Government plans to decarbonize in 2050 Expected economic effect of 30 trillion yen in 90 years
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Electric vehicles include EVs (electric vehicles), FCVs (fuel cell vehicles), and HVs (hybrid vehicles).
[Tokyo XNUMXth Reuters] – On the XNUMXth, the government has a “green growth strategy” to realize a carbon-free society in XNUMX. → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Fuel cell(Nenryo Denchi,British: fuel cell) IsElectrochemistryBy reactionfuel OfChemical energyからelectricityTake out (=Power generationDo)Power InputRefers to.fuelDepending on the method,hydrogen,hydrocarbon,alcoholAnd so on.
Fuel cells have some kind of refillable negative electrodeActive material(hydrogenFuels such as) and positive electrode active material空 気InoxygenEtc. can be continuously extracted by supplying and reacting in a normal temperature or high temperature environment.Power generatorIs.A fixed amount of active material with a limited capacitance in the device was usedPrimary battery,Secondary batteryCompared to the fuel cell, which can continue to replenish both the positive electrode material and the negative electrode material, the fuel cell is significantly different in that it can permanently discharge without limiting the electric capacity.
Heat engineUnlike a normal power generation system that usesChemical energyからElectric energyIn the process of conversion toHeat energy,Physical energySince it does not go through the form ofCarnot efficiencyPower generation efficiency is high because it does not depend onIn addition, it is not affected by the size of the system so much that there is little noise or vibration. for that reason,laptop,Mobile phoneFrom mobile devices such asAutomobile,Train, Consumer/industrialCogenerationPower plant,MilitaryIt is expected as an energy source that covers a variety of uses and scales, including weapons.
Focusing on the point that the positive electrode material and the negative electrode material are input from the outside of the fuel cellRedox flow batteryIs similar to. In the case of a fuel cell, generally, the positive electrode material (oxidant) is oxygen in the air, and the substance after the reaction is discharged as water vapor or carbon dioxide, which is used as a primary battery. On the other hand, in the case of a redox flow battery, both the positive electrode material and the negative electrode material are liquids, and the discharged liquid is returned to the tank without discharge of exhaust gas due to discharge. A reverse reaction can be caused by applying a reverse voltage to the battery, and it can be restored as a positive electrode material or a negative electrode material. As described above, the redox flow battery is mainly used as a secondary battery.
As a mechanism for reacting hydrogen and extracting electricity,Electrolysis2H which is the reverse reaction of2 + O2 → 2H2Often due to O. In addition to the heat generated during the reaction, the higher the power generation efficiency, the higher the reaction temperature tends to be, and some systems require an environment near 1,000°C. The substance produced by the reaction is water, but since it is produced in a high temperature environment, it is actually discharged.water vaporor温水.
Research and development is underway in each country,ElectrolyteThere are several methods depending on the type.
Four types of fuel cell systems are mainly studied depending on the type of electrolyte used. Alkaline electrolyte fuel cell (AFC) is a conventional method and is considered to have limited future use. Biofuel cells are quite different from other systems and there are many unclear points.
Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC)
A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PE(M)FC, Polymer Electrolyte (Membrane) Fuel Cell) supplies an oxidizing material to the positive electrode and a reducing material (fuel) to the negative electrode with an ion exchange membrane sandwiched between them. To generate electricity. As an ion exchange membraneNafionSuch asprotonWhen an exchange membrane is used, it is also called a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). It starts up quickly and the operating temperature is as low as 80-100℃. When hydrogen is used as a fuel, expensive platinum is used as a catalyst, and the presence of carbon monoxide in the fuel deteriorates the platinum of the catalyst. Power generation efficiency is about 30-40%, which is relatively low among fuel cells.
The phosphoric acid type has been put into practical use next to the type, but since the power generation efficiency is low, it is expected to be used for power generation in a small size application.catalystUsed asplatinumFluorine-based used as electrolyteIon exchange resinThe improvement of durability and cost are issues to be popularized in the future.
