British court refuses to allow Assange to hand over rice US is ready to appeal
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Assange's lawyers argued that the indictment was based on the political motives of the US government and that transferring him to the United States poses a serious threat to the work of journalists.
[London XNUMXth Reuters] – A court in London, England, founder of the whistleblower site WikiLeaks on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading
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United States Federal Government
United States politics and government
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United States Federal Government(American school,British: Federal government of the United States) IsUnited States ConstitutionWas established based onThe United States of America OfFederal central government.
The federal governmentLegislative office,Executive branch,JudiciaryIt consists of three departments.Separation of powerUnder the system and the system of "check and balance", the three rights have the authority to act on their own judgment, the authority to control the other two departments, and the exercise of that authority from other departments. Receive control.
Federal policyHas wide-ranging influence on US politics and foreign affairs. The power of the entire federal government is limited by the constitution. IeStipulates that all powers other than the powers constitutionally granted to the federal government are reserved to state governments.
United States CongressIs the legislative body of the federal government.House of RepresentativesとSenateConsists ofBicameral systemIs taken (United States Constitution Article 1 Section 1). There are 435 parliamentarians qualified to vote in the House of Representatives, each representing a constituency. The term of office is two years (Article 1 Section 21). In addition, there are five non-voting members, four of whom are delegates and one is a resident commissioner. The delegate isWashington DC,Guam,Virgin islands,American samoaOne by one, and the resident commissionerプ エ ル ト リ コIs a representative of.. The seats of the House of Representatives are distributed to each state according to their population. The Senate, on the other hand, has two seats in each state, regardless of population. With 2 states now, there are a total of 50 seats in the Senate, with a term of six years (a third is re-elected every two years).United States Constitution Article 1 Section 3(1 and 2).
Each House has its own special authority. The Senate must give “advice and consent” to many appointments by the President (United States Constitution Article 2 Section 2(2), the House of Representatives must initiate the proposal for a bill to collect revenue (Article 1 Section 71). However, in order to enact the law, approval by both houses is required (Article 1, Section 7, Paragraph 2). Congressional powers are limited to those listed in the United States Constitution (mainlyUnited States Constitution Article 1 Section 8), all other powers are reserved to the state and the people (Article 10 of the same amendment). However, there is a "necessary and appropriate clause" in the US Constitution that authorizes Congress to "enact all necessary and appropriate laws to exercise the powers listed above." Article 1 Section 8 Paragraph 18).
The constitution does not require the establishment of a Congressional Commission. However, as the country grew, so did the need for more thorough investigation of the bill under discussion. In the 108th Congress (2003-2005), there are 19 standing members of the House of Representatives and 17 members of the Senate, as well as a standing member of the Congressional Library, which oversees the Library, Printing, Tax, and Economics. There were four meetings. In addition, each institution can set up special committees to study specific issues. There are about 150 subcommittees under the standing committee to increase the workload.
The US Constitution gives Congress various powers (United States Constitution Article 1 Section 8). Among them areTaxImposing/collectingdefenseIn preparation for自由To promote the pursuit of (1),currencyCasting and controlling its value (section 5),currencyEstablishing penalties for counterfeiting (6),post officeInstall and (7),AcademicTo promote the progress of (8),Federal Supreme CourtEstablish a lower court below (paragraph 9),PirateAnd defining and punishing felony (paragraph 10),戦 争To declare (section 11),armyRecruiting and maintaining (12),NavyTo establish and maintain (13), to establish rules regarding discipline of the Navy (14),militiaOrganize, arm, and discipline (section 15),District of ColumbiaExercising exclusive legislative powers against (17) and enacting the necessary and appropriate legislation to enforce these Congressional powers (18).
Congressional oversight function
Congress to prevent waste and injustice, to respect civil liberties and human rights, to make the executive government comply with the law, to gather information for legislation and public awareness, and to assess the executive's performance. Supervision by.
It covers cabinet departments, executive agencies, regulatory commissions, and presidents. The oversight function of the Congress takes various forms.
