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The year-end and New Year holidays are watersheds. "

[Tokyo XNUMXst Reuters] – According to domestic media reports, the new roller was newly confirmed in Tokyo on the XNUMXst ... → Continue reading


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WatershedDifferent from (Bunsukai, drainage divide)Water systemIt is a geographical term that refers to the boundary line of.MountainInRidgeAnd the watershed often match,watershedAlso known as the watershed.


Water flows from high to low.Therefore, the river that flows in changes depending on which side of the ridge it falls, and the sea that pours into it changes.In the mountains, such differences appear in a very clear form, but even in seemingly flat terrain, such activities are carried out.

For example,HiroshimaAkitakata City"Mukaiharacho Toshima"Watershed crying farewellIs in a flat paddy field.To the north of thisEnokawaFlow intoSea of ​​JapanPour into, on the south sideOta RiverFlow intoSeto Inland Sea(In addition, Yachiyo Town in Akitakata CityUene PassThere is also a watershed on flat ground.This is in JapanRiver captureIs a typical example of).

Another example of the watershed on flat terrain is shown.that isMusashino PlateauIn the case of.On the Musashino PlateauZanbori River,Nogawa,Senkawaな どTama River systemRiver andKurome River, Yanase River, Karabori River, etc.Arakawa water systemThe river is flowing.

Naturally, there is a place where both water systems meet, that is, a watershed.Tamagawa waterIs almost the same.By passing clean water to the highest point分水Can flow down naturally,IrrigationThe area can be expanded efficiently.

How to find the watershed

To find the watershed, go back from the downstream.æµ·,(I.e.Pouring intoEstuaryThe flow that has is the mainstream, and the flow that joins itTributaryIt goes upstream as.In the administration, the series of systems found in this wayWater systemThe boundary with other water systems is the watershed.

As a general rule, the flow that can go farthest from the estuary is the mainstream, but there are cases where this is not the case.Flow through the AmericasMississippi RiverIs a tributaryMissouri RiverIt is known that it takes longer to go back.

There are many water systems that do not match the watershed (eg)Tone RiverWater systemAbukuma RiverWater system).The name of the water system isMain stream(Honkawa) Is usually taken from the name.For exampleShinano RiverWater systemIshikari RiverIt's a water system.

World watershed

The world can be divided by the watershed.

For the watershed in Europe"Source and watershed" in the Danube itemSee section.We are also familiar with the German and Dutch versions, so we recommend that you also refer to them.

The Pacific Ocean

The Pacific OceanThe watershedJapan, South Korea,north korea,Chugoku,ロシアSoutheast,IndonesiaとMalaysiaMost of theフィリピン, Other Pacific islands, andAustralia OfGreat dividing mountainsIncluding Alaska, eastern regionsAmericaandカナダ OfRocky mountainsWestern region ofメキシコAnd Central America, andAndesIt consists of the coast of South America to the west.


大西洋The watershed includes the eastern coast of the United States, the coastal regions of Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador in North America.St. Lawrence RiverandGreat LakesIn addition, South America consists of most of the region east of the Andes, Northern Europe, and western Africa south of Sub-Saharan Africa.


地中海The watershed is in Southern and Eastern Europe,トルコ,Lebanon,イ ス ラ エ ル,Egypt,(I.e.andスーダン OfNile RiverIt consists of much of Northeast Africa, including the basin.


CaribbeanThe watershed consists of the Midwest and Southern regions of the United States.that isMississippi RiverIt can be considered that the basin of is included.Around the Great LakesApart fromRocky mountainsとAppalachian MountainsThis is because the rivers in the area between the rivers flow into the Mississippi River.The territory also includes the east coast of Mexico and Central America, and the northeastern part of South America.

* There is also a view that the Mediterranean Sea and the Caribbean Sea are attached to the Atlantic Ocean, so you may consider including them in the Atlantic Ocean.

Indian Ocean

Indian OceanThe watershed is on the eastern coast of Africa,Red SeaandPersian GulfIt consists of the coast, the Indian subcontinent, Myanmar and most parts of Australia.

Arctic Ocean

Arctic OceanThe watershedロシアConsists of Northern Europe, Alaska and Northern Canada.It is a large river that represents RussiaOb riverAlsoLena riverAlso flows north through the land of Russia and pours into the Arctic Ocean.