Because it can be operated at room temperature and can be made smaller and lighter,Fuel cell carIt is expected to be applied to
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)
Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) are used as electrolytes.phosphoric acid(H3PO4) The aqueous solution is used by impregnating the separator. The operating temperature is about 200℃, and the power generation efficiency is about 40%LHV. Since platinum is used as a catalyst as in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, the presence of carbon monoxide in the fuel deteriorates the catalyst platinum. Therefore,Natural gasWhen using such as fuel, it is necessary to make hydrogen with a carbon monoxide concentration of about 1% by steam reforming/carbon monoxide conversion reaction and supply it to the battery body.
A 100/200kW class package has been put on the market as an on-site type cogeneration system to be installed in demand equipment such as factories and buildings, and already has an operating life of 4 hours or more (without stack/reformer replacement) in commercial machines. Has achieved.[Note 1]
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)
Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell)+) Instead of carbonate (CO32-), the molten carbonate (Lithium carbonate,Potassium carbonateEtc.) as an electrolyte and impregnated into a separator for use. Therefore, it is not limited to hydrogenNatural gas,coalIt is possible to use gas as fuel. Operating temperature is about 600℃-700℃. Since carbonate that is solid at room temperature also melts near the operating temperature, it can be used as an electrolyte. As a competing option to PAFC, 250kW class packages are being introduced to the market. Power generation efficiency is about 45% LHV. Since no platinum catalyst is used, unlike PEFC and PAFC, there is no risk of poisoning by carbon monoxide, and it is also advantageous in using exhaust heat. The internal reforming method is used, but it seems that a reformer for pre-reforming is generally installed in the system.Thermal power plantIt is expected to be used as a substitute for.[Note 2]
In a normal combustion reaction, the upper limit of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas is about 20% due to the presence of nitrogen in the air, and oxygen must be used instead of air to further increase the carbon dioxide concentration. However, in MCFC, carbon dioxide ions intervene in the cell reaction, and carbon dioxide and oxygen on the air electrode side selectively move and accumulate on the fuel electrode side, so the carbon dioxide concentration in the exhaust gas on the fuel electrode side reaches about 80%. Utilizing this property, it has been attempted to recover carbon dioxide by MCFC. In Japan as a Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry subsidy projectChina Electric Power-Chubu Electric PowerJointly implemented.
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is also called a solid oxide fuel cell and requires an operating temperature of 700-1,000°C, so a highly heat-resistant material is required. It also has a long start/stop time. Stabilization with high permeability of oxide ions as electrolyteZirconia,lanthanum,gallium OfPerovskite oxideIonic conductivity such asCeramicsIs used for the oxide ion (O2-) Penetrates the electrolyte and reacts with hydrogen or carbon monoxide at the fuel electrode to generate electric energy. Therefore, not only hydrogenNatural gas,coalGases also require desulfurization treatment, but can be used as fuel by a simple steam reforming treatment (removal of carbon monoxide is not necessary and reforming contains some unreformed gas in the fuel). is there. Since the activation voltage drop is small, the power generation efficiency is high, and in some cases it has already achieved 56.1% LHV. It is also developed as a 1kW-10kW class for home and business use.[Note 3].. In principle, reforming in the power generation part (direct internal reforming in the fuel electrode containing nickel) is possible, but in order to prevent extreme temperature changes in the power generation part due to endothermic reaction, a pre-reformer (heat or reaction due to power generation reaction Indirect internal reforming that utilizes the heat of burning the latter fuel) is generally adopted.Polymer electrolyte fuel cellUsed in other fuel cells such asplatinum,palladiumEtc.Precious metalSystemcatalystHowever, a cermet made of nickel and electrolyte ceramics is used as the fuel electrode, and a conductive ceramic is used as the air electrode. Large SOFCs are expected to obtain extremely high overall power generation efficiency by utilizing combustion exhaust gas for gas turbine power generation and steam power generation, and are therefore expected to be used as substitutes for thermal power plants.[Note 4][Note 5]
NGKCo., Ltd. announced on June 2009, 6 that it has developed its own structure of SOFC and achieved the world's highest level of 11% power generation efficiency (LHV) and high fuel utilization rate of 63%.