- Hearing in committee
- Formal consultations with the president and reports from the president
- Senate Advice and Consent on Presidential Personnel and Treaties (Article 2, Section 2, Paragraph 2 of the US Constitution)
- House of RepresentativesimpeachmentProsecution rights (Article 1, Section 2, Section 5 of the United States Constitution) and subsequent impeachment of the Senate (Section 3, Section 6).
- 25th Amendment to the US ConstitutionBased on the procedure of the House of Representatives in the event of an accident in the President or in the absence of the Vice Presidential office
- Informal meetings between lawmakers and government officials
All administrative powers (executive powers) of the federal governmentPresidentIs given to (United States Constitution Article 2 Section 11). However, the authority isPresidential advisory group) Is often delegated to members and other officers. With the presidentVice PresidentHas a four-year term and up to two terms.Presidential election TheIndirect electionAnd of 50Each stateas well as the Washington DC(District of Columbia) will be assigned a number of electors according to the number of seats in the House of Representatives and the House of Representatives (representative in the case of Washington DC),Electoral groupElect the president and vice president in pairs.
The executive branch consists of the president and his representatives. The presidentHead of state(Head of state)Head of government(Head of government)U.S. Forces)ofHQ Commander(Only when performing actual military affairs. United States Constitution, Article 2, Section 2, 1), Chief Diplomat, andPolitical partyParty leaderHave a position as. According to the United States Constitution, the president must be careful to enforce the law in good faith (Article 2). The president directs a federal executive branch, a huge organization with approximately 3 million personnel, of which 400 million are active military personnel.
The president can decide whether to sign a bill passed by Congress or to invoke a veto. If the veto is invoked, the bill will not be a law unless two-thirds of both houses vote to overturn it (Article 3, Section 2, paragraph 1 of the United States Constitution). With the consent of more than two-thirds of the Senate, the presidentTreatyCan be concluded (Article 2, Section 2, Paragraph 2). On the other hand, he may be impeached by a majority of the House of Representatives, and is dismissed from the job when he is impeached by a special majority of two-thirds of the Senate for treason, bribery or other felony and misdemeanor ( Section 3 of the same article). President of the CongressDissolutionRightBy-electionThere is no right to claim. For those convicted of a crime against the federal governmentpardonAuthority (Article 2, Section 2, Item 1),Presidential decreeAuthority to issue (with consent of the Senate) the Supreme Court Judge andFederal Lower CourtHas the power to appoint judges (Article 2, Section 2, Paragraph 2).
Vice PresidentIs the second federal executive officer.United States Presidential SuccessionIf the president dies, resigns or is dismissed, the vice president becomes president. That happened nine times in American history. The other responsibilities of the Vice President, which is stipulated in the constitution, is to serve as chair of the Senate and participate in the vote in the case of equal numbers (Article 1, Section 9, Paragraph 1 of the United States Constitution).
Relationship with Congress
The relationship between the President and Congress was as it was when the United States Constitution wasBritish monarchとParliamentReflects the relationship. Congress can enact legislation to constrain the executive power of the president, as well as the highest command of the army. However, this power is very rarely invoked. A prominent example isVietnam WarDuring,Richard NixonBy the presidentCambodiaIt was a limit imposed on the bombing operation. The President could recommend to Congress the measures he deems necessary and appropriate (United States Constitution Article 2 Section 3), the legislation requires a supporter of Congress. As mentioned above, the President has the right to veto the bill and the Congress has the right to impeach him. To the president who received the impeachment charge,Andrew Johnson,Bill ClintonThere is. President Clinton was sentenced to impeachment in the House of Representatives, but was acquitted in the Senate and completed his second term.Richard NixonPresidentialWatergate caseIn this case, the president resigned before the move to prosecution was taken, and the impeachment was not prosecuted.
The President has a constitutional obligation to the Congress at any time (usually once a year).General textbook speechI do. The constitution does not require the President to give a speech address by himself, but it can be sent in the form of a letter (19st centuryWas done in the form of a letter).