Watershed that does not flow into the ocean

Some watersheds do not flow into the ocean.Inland lakeThe watershed that flows into is a typical example.

Japan's watershed

Compared to the world, Japan is an island country and a mountainous country, so its watershed is small.In the old daysmoistureIt was also called (Mikumari).

Central watershed

What is the Central Divide (Central Divide) in Japan?The Pacific OceanSide andSea of ​​JapanIt is a watershed that divides the side.However, for exampleTsugaru StraitThe results differ depending on which sea area is treated as the sea area on the boundary between the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of ​​Japan.

The lowest altitude in the central watershed other than the terminal is in HonshuHyogoTamba cityHikamicho Isou Altitude 95 near the "Isou Shinmachi" intersectionm[1]Is.Near 800m east of this lowest point, "Miwakare ParkThere is a waterway in the parkKakogawaWith the (Seto Inland Sea / Pacific) sideYura RiverIt is divided into the (Sea of ​​Japan) side.Japanese archipelagoOverall,Japan Mountaineering ClubCentral divide reconnaissance project by[2]As a result of the progress ofNew Chitose AirportIt is said that the central watershed at an altitude of 13.7 m passes through the vicinity.[3]..On the other hand, the highest point isMt. NorikuraIt is 3026m.

Watershed as a border

It was based on the decree systemRegulatory countryMost of the borders are watersheds.It is natural that the ridges are often bordered, but since the climate and vegetation change at the ridges, it can be said to be a rational division method.中 世InIga countryBut next doorOmi-YamatoWhen a border dispute arises between the two countries, a cut is made with water as the boundary.

The border of the watershed is not limited to Japan.Even in Europe, ridges are often used as borders, so the watershed and borders almost coincide with each other around the Alps.

Watershed in the plains

MountainIn the departmentRidgeAlmost the same as, but downstream平野The watershed is unclear in the area (especially in the large plains).This is because the river changes its flow path each time the water rises.This isAncient timesからThe early modern periodIt was the biggest problem for the politicians.Therefore, ancient settlements have started near the mountains due to the ease of development of new fields and cultivated land.And in the early modern period, development progressed to lowlands and riversides.

Since modern times, progress has been made in civil engineering technology, and the flow path of rivers has not changed.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "City Overview-Tamba City Homepage". 2013/8/30Browse.
  2. ^ It was held as an event to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Japanese Alpine Club, and the reconnaissance of all routes was completed on June 2006, 6.
  3. ^ JAC 100th Anniversary Domestic Climbing (Central Divide Reconnaissance) Mountain Climbing Report (PDF)

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外部 リンク

New Year's Holiday

2021 1(Yuzuki)
365 Day
Each month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
365 Day
Each month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

New Year's Holiday(Nenmatsu Nenshi) has no strict definition, but 1YearsIt is a general term for the period from the end of to the beginning of the following year (the specific period depends on the situation in which it is used).

This item explains the year-end and New Year holidays in Japan as the theme.


Roughly every year including this period12The last thingYear-end-End of the yearOrTwilight-Year-end[Annotation 1],1The first halfNew year-New Year,new Year,Beginning of the yearMay be said.How to spend the year-end and New Year holidays differs depending on the cultural area.

in Japan's case,New YearFor several days before and afterDays Off(Consecutive holidays).災害避難所になっている場合など一部を除いて、学校はExcept in some cases, such as when it is a disaster shelter, the schoolWinter vacation, CountryMunicipalities OfGovernment officeAccording to the laws and regulations described below12/29から1/36 consecutive holidays[Annotation 2],manyCompanyAlso conforms to this.

1873(Meiji6 years)1/7ProclamationBy the second issue, "Determining your vacation days,"1/1From to January 1 (New year three day),6/28から6/30Until(Summer exorcism), From December 12th12/31Until(New Year's Eve) Was a consecutive holiday.このうち、夏越の大祓の連休が実施直前のOf these, the consecutive holidays of Natsukoshi's Otome are just before the implementation6/23Since it was canceled after that, the remaining six consecutive holidays during the year-end and New Year holidays will take root.

