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🌏 | Beijing City calls for refraining from going out due to spread of corona infection


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Beijing City calls for refraining from going out due to spread of corona infection

 
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Since the 18th, a total of 19 new infections have been confirmed in Beijing.
 

[Beijing XNUMXth Reuters] -Beijing City was affected by the spread of the new coronavirus infection on the XNUMXth, and in Shunyi District in the northeastern part of the city ... → Continue reading

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北京市

北京市(BeijingChinese: 北京市,pinyin: Běijīng) IsPeople's Republic of China Ofcapital.

Administrative divisionAbove isCityAnd in ChinaNorth ChinaLocated in the center of.The population is 2171 million (2015).It is the political center of China andShanghaiIt is an economic, academic, and cultural center alongside.One of the best in AsiaWorld city.. Old timesMost-Yankyo-PeipingWas also called.

How to read beijing

In Japan, it is generally read as "Beijing".This reading of Pekin is a dialect of southern ChinaToonIt is a historical reading derived from[2].1906EnactedPostal romanizationIt is also written in alphabetical notation as Peking.

It is a common language in ChinaMandarinThen,Zh-Beijing.ogg BěijÄ«ng[HELP/File]When pronounced as "Paitin" and transcribed in katakana.EnglishThen.BeijingIs written as en-us-Beijing.ogg [beɪˈdʒɪŋ][HELP/File]"BeijingIs pronounced[3].United NationsBeijing is also adopted as the English name on the official website of Beijing and Beijing.[4][5][6]..But beforeEnglish-speaking countriesBut I used to use the notation Peking a lot,Beijing UniversityIs written in English as Peking University, etc.[7], Leaving the remnants.

ManchuThen begin (Manchu alphabet:ᠪᡝᡤᡳᠩ,Melendorff transcription: being) or Gemun Hechen (Manchu alphabet:ᡤᡝᠮᡠᠨ
ᡥᡝᠴᡝᠨ
, Transcription: gemun hecen, meaning "Kyojo"), Gin Hechen (Manchu alphabet:ᡤᡳᠩ
ᡥᡝᠴᡝᠨ
, Transcription: ging hecen)[8]Was called.

In books from the Edo period (such as "Nagasaki Mushimegane" by Edo), the furigana of "Beijing" is "Hotsukin (pronounced Hockin)".Roh KodaNovel "運 命The reading is "Hokukei" in Kan-on.Moroji Bridge"Daikan Japanese Dictionary"" Has two readings, "Hokukei" and "Beijing". Also called "hokkei".

History

Spring and Autumn Warring States periodToswallowIn the capital of薊It was called (Kei).weekNational capitalLuoyangFar from, always northHunsIt was a remote area that was damaged by the invasion of nomadic people.秦Han DynastyToPeipingIt is called (Hokuhei),ManchuriaDevelopment progresses,GoguryeoWhen the power of neighboring countries became powerful, it came to be emphasized as an important strategic and trade base.Zhuozhou, Hebei Province, which is adjacent to BeijingThree KingdomsHeroRyu-biKnown in his hometown隋 OfThe EmperorBuilt byGrand CanalIt is said to be the starting point in the north of.

唐末Five generationsDuring the turmoil,Inner MongoliaHas been traveling south from遼朝It is,Later JinIncluding the Beijing region in return for providing military assistance toSixteen PrefecturesWas ceded.Liao makes this city one of the sub-cityNanjingI decided.afterwards金朝When he destroys Liao and gains control, Kim establishes a capital city in Beijing.Central cityAnd said.FurthermoreMongolian Empire(Yuan Dynasty) Destroys goldMostAs the capital of the Yuan dynasty,KarakorumInstead, it became the center of the Mongol Empire.

Zhu YuanzhangDestroyer the former to the northMing DynastyWhen is established, the name is returned to Hokudaira, and MiyakonojoNanjingIt was decided to.However, Zhu Ji (later) based in Beijing, sealed by Prince of YanYongle Emperor) Is1402ToEmperor JianwenAttacked against and seized power.Enthroned to the emperor1421The transfer of capital to Hokudaira was carried out.Place nameBeijingIt was changed to.After the light died, Qing also made this land the capital.1911 OfXinhai RevolutionAfter thatRepublic of China North Sea GovernmentHas designated Beijing as the capital.1928ToChiang Kai-shekCentered onNational governmentIt is,NanjingIn June, the Ministry of Direct Slave, which means "area under the direct control of the government," was moved to Hebei Province, and Beijing, which means the northern capital.PeipingRenamed to (Hokuhei, Paypin Běipíng).1937から1945The name of Beijing was used during the Japanese occupation period. (Officially1940Renamed to).1945Renamed to Hokudaira again due to Japan's defeat in Japan[9][10][11].

