation plan"announced.This plan is the current shuttle2010Retired to2014Realized manned space flight by Orion spacecraft by2020By then, the moon would be manned and connected to future manned Mars exploration.Parliament was initially skeptical of the new space policy, but approved the budget for the first year in late 2004.
To encourage this plan, NASA announced in 2004100 Years of Challenges (Centennial Challenges)Established a science award by a non-governmental organization called.In this, for exampleExtravehicular activityYou can work more efficiently at the time ofSpacesuitAwarded for useful inventions for the "Space Exploration Outlook" project, such as gloves.
200612/4, NASA announced a lunar base construction plan.Deputy Secretary at that timeScott Horowitz The2020Started construction in2024By the time the aviators took turns staying and allresourceAnnounced that it plans to complete a base with functions that can be procured locally.The plan called for the cooperation of various countries around the world.
But this plan was in 2010Barack ObamaIt was canceled by the president.
NASA Administrator is the Chief Executive Officer of the agency andPresidentHe is also the chief advisor on space science.
NASA headquartersWashington DCIt is located in, and instructions are given to all bureaus from here.MississippiSt. LouisThere is a joint service center on the grounds of the nearby John C. Stennis Space Center.Construction of a joint center2006Groundbreaking in2008It was completed in.AlsoKennedy Space CenterThe railroad was also operated to transport rocket parts.The list of research facilities for each field is as follows.Some of these have multiple facilities for historical or administrative reasons.The name attached to the facility commemorates the astronauts and those involved in space development.
- Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): CaliforniaPasadena
- Goddard Space Research Institute:ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク
- Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC):MarylandGreen belt
- John·Glenn Research Center (GRC):OhioCleveland
- Langley Research Center (LaRC):VirginiaHampton
- Ames Research Center: Mountain View, CA, inside Moffett Federal Airport
- Dryden Flight Research Center(DFRC):CaliforniaLos Angeles,Edwards Air Force BaseInside.
- XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayArmstrong Flight Research CenterRenamed to
- Independent inspection confirmation facility:West VirginiaFairmont
- John C. Stennis Space Center : MississippiSt. LouisSuburbs of the bay
- Langley Research Center: Hampton, Virginia
Assembly and launch facility
- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC):AlabamaHuntsville
- Kennedy Space Center (KSC):FloridaCape Canaveral
- Johnson Space Center(JSC):TexasHouston
- Michoud Assembly Facility:LouisianaNew Orleans
- Wallops Flight Facility:VirginiaWallops Island
- White Sands Testing Facility : New mexicoLas Cruces
Deep space communication network
- Deep space networkbase
Entertainment museum facility
- Kennedy Space CenterVisitor Complex:FloridaMerritt Island
- Space Center Houston(Space Center Houston): Houston, Texas
- US Space & Rocket Center: Huntsville, Alabama
NASA operates a large number of aircraft used for scientific research and astronaut training, and employs a large number of personnel to operate these aircraft.Many of the aircraft have been re-registered as civilian aircraft, such as the US military surplus, but new acquisitions andX planeWe are also developing and remodeling experimental machines such as.Many of the facilities are adjacent to the airfield, so cargo and researchers are also transported on their own.
Some astronauts from pilots will be hired as NASA pilots after retirement.
- Shuttle training aircraft - OrbiterTo become familiar with the flight characteristics ofTraining machine(Gulfstream IIRemodeling)
- WB-57-High altitude observation aircraft used for astronomical observation (B-57Remodeling).
- F / A-18A --In addition to being used as a chase machineF-18 HARV,X-53It is a remodeling base such as.
- T-38A (N) --In addition to astronaut trainingLiaison aircraftUsed as (T-38Remodeling)
- Super guppy --Large transport aircraft.Apollo Lunar ModuleUsed when transporting large cargo by air.
- Altair- NOAAFor meteorological observation operated jointly withUnmanned aerial vehicle(MQ-9 ReaperUnarmed type).
- - Electric aircraftExperimental machine.
Awards and medals
NASA currently has numerous medals andMedalIs awarded to aviators and staff who have made achievements.Some of them recognize active military uniforms.The most authoritative of these is "Congressional Space Medal of Honor (Congressional Space Medal of Honor), 2009 people by 28Honor(17 of them were posthumous recognition) and said, "I fulfilled my duty.宇宙 飛行 士In the nation and mankindwelfareThe extraordinary and commendable efforts and contributions to the above were particularly outstanding. "
The next most prestigious is the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.soldierFrom the pilotCivil servantAll government officials are eligible to receive the award, including their staff.The annual awards areFloridaOrlando It is held at the facility of the National Air & Space Society in (Orlando).
Applicable laws and regulations
- 1958 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration PL 85-568
- 1961 - Apollo mission funding PL 87-98 A
- 1970 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research and Development Act PL 91-119
- 1984 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 98-361
- 1988 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 100-685
- ^ XNUMX months of glaring ... NASA Administrator approves by XNUMX vote US Senate Asahi Shimbun, viewed on March 2018, 6.
- ^ https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/kaihatu/space/kaihatsushi/detail/1291224.htm
- United States Space Exploration
- List of space agencies
- Space development
- Artificial satellite
- Space development competition
- Private space development