Alkaline electrolyte fuel cell (AFC)
Alkaline electrolyte fuel cells (AFC, Alkaline Fuel Cell)Hydroxide ionAs an ion conductor,alkaliA cell is constructed by impregnating the separator between the electrodes with the electrolytic solution.PEFCSimilar to the above, a type using a polymer film has been reported. Since it has the simplest structure and is used in an alkaline atmosphere,nickelIt is a fuel cell that is highly reliable and can be put to practical use in space applications, because it is possible to use inexpensive electrode catalysts such as oxides, and the cell configuration can be simplified because a liquid electrolyte is used at room temperature. .. On the other hand, when hydrogen is taken out from the reformed hydrocarbon-based fuel, if hydrocarbon is mixed, the alkaline electrolyte will beCarbonateCause deterioration. Similarly, when air is used as an oxidant,carbon dioxideSince oxygen is absorbed and deteriorated, it is necessary to use highly pure oxygen as an oxidant. To increase the purity of hydrogen,palladiumPurity is increased by permeating through the membrane. Since the electrolyte is an aqueous solution, the operating temperature range is limited to a temperature at which the electrolyte does not freeze or evaporate. Further, the mobility of ions (diffusion coefficient) changes depending on the temperature and affects the power generation, so the temperature condition is severe. Nickel-based catalysts have coordination propertiesCarbon monoxideThe purity of hydrogen fuel is important because its activity decreases due to hydrocarbons, oxygen, water vapor and the like. Contains these as impuritiesReformingThe use of hydrogen is undesirable.
Although it is rarely seen in the research and development of fuel cells as of the 21st century,Apollo project,space shuttleHas been widely put into practical use.Apollo 13The accident at XNUMX is caused by the malfunction of the liquid oxygen supply system that supplies the fuel cell, and is not a problem of the fuel cell itself.
Daihatsu industry TheNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIn collaboration withHydrazine(N2H4·H2O) as fuel and achieved a power density of 0.50 W/cm2.. In this case, the fuel cell is free of hydrocarbons and the emissions are water.nitrogenWill only be.
Direct fuel cell (DFC)
A direct fuel cell (DFC) is a type that directly supplies fuel to a cell stack without going through a reformer.methanol,ethanol,Dimethyl ether,Hydrazine,Formaldehyde,Formic acid,ammoniaEtc. have been tried[Note 6].. In other words, DFC is not a term for the method of the fuel cell itself.Solid oxide fuel cellBelong to DFC. When carbon is included in the substance used as fuel, the reaction (power generation)carbon dioxideAre generated and discharged. Therefore, the electrolyte of alkaline aqueous solutionCarbonateCannot be used as it will generate.HydrazineWhen using a reducing fuel such asPrecious metalBecause the catalyst of is unnecessary,Precious metal-free liquid fuel fuel cellBe noted as. It is classified into a passive type and an active type depending on whether to use a fuel supply pump or a heat radiation fan. Fuel poleplatinumIn addition, carbon monoxide, which is a reaction intermediate, is strongly adsorbed (poisoned), the reaction rate is slow, and fuel crossover occurs when a highly water-soluble fuel is used. You can make lightweight ones.Direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC) is suitable for small-scale, small-power generation of several tens of mW-10W. These are considered to be used as power sources for small portable electronic devices. On the other hand, some stationary types have a power generation capacity of 1kw class..
Biofuel cell (BFC)
foodA fuel cell that applies a biological system that extracts energy from the[Note 7].. Enzymes and microorganisms are used as catalysts for oxidizing fuel. In a fuel cell using an enzyme, a strong enzyme that works stably against environmental changes is indispensable.lifeIt has been a challenge to extend the length.bloodInglucoseImplantable usingpacemakerIs being developed.. In the case of fuel cells using microorganisms, research is often conducted from the viewpoint of utilization of organic matter in wastewater.