This decree1947(Showa22 years) has expired, but after that it became a custom,1988(63)12/13According to Law No. 91, "Act on Holidays of Administrative Organizations," the legal basis has been obtained again, although it is limited to government offices.


Golden week-ObonAlong with, you can go home with your childTraveling(Timely pattern,HawaiiThere are many families who go to warm resorts near Japan, such as), and at the beginning and end of the periodTerminal station,空港Is crowdedhighwaySome sections of the road are congested.

TravelingIn recent years[When?]Young people such as couples and students are the mainstream, and children are in 2001American terrorist attacksLater, especially2004Since then, it has been on a downward trend.[Annotation 3].

JRSome of the limited express tickets, etc.Special plan ticketWill be a busy season when will be unavailable.ただし、日本に観光However, sightseeing in JapanvisaEnter the country withForeign travelersDedicatedJapan Rail PassAnd some specially planned tickets are available.多くのmanyPublic transportThen.12/30から1/3In betweenDays OffTreatedDiamondBecome[Annotation 4]..初詣の利便のため、大晦日から元日はFrom New Year's Eve to New Year's Day for the convenience of the first visitOvernight drivingBusinesses that doLast trainCarrying downFirst trainThere are many businesses that carry out[Annotation 5].

In addition, during the year-end and New Year holidays, it may be operated with a special timetable different from the normal timetable.12/29As for, JR operates on weekday schedules unless it overlaps with Saturday and Sunday,Public transport,Private railway(subway-Transit Bus-Tram-New transportation systemEtc.) are divided into weekday and holiday correspondence depending on the business operator[Annotation 6]..なお、JRの首都圏におけるIn the JR metropolitan areaRegular train green ticket(For non-reserved seats) will be the "holiday fee" on December 12th, even if it operates on weekday schedules.on the other hand,Aomori City BusOnly available on Saturdays and holidaysOne day ticketSome businesses do not allow use on weekdays, which are operated on Saturdays and holidays.[4].

freight trainAs for, the number of trains in operation will decrease at the end of the year,12/31As a general rule, it will be suspended from January 1rd.[5].

However, on New Year's Day, the flow of long-distance passengers as well as cargo will decrease.[6]..Depending on this day, construction and adjustments that involve train suspension may be performed.[Annotation 7].

ETC discount systemEven during the year-end and New Year holidays, weekdays and holidays are classified according to the days of the week in the calendar (2008-2009 results).

Monday-Friday and Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays are dividedCoin parkingIn the case of January 1stNew Year OfTransfer holidayExcept for the year-end and New Year holidays, the classification of Monday-Friday and Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays may be according to the day of the week of the calendar (except when there is a note on the year-end and New Year holidays on the signboard or sticker in the parking lot).For examplebankIn the case of affiliated coin parking, the parking fee is increased during the daytime (mainly 8: 00-15: 00 and 8:45-15:00) on Monday-Friday according to the business hours of the bank counter. In some cases.For this reason, if you park your car during the year-end and New Year holidays other than January 1st and New Year's Day, which includes 1: 8-00: 15 on Friday, you may be charged a large amount.


Many companies and stores also make this period a holiday (holiday, New Year holidays), but during the year-end and New Year holidays,Christmas,New Year OfNew Year's gift,First saleThere are also companies that focus on such things as the year-end and New Year sales season.

HomecomingU turn rushAt workplaces where the year-end and New Year holidays are the time of entry, such as transportation facilities that are responsible for shopping and holidaymakers, restaurants, hotels, and inns, people take turns taking holidays from before New Year to the beginning of the New Year, and congestion and fees are at their peak. Sometimes I travel around the New Year holidays.

Mass media

In the mass media industry, TV programs are generally from December 12th to January 29rd, with morning and noon news programs and wide shows suspended, and year-end specials, variety specials, and one-year news dramas.re-airThere are many stations that are normally organized on the radio on days when there are sports broadcasts and news specials, and when other than programs of specific sponsors.Once (40's <1965 - 1975> Around[11] (Up to), except for some time zones, was usually organized on TV, and at the end of the year,Heiseiinitial(1990) Until around that time, there were many stations that normally organized only in the early morning hours.[12].