194910/1 OfPeople's Republic of ChinaHokudaira, which was made the capital of new China by its establishment, is once againBeijingIt has been renamed to the present.However, the Republic of China, which does not recognize the existence of the People's Republic of China and claims sovereignty over the continental region with Nanjing as the official capital (Taiwan), The name "Hokudaira" is still used as the official name.

Geography

BeijingNorth China PlainLocated at the northeastern end of.Mountains in the east, mountains in the westTaihang Mountains, The northYan MountainsIt borders the military city mountain, which is a part of the city, and is surrounded by mountains except the southern part, and the mountains occupy about 62% of the entire city area.The highest peak in BeijingGreat wallIt is Dongling Mountain in the northern mountain range whereThe city of Beijing is located in a basin surrounded by these mountainous areas, with an average altitude of 20-60 m above sea level.HaiheBelonging to the basin,Yongding RiverAnd Shiohira River, but water shortage is becoming serious because water does not usually flow in these rivers.The area isJapan OfShikokuEquivalent to.

climate

Köppen climate classificationWell, onceSubarctic winter light rain climateIt belonged to (Dwa), but in the latest normal valueStep climateMoved to (BSk)[12]..The annual range of temperature is large.Also, spring and autumn are very short.Spring:Is dry and has a strong wind of dust.Summer: Is hot and humid, and there are relatively many days when fog and haze fall, and there is little rain.Fall:Although it rains a little, it often rains intensively at specific times such as the convectional rain.Winter:Although it is cold-dried and severe cold waves hit, it does not snow much because of the dryness. From 1981 to 2010, the average temperature in January was -1 ° C, the average temperature in July was 3.1 ° C, the average annual temperature was 7 ° C, and the annual precipitation was 26.7 mm.The maximum temperature extreme is 12.9 ° C (July 532.0, 41.9) and the minimum temperature extreme is -1999 ° C (February 7, 24).

北京市Climate (1981-2010 average, extreme 1951-2020)
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F)14.3
(57.7)
19.8
(67.6)
29.5
(85.1)
33.5
(92.3)
41.1
(106)
40.6
(105.1)
41.9
(107.4)
38.3
(100.9)
35.9
(96.6)
31.0
(87.8)
23.3
(73.9)
19.5
(67.1)
41.9
(107.4)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)2.0
(35.6)
5.7
(42.3)
12.3
(54.1)
20.7
(69.3)
26.7
(80.1)
30.5
(86.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.3
(86.5)
26.2
(79.2)
19.4
(66.9)
10.2
(50.4)
3.8
(38.8)
18.3
(64.9)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F)−3.1
(26.4)
0.2
(32.4)
6.7
(44.1)
14.8
(58.6)
20.8
(69.4)
24.9
(76.8)
26.7
(80.1)
25.5
(77.9)
20.7
(69.3)
13.7
(56.7)
4.9
(40.8)
−1.1
(30)
12.9
(55.2)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)−7.5
(18.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.3
(34.3)
8.8
(47.8)
14.8
(58.6)
19.6
(67.3)
22.5
(72.5)
21.5
(70.7)
15.8
(60.4)
8.6
(47.5)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
8.0
(46.4)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F)−22.8
(-9)
−27.4
(-17.3)
−15.0
(5)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.8
(49.6)
15.3
(59.5)
11.4
(52.5)
3.7
(38.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
−18.3
(-0.9)
−27.4
(-17.3)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)2.7
(0.106)
4.4
(0.173)
9.9
(0.39)
24.7
(0.972)
37.3
(1.469)
71.9
(2.831)
160.1
(6.303)
138.2
(5.441)
48.5
(1.909)
22.8
(0.898)
9.5
(0.374)
2.0
(0.079)
532.0
(20.945)
Average days of precipitation1.82.23.34.96.49.712.911.47.54.92.81.869.6
(I.e.43424244505971736659534754
Average monthlyDaylight hours189.0192.1228.2244.5267.9238.2202.7209.3215.3211.5182.0175.22,555.9
Source: China Air Bureau National Air Force Information Center 2020-12-31


Municipal

  • Chinese Communist Party Beijing Municipal Committee Secretary: Cai Qi (May 2017, 5-)
  • Mayor of the People's Government of Beijing: Chen Jining (May 2017, 5-)
  • Beijing People's Congress Standing Committee Chief: Lee Wei
  • Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Beijing Municipal Committee Chairman: Jilin

Administrative regions

16 at the bottomMunicipalityHave jurisdiction over.