A federal court is (1) a case occurring under the United States Constitution, federal law or a United States treaty; (2)ambassador-Minister-ConsulEtc., (3) maritime cases and cases involving maritime jurisdiction, (4) United States government-related cases, (5) interstate lawsuits, (6) disputes between citizens of one state and another state, (7) Disputes between citizens of different states (state difference cases), (8) lawsuits between states (or their citizens) and foreign countries (or their citizens/subjects), (9) bankruptcy cases, etc. ..11th Amendment to the US ConstitutionThus, cases in which citizens of one state are plaintiffs and governments of other states are accused are excluded from federal jurisdiction. Note that cases where the state government is the plaintiff and citizens of other states are the defendants are not affected by this amendment.
The Supreme Court is the supreme court in federal court. Established under Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution, it hears discretionary appeals from the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court of the State (for U.S. constitutional issues) and has jurisdiction over a few cases. The Supreme Court judge's term of office is life-long, appointed by the president, and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court, regardless of the federal or local government,Unconstitutional examination rightCan be exercised to be unconstitutional or invalid.
The lower courts have the power of Congress to create or abolish it under Section 3 of the United States Constitution. Parliament also has the power to determine the number of federal judges. The district court is a court of first instance with general jurisdiction dealing with criminal cases and civil cases between individuals. That is, the case trial (Inquiry) Is done in the district court. The Court of Appeal is an appeals court that hears appeals in cases determined by the district court. Some appeals courts also hear direct appeals from government agencies. The judges of these Article 3 courts of the Constitution are for life.
In addition to these general courts, there are also courts, such as tax courts, that specialize only in handling certain types of cases. The Bankruptcy Court, which is a division of the District Court, is not a judge appointed under Section 3 of the United States Constitution and has no term of life.
State Government, Tribal Government, Local Government
The state government has a great deal of influence over the daily lives of Americans because it deals with the issues most relevant to state residents. State economy cuts public budget if economy is not doing well.
Each state has its own constitution (state constitution), government (state government), and law (state law). By stateproperty-crime-Health-EducationLaws and procedures related to various issues such as these may differ greatly. The top provincial officialsGovernorIs. Each state is (NebraskaEach state exceptBicameral system) Has been established, whose members represent state voters. Each state also has its own system. Residents elect the judges of the Supreme Court and lower courts, but many are appointed.
As a result of the Supreme Court ruling, it is subject to the federal government but not normally affected by the state governmentHave sovereigntyIt is considered a "democratic subordinate country" that runs the government. Many laws, administrative orders, and courts have changed tribal-state relationships, but the two have been recognized as independent entities. The ability of tribes to operate a robust government varies from a simple council dealing with tribal issues to a large and complex bureaucracy with several branches of government. Tribes empower their government and at the same time are empowered by that government. Those permissions areプ エ ブ ロAs can be seen in, there are elected tribal councils, elected tribal chiefs, and religious leaders. Tribal citizenship (and voting rights) are usually limited to native descent, but tribes are free to set their requirements.
State autonomy is usually a municipal/city/county council,WaterStation,FireStation,library, Other similar departments are responsible and affect the particular arealawTo establish. Those laws areTransportation,alcoholKind sales,AnimalHandle issues such as feeding.
The top bureaucrats in a town or city are usuallyMayor.New EnglandIn rural areas, the townDirect democracyOperated by.Rhode Island,ConnecticutIn some states, the counties have little or no authority. The counties exist solely for geographical division. In other areas, the county governmentTax collection,PolicemenHas authority such as administration of the office.
- ^ Jeri Thomson, Zoe Davis (October 2001). “(PDF)". 2008/7/30Browse.
- ^ "Representative Offices”(English). US House of Representatives. 2009/1/16Browse.
- ^ Kaiser, Frederick M. (January 2006, 1). “(PDF)”(English). Congressional Research Service. 2008/7/30Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (May 2004, 5). 2008/7/30Browse.
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- United States federal court
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