Comparison of 4 methods
A comparison of the four major methods being researched and developed as of the beginning of the 21st century is shown.
Solid polymer type
Phosphoric acid form
Molten carbonate form
Solid oxide form
|Electrolyte||Electrolyte material||Ion exchange membrane||Phosphoric acid||Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate||Stabilized zirconia, etc.|
|Usage form||membrane||Impregnate matrix||Impregnation or paste in matrix||Thin film, thin plate|
|Operating temperature (℃)||80-100||190-200||600-700||600-1,000|
|fuel||hydrogen||Hydrogen, carbon monoxide|
|Power generation efficiency(%)||30-40||40-45||50-65||50-70|
|Assumed power generation output||Several W-several tens of kW||100-several hundred kW||250kW-several MW||Several kW-several tens of MW|
|Assumed use||Mobile terminal, home power supply, automobile||Stationary power generation||Home power, stationary power generation|
|Developmental status||Domestic sales for domestic use started in 2009, domestic sales for automobiles started in 2015||Has a large track record as an always-on emergency power source for sewage treatment plants, hospitals, office buildings, etc.||Has a track record outside Japan and is expanding||Domestic sales started in 2011 (Ene farm), 250 kW class stationary type (combined type with MGT (micro gas turbine)) will be released in 2018|
The principle of fuel cell1801ToThe United Kingdom OfHumphrey DavyInvented by The prototype of the fuel cell that leads to the current fuel cell1839To britishWilliam GroveMade by. This fuel cellelectrodeToplatinumTo the electrolyteDilute sulfuric acidUsing,hydrogenとoxygenPower from the water, and use this power toElectrolysisI was able to
Then the fuel cell is run by the heat engineGeneratorAlthough it was forgotten as a power generation system for a while due to the introduction of W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist who worked for General Electric Company (GE) in 1955,Sulfo groupQualified withstyrenebyIon exchange membraneWe have developed an improved fuel cell that uses as an electrolyte. Three years later, another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, succeeded in reducing the amount of platinum used as a catalyst and became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell. GE was in the process of developing and using this technology at the timeUS Aerospace AgencyThis was the first practical application of a fuel cell, which was adopted by working on the Gemini space program.
1965ToThe United States of AmericaIs the manned space flight plan ofGeminiNo. 5 hydrocarbon systemResinA polymer electrolyte fuel cell using a fuel cell has been adopted, and the fuel cell has been receiving attention again. 1959,Francis thomas baconSucceeded in developing a 5kW stationary fuel cell. In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig unveiled a 15kW fuel cell tractor at the Alice Charmers, Inc., Wisconsin, US Transnational Fair. This systemPotassium hydroxideWas used as an electrolyte to react compressed hydrogen with oxygen. In 1959, Bacon and co-workers showed that a 5 kW device could be used to power a welder. 1960s,Pratt & WhitneyThe company licensed Bacon's US patent to power and power a spacecraft under the US Space Program.Apollo projectからspace shuttleUntil then, fuel cells were used as power sources and drinking water sources. At that time, as a result of examination based on reliability of materials, an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell was adopted.
As a consumer fuel cell,CogenerationResearch and development continued for systems and power generation facilities. In Japan,Ministry of International Trade and IndustryEnergy conservation policy ofMoonlight planBased on this, the development of phosphoric acid type, molten carbonate type fuel cells and solid electrolyte type fuel cells was started. In 1982, Toshiba constructed a 50 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell experimental plant at the Hamakawasaki Plant and succeeded in generating power for the first time as a pressurized type in Japan. Established UTC and IFC in Connecticut (USA) in 1985, started joint development of the world's largest 11MW class plant, and in 1991 established 11MW experimental plant.TEPCOIt was completed at the Goi Thermal Power Station, and the demonstration operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell with an output of 1 kW was performed.