Beijing city map
Old Town
  • 20107/1UntilChongwen District(Southeastern central city)Xuanwu District(Southwestern central city area), but each is oldDongcheng・OldXicheng DistrictWas newly established and merged.This area is sometimes called "East and West Bunbu" by taking each letter from the original four wards that make up the old castle ward.
New town area
Other
  • Shunyi District Located in the northeastern part of the city1998Promoted from prefecture to ward.The International School of Beijing is located here.
  • Changping District Located in the northwestern part of the cityMing TombsThere is.
  • Mentougou District Located in the mountainous area of ​​the western part of the city, the ward was established in 1958.
  • Tongzhou District Located in the eastern part of the city. Transferred to the city in 1958 and promoted to the ward in 1997.
  • Fangshan District Located in the southwestern part of the city.ZhoukoudianThere is. Promoted to the 1999 ward.
  • Daxing District Located in the southern part of the city. Transferred to the city in 1958 and promoted to the ward in 2001. Opened on September 2019, 9Beijing Daxing International Airportincluding.
  • Huairou District Located in the mountains in the northern part of the city. Built in 1368, promoted to 2001 ward.
  • Pinggu District Located in the northeastern part of the city. Transferred to Beijing in 1958 and promoted to the ward in 2002.
  • Yanqing District Located in the northwestern part of the city. Promoted to 2015 Ward.
  • Miyun District Located in the northeastern part of the city. Promoted to 2015 Ward.There is Miyun Dam, which is the water source of Beijing.

Chronological Table

population

The population of Beijing has exceeded 2000 million and reached 2014 million in 2152.[13]..The family register population is about 1,755 million (end of 2009), and there are 364.9 people who are temporarily registered with the public security agency (police), and the city center population is 917.61 (December 2008).12% of the compositionHan peopleAnd the remaining 4% is made up of 55 ethnic minorities.

Population in urban areasIs the 1,395th largest in the world with 16 million people[14].

Economy

2014Beijing city's gross domestic product is about 2 trillion yuan[15],ShanghaiIt is the second largest in mainland China after.2014Beijing metropolitan area has a total production of $ 4811 billion, making it the 11th largest economy in the world.[16].

America'sthink tank 2020Announced in comprehensiveWorld cityIn the rankingニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,UK,Paris,Tokyo5th in the world aftercityEspecially in the field of business activities, it received the highest evaluation after New York.[17].2020March in englandthink tankAccording to the 7th place in the worldFinancial centerIt is the third largest in China after Shanghai and Hong Kong.[18] British "Globalization and World Cities Research Network(GaWC) published in 2020金融,Accounting,law,Ads,business consultantThe highest peak in the world city rating for business fields such asUKとニ ュ ー ヨ ー クNext to the two cities ofParis,TokyoSelected as an "Alfa +" class world city[19].2013FromFortune global 500InTokyoHas been evaluated as a city where the head offices of the largest companies in the world are concentrated.[20].2015Toニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,ロシア OfMoscowBecame the city with the most millionaires in the world[21].

Published by Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau2010The average wage of all employees is 50,415 yuan (about 63 yen) per year.[22]..It costs 4,201 yuan (about 5 yen) per month.Also,2012The minimum wage standard is 1 yuan (about 7.2 yen) per hour and 90 yuan (about 1,260 yen) per month.[23]..On the other hand, the minimum wage per hour for non-full-time workers is 1 yuan (about 14 yen).