News (Chinese)Also during this periodEvening paperIs not issued[Annotation 8],Morning newspaperOnly will be published, but the morning edition will be suspended on January 1nd.Also, the morning edition of January 2stNew Year's Day special issueAs the number of pages is larger than usual.

Main Event



Major TV programs




[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The word "years"Edo PeriodIt is difficult for the common people to go over the years, and if this is not over, it is likened to the fast-flowing "se" of the river waiting for death.
  2. ^ 12/28as well as the 1/4 SaturdayIf you hit, from December 12th1/5Until,SundayIf it hits12/27It will be 1 consecutive holidays from to January 4th.
  3. ^ Narita International Airport CorporationAccording to, from December 2006, 12 to January 22, 2007Narita International AirportThe forecast for the number of immigrants using the system is reported to be a record high of about 138 million.[1].
  4. ^ Until the 2000s, on JR linesShikoku Passenger Railway(JR Shikoku) andWest Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan)Yonago branchFor routes within the jurisdiction, weekdays and holiday schedules were classified according to the days of the week and holidays on the calendar.That is,1/1(andTransfer holidayBecome1/2) Except for Monday-Friday, it was operated on weekday schedule[2].
  5. ^ From 2020 to 2021New coronavirus infectionDue to the spread of the infection, almost all railway companies did not operate overnight, move down the last train, or move up the first train.[3].
  6. ^ Shinki BusIn the case of general routes, December 12-29 will be a holiday schedule, and New Year 31 will be a special schedule.In addition, some routes will be suspended.
  7. ^ 2006January 1 night[7]and2007January 1st at nightHakata StationExample of large-scale construction in[8]And2016March 1Hokkaido ShinkansenTo confirm equipment switchingSeikan TunnelExample of suspension of all passenger and freight trains passing through[9][10]Such.
  8. ^ Hokkaido ShimbunMay also publish an evening edition on December 12th.
  9. ^ This is due to the relationship with the AFC Asian Cup held in Australia in January of the following year.Instead, the girls' "Empress cupWas held on January 1st.
  10. ^ As in 2014, the AFC Asian Cup will be held in the UAE in January of the following year.Instead, the girls' "Empress cupWas held on January 1st.なお、当初はInitially,12/24(Monday-Transfer holiday), ButKashima AntlersHas been changed to December 2018th, as it has been decided to participate in the FIFA Club World Cup UAE 12 (UAE, December 12-22).98th Tournament Overview --Japan Football Association.Therefore, the TV broadcast was also broadcast on BS1 instead of the usual general TV.


  1. ^ "Overseas travel record high, Narita year-end and New Year holidays 138 million people". Nikkan Sotsupo Shimbun.As of August 2007, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006/12/30Browse.
  2. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published Kotsu Shimbun) In the December 2007 issue, there is no note of "December 12-January 12 will be operated at holiday time" for the route of the relevant district.
  3. ^ About the cancellation of New Year's Eve operation --Tokyo Metro, released on December 2020, 12
  4. ^ About the use of bus cards, etc. --Aomori City Transportation Department (Last updated April 2015, 4) ・ "Question 15" has a description about the use of trays and the year-end and New Year holidays.
  5. ^ "About the operation of freight trains during the year-end and New Year holidays (PDF)". Japan Freight Railway(JR Freight) (December 2016, 12). As of January 13, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/12/30Browse.
  6. ^ "Usage status during the year-end and New Year holidays in 2020 [flash report] (PDF)”. East Japan Railway Company Sendai Branch (January 2021, 1). As of January 6, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/1/23Browse.
  7. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published Kotsu Shimbun) January 2006 issue JR News page 1
  8. ^ "Railway Pictorial" (edited and published by Denkisha Kenkyukai), February 2007 issue, p. 2 "January Notepad"
  9. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published by Kotsu Shimbunsha) January 2016 issue JR News page 1
  10. ^ "Railway Journal" (edited and published by Railway Journal), March 2016, p. 3
  11. ^ 出典:昭和45年12月21日から46年1月10日及び昭和48年12月から49年1月の東奥日報テレビ欄(弘前市立図書館(前者)・五所川原市立図書館(後者)で閲覧)から
  12. ^ January 64-1, 1 and December 3-12, 28, Hochi newspaper metropolitan area version TV section.

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