1987,カナダ OfBallad power systemCompanyFluorineWe have developed a polymer electrolyte fuel cell using a polymer resin (Nafion) as an electrolyte membrane. Due to the excellent durability of this electrolyte membrane, fuel cells have come to the center of attention again, and research and development have become popular.
RiceDepartment of DefenseDepartment of Defense Advanced Research Projects (DARPA) Lawrence H. Dubois focused on fuel cells powered by various liquid hydrocarbons (methanol, ethanol, etc.)University of Southern California(USC) belonged to the Loker Hydrocarbon LaboratoryacidWith expert Surya Prakash,Nobel PrizeAward winnerGeorge A. OllerI called out to. USCJet Propulsion Laboratory,California Institute of TechnologyInvented a system for direct oxidation of liquid hydrocarbons with the cooperation ofDirect methanol fuel cellIt was named (DMFC).
1994, Daimler Benz (at that time)Fuel cell carAnnounced a prototype car. Also,ToyotaIt is,1997 OfTokyo Motor ShowAnnounced a prototype of a fuel cell vehicle and announced that it would be mass-produced by 2005[Note 8].
2002In May,Toyota/FCHVandHonda FCX OfFuel cell carThe first commercialJapanese GovernmentDelivered toJunichiro KoizumiThe Prime Minister took a test drive. They arePrime Minister's OfficeとMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryUsed in 24 hours fullmaintenanceIt became a lease contract with a system.
2003IsTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationTo ToyotaHino MotorsDelivered fuel cell bus made by2004Until the endOdaibaOperated in the surrounding area. In 2005Aichi ExpoMade by HinoFCHV-BUSWas delivered. Also in 2004NissanAlso横 浜 市Etc. Used in the Aichi Expo since 2006Hydrogen stationWas relocatedChubu International AirportBut it is operating. It can be said that these public buses are fuel cell vehicles that can be boarded by the general public.
Mainly in the 1980-1990s, phosphoric acid fuel cells were "first-generation fuel cells", molten carbonate fuel cells were "second-generation fuel cells", and solid-state oxidation was used depending on the stage of fuel cell development. There was also a time when solid-state fuel cells were called "third generation fuel cells," but since solid polymer fuel cells became the main players in development,21st centuryAt present, this name is rarely used.
For practical use of fuel cells,Fire Service Act,High Pressure Gas Safety Act,Electricity Business Lawas well as the Building Standards Law(For those that use methanol as fuel,Poisonous and deleterious substance handling method), etc., is required to be relaxed, and the technical standards for electrical equipment have been reviewed. In October 2002, the US Department of Transportation allowed fuel cells to be brought in on airplanes, and promptly announced a policy of deregulation toward the spread of fuel cells. There are also movements to set international standards for safety standards and performance evaluations.
In 1998,International Electrotechnical CommissionTC105, the 105th technical committee within the (IEC), was established to discuss standardization of fuel cells in the electrical field, and eight standards have already been defined. In addition, standardization outside the electrical fieldInternational Standards Organization(ISO).
Challenges to spread
The biggest challenge to popularizing fuel cells is cost. Both the initial cost at the time of purchase and the running cost for the period of use are high, which has hindered its popularization. Furthermore, issues such as improvement of durability and power generation efficiency, extension of electrolyte life, and infrastructure development have been pointed out... Efforts to overcome these issues are being continued by both the public and private sectors. An example in which local governments and companies collaborate to build infrastructure for automobilesIn addition to being seen, subsidies are also provided for installation at home.
In particular,20113/11 OfGreat East Japan EarthquakeSince then, it has become more popular, and even though it does not always save utility bills at the moment, it has added a budget for subsidies... The amount of subsidy is decreasing as the price decreases. While there are cases where homes equipped with solar cells and storage batteries are released, the need for further cost reduction of these "3 batteries" has been pointed out... In recent yearsCogenerationAs a kind ofFixed price purchase systemIn addition to the target of.