Beijing cityhigh techIt is expected to aim to develop as a private company, a research and development base, and a central base for Chinese business.In the industrial structureTertiary industryHighly dependent on. 2003GDP61.4% of the total is in the tertiary industrySecondary industryThe ratio is 36.0%Primary industryIs only 2.6%.By the way, the ratio of tertiary industry in China as a whole is 32.3%.ShanghaiBut it is 48.4%.In recent years, the entry of foreign companies into the tertiary industry has been accelerating.In the city centerCBDConcept (Beijing CBDAs the plan) progresses steadily, Beijing is strengthening its role as a central base for Chinese business along with Shanghai.Besides this, Beijing cityBohai Economic RimAs a central city in the Keizu Urban Economic Zone, it seems that it aims for highly efficient development while aiming for economic cooperation with the surrounding areas.In addition, many universities and research institutes are concentrated in Beijing, and many excellent human resources are nestling in society.

Politics

Forbidden CityAdjacent to the west side ofZhongnanhaiToSupreme LeaderThe place of residence of (Supreme Leader)Chinese Communist PartyHeadquarters and central governmentState CouncilEtc. are locatedGreat Hall of the PeopleIs the highest authorityNational People's CongressIs held every year.

Military

Central Theater CommandThree divisions of the guard unit, which is the location of the headquarters and is in charge of guarding the capital, are stationed in the city.Responsible for international border securityShanghai Cooperation OrganizationHeadquarters is also located.

Transportation

道路

1960 era ――Because it became an obstacle to the traffic in the city in the 70'sMing DynastyThe walls of the inner castle have been removed.At the trace, a second ring line with a circumference of about 32 km has been newly constructed as a moving aorta.Three more ring roads are laid on the outside, and there are currently six.Ring roadIs open.The 7th Ring Road is currently under planning.In addition, 2 national roads radiate from Loop Route 12 throughout the country.From beijingTianjinViaBohaiCoastalTangguSix highways have been built.

In 2010, the number of registered automobiles in Beijing increased by more than 1 in one year, exceeding 75 million.Infrastructure development such as roads and parking lots cannot keep up with the spread of automobiles, and traffic congestion is becoming more serious. August US magazineForeign policyIn the article, Beijing is listed as the most congested city in the world.In order to improve this situation as much as possible, Beijing City will implement public transportation priority measures, vehicle license plate operation restrictions, etc., and will also implement restrictions on the number of registered cars per year.[24].

It's 2013Air pollutionContinued to deteriorate, and Beijing also took measures.

same year9/29The city's air pollution has reached its worst level[25].

Train

BeijingChina RailwayIt is the center of the country, with direct trains to all provincial capitals and neighboring countries.International trainArrives and departs.Moscow,Ulaanbaatar,PyongyangGoingInternational trainIncluding, direct trains that connect all the provinces, cities, and autonomous regions of the country arrive and depart. June 2011, the economic centerShanghaiConnect withKeihin High Speed ​​RailOpened[26][27]..As a huge terminal station, of the central stationBeijing Railway Station,Beijing West Railway Station,Beijing South StationCan be mentioned.Also, as another big stationBeijing East Railway Station,Beijing North Railway Station,Huangcun Station,Fengtai Station, There is.

Transportation in the city center and suburbsBeijing subwayIs in charge.Also, in 2006Beijing Municipal Transportation CardAn IC card called an IC card has been introduced, and automatic ticket gates have also been introduced at all lines and stations. August 2008Beijing OlympicsThe route network expanded rapidly with the holding of the event, and as of the end of 2018, the total length will be about 710 km.[28].

List of major railway lines in Beijing

Main routes of China Railway
Subway line
Light rail line

aviation

culture

Media

Beijing TelescopeIs located in Beijing as a national broadcasting network, and mainly broadcasts channels numbered from 1 to 10.

Sports

20088/8 - 8/24ToSummer olympic(Beijing Olympics) Was held.Beijing Olympics,Beijing ParalympicsAt the main venue, commonly known as "Bird's Nest"Beijing National GymnasiumAbout 350,000 people were allegedly displaced to build the, and this displacement20087/28Finally completed.Also, every OctoberTiananmen SquareIs the starting pointBeijing International MarathonWill be held.

As a professional sports team based in BeijingChinese Soccer/Super Leagueof"Beijing Guoan"Beijing Renhe"Chinese Basketball Leagueof"Beijing Ducks"Asian League Ice Hockeyof"China dragonThere is.Professional tennisChina Open (tennis)Will also be held.

2015March 72022 Winter OlympicsSelected as the host city of.The same citySummer olympicとWinter OlympicsBeijing is the first to hold[30].

Contemporary music

Many rock musicians gather here to see Beijing as the beginning of their musical life.Avant-garde artists are also active in Beijing[31].

Education

Beijing has the largest number of universities in China.Also,Tsinghua University,Beijing UniversityThere are some of the best universities in Japan.

Japanese language students (Mandarin Chinese) Is the most popular destination in Beijing.This is related to the fact that the number of schools (universities) that accept language students is the largest in China.Also, because it is the center of China, there are many famous buildings and it is relativelyStandard languageIt is an area that speaks a language close to.

University

Japanese school

博物馆

Tourism

Known as a representative tourist city of China, it has a history of human beings living for 50 years, a history of over 3000 years of urban development, and a history of over 700 years when the nationwide government placed the capital here. , Is one of the seven ancient cities of China.Beijing is blessed with first-class scenic spots suitable for an ancient city, and has the highest number of foreign tourists and foreign currency revenue in the country.紫禁城,Tiananmen Square,garden, From ancient timesCitizenIs the cityscape where衚衕It is a city that is visited by many tourists from overseas.

world Heritage

amusement facilities

sister city

cityCountryDate of becoming a sister city[32]Date of end of sister city relationship
TokyoJapanese flag Japan19793/14
ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クUnited States flag The United States of America19802/25
BelgradeSerbian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu198010/14
LimaPeru flag ペルー198311/21
Washington DCUnited States flag The United States of America19845/15
MadridSpanish flag スペイン19859/16
Rio de JaneiroBrazilian flag Brazil198611/24
Ile de France regionFrench flag France19877/2
CologneGerman flag Germany19879/14
AnkaraTurkish flag トルコ19906/20
Cairo Egypt199010/28
Jakarta Indonesia19928/4
Islamabad Pakistan199210/8
BangkokKingdom of Thailand flag Thailand19935/26
ブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ スArgentina flag アルゼンチン19937/13
Seoul Special CityRepublic of Korea flag South Korea199310/23
Kiev ã‚¦ã‚¯ãƒ©ã‚¤ãƒŠ199312/13
BerlinGerman flag Germany19944/5
ブ リ ュ ッ セ ルBelgian flag ベルギー19949/22
Hanoi Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu199410/6
AmsterdamDutch flag Netherlands199410/29
MoscowRussian flag ロシア19955/16
ParisFrench flag France199710/23
RomeItalian flag イタリア19985/28
Gauteng Republic of South Africa199812/6
OttawaCanadian flag カナダ199910/18
CanberraAustralian flag Australia20009/14
MadridSpanish flag スペイン20051/17
AthensGreek flag Greece20055/10
Budapest ãƒãƒ³ã‚¬ãƒªãƒ¼20056/16
Bucharest ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢20056/21
ハ バ ナ ã‚­ ュ ー バ20059/24
ManilaPhilippines flag フィリピン200511/14
UKBritish flag The United Kingdom20064/11
Wellington New Zealand20065/10
Addis AbabaEthiopian flag エチオピア20064/17
Helsinki ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰20067/14
Nursultan Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu200611/16
Tel AvivIsraeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル200611/21
Santiago ãƒãƒª20078/6
LisbonPortugal flag Portugal200710/22
TiranaAlbania flag アルバニア20083/21
DohaQatar flag Qatar20086/23
San JoseCosta Rica flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu200910/17
Mexico CityMexican flag メキシコ200910/19
DublinIrish flag アイルランド20116/2
Copenhagen ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯20126/28
New South WalesAustralian flag Australia20128/3
DelhiIndian flag India201310/23
TehranIran flag (I.e.20142/27
UlaanbaatarMongolia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu20148/17
VientianeLaos flag Laos20154/24
Prague ãƒ ェ コ20163/29[33]201910/9[34]
Minsk ãƒ™ ラ ル ー シ20164/26
Riga ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢20179/15
Phnom PenhCambodia flag Cambodia20185/21

Works set in Beijing

Category: Works set in BeijingSee.