As of 2007, in EuropeCamper vanAtmethanolWas developed, and in the spring of 2009, sales of products with adjusted ethanol concentration were started as Japanese specifications. Also,Liquefied petroleum gas Those using (LPG) will be adopted over the next few years.. A 400kW PAFC made by UTC Power, a phosphoric acid fuel cell, isFreedom Tower12 units will be installed.
In addition, it was broadcast on June 2009, 6Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd."News Morning Satellite, A Kyoto venture companyMobile phone,Digital audio playerA small fuel cell that uses hydrogen as fuel by separating hydrogen from water in 2010 springconvenience storeIt was reported that it will start selling at a price that "you can buy with pocket money for high school students", but details are unknown.
August 2009, 10,ToshibaLaunched a limited number of small models that use methanol as fuel to charge mobile devices.. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) Of the safety standard (provisional version).
In the description of fuel cells, some specific terms are used. Some terms are general, but others have their own meaning only for fuel cells.
- In the field of batteries, "cell" refers to the simplest battery including both electrodes, electrolyte and separator. On the other hand, "battery" refers to the entire assembled battery. In a fuel cell, a single fuel cell that is not stacked is usually called a “unit cell”, a “single cell” or simply a “cell”.
- A single-plate unit cell is a stack of them. Horizontally striped or vertically striped unit cells are either stacked one above the other or connected in series. Both are connected in series. Also called "cell stack".
- Fuel pole
- anodeThat is, the anode, which means the electrode that loses electrons, is called the "fuel electrode," which means the side that supplies fuel such as hydrogen. Based on the direction of voltage at the electrode terminalsPositive electrode,Negative electrodeBased on the direction of currentanode,CathodeFor the nameanode-cathodeThe term is confusing because it is used for both the meaning of high and low potential and the meaning of current flow. Therefore, it is common to select the supply gas as the name of the electrode.
Fuel electrode=anode=(anode)=negative electrode. In other words, it is the negative pole of a normal battery.
- Air pole
- CathodeThe cathode, which means the electrode on the side from which electrons are obtained, is called an "air electrode" or "oxygen electrode", which means the side on which air containing oxygen is supplied.
Air electrode=cathode=(cathode)=positive electrode. In other words, it is the positive pole of a normal battery.
- It is a main component of the cell and is called a separator because it separates hydrogen by sandwiching hydrogen on one side and oxygen on the other side. It is preferable to be thin because it is necessary to pass an electric current between both surfaces with electric resistance as low as possible, but it is often thick because it has grooves for hydrogen, oxygen, and cooling water channels. Highly concentrated hydrogen ions are strongly acidic, so they are often made of graphite or metals with corrosion resistance..
It must have electronic conductivity, no ionic conductivity, be rigid, and be impermeable to gas and liquid. In a lithium-ion battery or the like, a “separator” refers to a layer that electrostatically insulates the positive and negative electrodes in the portion through which ions pass, and in a fuel cell, it corresponds to the electrolyte layer, and caution is required.
- ^ The representative manufacturer of phosphoric acid fuel cells is UTC Power (United technologiesSubsidiary)Fuji Electric SystemsSuch. Fuji Electric Systems' 100kW PAFC was the first fuel cell in 2008 to be certified as an emergency power source for firefighting in Japan.
- ^ The leading manufacturers of molten carbonate fuel cells are Fuel Cell Energy andIshikawajima Harima Heavy IndustriesAnd so on.
- ^ The maximum power generation efficiency of PEFC is nominally 37.5% LHV.
- ^ The representative manufacturers of solid oxide fuel cells areSiemens-Westinghouse,Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,Japanese special pottery,TOTO,Mitsubishi Materials(Kansai Electric Power),KyoceraAnd so on.