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Beijing City Overview and Investment Environment Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Beijing Center
  2. ^ Kyoto Sangyo University Graduate School of International Studies, Department of Chinese Studies / Research Introduction / Interview with Professor Akifumi Yahanashi
  3. ^ Dictionary Beijing
  4. ^ UNdata China
  5. ^ Geographic Names
  6. ^ English version of Beijing official website
  7. ^ Peking University Official Homepage
  8. ^ "New words outside the Seibunkan"
  9. ^ People China Beijing History
  10. ^ World History Window Beijing / Hokudaira
  11. ^ Complete Encyclopedia of Japan Beijing History (Hoshio)
  12. ^ Renewal of global climate zones
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas & Population Projections
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ Cities Rank Among the Top 100 Economic Powers in the World Chicago Council on Global Affairs Retrieved October 2016, 10.
  17. ^ "Read @Kearney: 2020 Global Cities Index: New priorities for a new world" (English). www.kearney.com. 2021/1/27Browse.
  18. ^ The Global Financial Centers Index Long Finance Retrieved May 2020, 5.
  19. ^ "GaWC --The World According to GaWC 2020". www.lboro.ac.uk. 2021/1/27Browse.
  20. ^ "Fortune XNUMX companies, Beijing headquarters surpass Tokyo-Chinese media". Focus Asia (September 2014, 6). 2016/7/31Browse.
  21. ^ "Beijing surpasses NY in the world's most millionaire city". AFP (September 2016, 2). 2016/3/1Browse.
  22. ^ Beijing: Average monthly employee income is 4201 yuan
  23. ^ Beijing City 2012 Minimum Wage Standard Adjustment Notice
  24. ^ Air pollution due to traffic jams ... Widespread "automobile disease" -China
  25. ^ Beijing's air pollution at worst level = China --Lake Biwa Otsu Economic Newspaper (viewed September 2013, 9)
  26. ^ Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway opens, opening up a new era for Chinese railways[Broken link]
  27. ^ Manabu Kotani (July 2011, 7). “Take a high-speed train between Beijing and Shanghai”. Agora. 2020/5/23Browse.
  28. ^ “[Reading China] Expanding urban railways in China There are also issues in terms of software”Sankei Digital. (April 2019, 5). https://www.sankeibiz.jp/smp/macro/news/190513/mcb1905130500004-s1.htm 2020/5/23Browse. 
  29. ^ “The world's largest Beijing Daxing International Airport opens”. Bulletin "Japan and China" (Japan-China Friendship Association). (2020-1-1). https://www.j-cfa.com/report/feature/世界最大規模の北京大興国際空港が開港/ 2020/5/23Browse.. 
  30. ^ If it ’s just a competitionKaruizawa(1964 Tokyo Olympics-Equestrian,Nagano Olympics-curling),Sapporo(1972 Sapporo Olympics,2020 Tokyo Olympics-サ ッ カ ー) Has already held the Summer and Winter Olympics)
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ "Beijing Statistical Yearbook 2018 10-12 Beijing Municipal Friendship City”. Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau. 2019/10/9Browse.
  33. ^ "Beijing Yofu Prague Constitution International Friendship Sister City Relations _ China Internet Information Center". beijing.china.org.cn. 2019/10/9Browse.
  34. ^ "Release of Prague 與 Beijing 姐 Sister City China: Abandonment of Confidence | International | Central News Agency CNA”(Chinese). www.cna.com.tw. 2019/10/9Browse.
  35. ^ “Beijing bans“ uncivilized ”acts, aims to improve public health”. AFPBB News. (February 2020, 4). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3280613 2020/5/23Browse. 
  36. ^ "Men get angry" Beijing Bikini ", banned in Jinan, China" uncivilized "". CNN.co.jp. (August 2019, 7). https://www.cnn.co.jp/travel/35139528.html 2020/5/23Browse. 

References

  • Sumio Sakurai, Yutaka Hitomi, Kenji Morita, "52 Chapters to Know Beijing," Akashi Shoten, 2017.
  • Minoru Takeuchi, "The Story of Cities in the World (9) Beijing," Bungei Shunju, 1992,ISBN-4 16-509610-5.
  • Hidenobu Jinnai et al., "Reading Beijing Urban Space," Kajima Institute Publishing, 1998,ISBN-4 306-07212-6.
  • Sadaichi Tada "Beijing Geographical Magazine" 1938 Shinmininshokan (Chinese version was also published in Beijing)
  • Tamio Matsuki "Beijing Place Names" Hoyu Bookstore, 1988,ISBN-978 4892810145.
  • Sumio Sakurai, "Trivia of China, Food and Place Names," Tabata Shoten, 2005,ISBN-978 4803803181.

外部 リンク

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