- ^ 2005 months from November 11,Osaka GasAnd Kyocera conducted a demonstration test of a 1kW generator using SOFC in an apartment house using city gas. This provided a hot water output of 660W, and the average daily power generation efficiency was 1% (LHV). From 44.1,Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryEtc.New Energy FoundationHowever, the 4 plants from 29 manufacturers conducted SOFC demonstration tests using city gas, LPG and kerosene, and the average power generation efficiency was 35% (LHV). The empirical research was continued until FY2010, and a total of 233 units were used for the empirical research.Mitsubishi MaterialsとKansai Electric PowerHas experimentally operated a 10kW class cogeneration power generator using SOFC using city gas as fuel and has achieved a power generation efficiency of 50%.NEDOIs commissioning four corporate groups to experiment with SOFC power generators with 4kW to 10kW output. One of themMitsubishi Heavy IndustriesSOFC power generation using city gas ofMicro gas turbineThis is a combined power generation that combines power generation, and waste was eliminated by combusting unreacted hydrogen generated from SOFC and by-product gas consisting of carbon monoxide in a micro gas turbine. (Source: Basic master of fuel cell ISBN-978 4485610077）
- ^ It is also considered as a fuel for DFC.
- ^ Sewage digestion gas and methane called biogas fuel cellfermentationIt is different from a fuel cell that uses gas.
- ^ Toyota's fuel cell vehicles are mainly government agenciesleaseThe contract was signed, and for general consumers a gasoline engine and a nickel-metal hydride storage battery (thenLithium ion storage batteryThe company has decided to sell hybrid vehicles that have a combination of
- ^ Atsushi Tsutsumi "Super combustion technology"Journal of the Combustion Society of Japan, Vol. 50, No. 151, 2008, pp. 39-43, two:10.20619 / jcombsj.50.151_3.
- ^ Fuel cells that can store electricity, larger capacity and cheaper than lithium (Smart Japan)
- ^ Introduced the first commercial molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) unit-Conducting a combined study with a waste gasifier- September 2002, 9 Chubu Electric Power
- ^ Developed the world's most efficient fuel cell(June 2009, 06 NGK Insulators, Ltd.)
- ^ Expansion of lineup of household fuel cells "ENE-FARM"
- ^ "New development of basic technology for fuel cells that does not use precious metals, which enables zero CO2 emissions, resource saving, and low cost”. Daihatsu Industries (September 2007, 9). 2020/12/2Browse.(Technical details Attachment <PDF>）
- ^ IHI, fuel cell powered by ammonia No reformer required - Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ "Enzyme type biofuel cell using glucose". Hydrogen energy system (Hydrogen Energy Society) 36 (2): 32-6. (2011) 2016/8/4Browse..
- ^ a b c d Shigeru Tanabe, "Fundamental Master of Fuel Cells," Densho Shoin, January 2009, 1, 31st edition, 1st edition ISBN 9784485610077
- ^ Fuel cell car era will not come for the time being Nikkei Business Online March 2006, 7
- ^ Toyota aims to popularize fuel cell vehicles in collaboration with Saitama City, Atmark ITI Monoist, August 2011
- ^ ENE-FARM subsidy, environmental business
- ^ Government subsidies revived in response to rapidly expanding demand for ENE-FARM, Atmark Itty Monoist, October 2011
- ^ 3 Battery system finally commercialized Nikko Keikaku Ecology, October 2011
- ^ BlueGen Qualifies for UK Feed-In Tariff, 25 Aug 2011
- ^ Tadashi Watanabe, "Environmental disturbance seen by chemists"Production Studies" 2007 Vol. 59, No. 5, p. 425-440, two:10.11188 / seisankenkyu.59.425, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
- ^ EFOY Fuel Cell now available ex works on all Dethleffs motor homes SFC Smart Fuel Cell, July 16, 2007
- ^ First year of new battery ③ Fuel cell at convenience storeTV TOKYO "News Morning Satellite" June 2009, 6
- ^ Toshiba press release.
- ^ "Under demonstration”. Unknown. 20191016Browse.
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