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📚 | Keiichiro Hirano The statement at Prime Minister Suga's Hodo Station is "Is it a random declaration?"


Photo Keiichiro Hirano

Mr. Keiichiro Hirano The statement at Prime Minister Suga's Hodo Station is "Is it a random declaration?"

 
If you write the contents roughly
When Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga appeared on TV Asahi's "Hodo Station" on the 8th, he declared a state of emergency to 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures for a month, but was asked, "If the results are not good enough, the scope will be expanded." I don't think about assumptions. "
 

Akutagawa Prize-winning author Keiichiro Hirano posted a new post on Twitter on the 10th.Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga announced on TV Asahi on the 8th → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Emergency declaration

Emergency declaration(Hijojitai Sengen), orEmergency declarationWhat is (Kinkyuji Taisengen)?Natural disasters,Infection(Epidemic-Disease)ofPandemic,Nuclear accidentSuch asdisasterAnd戦 争,terrorism,Civil strife,MayhemSuch,Health-life-property-EnvironmentDanger is imminentEmergency(Emergency)Country-Region Of政府(Local governmentEtc.)decreeTo activate a special authority based onpublicIt is to proclaim and declare such a situation in order to call attention to.

About the name

Current,Japanese lawThe basic wording ofEmergency(Emergency)"·"Emergency declarationDespite being unified as "Kinkyuji Taisengen", due to customs from the wording of the provisions of the former Japanese law, "(Kinkyuji Taisengen)" is used in foreign languages.Emergency"Or"State of emergency"Emergency situation" and "Emergency declaration" are sometimes used in the media etc. as a Japanese translation of "," etc. It has the same meaning as "statement of emergency".

Overview

Measures includePolicemen-軍隊(in Japan's case,SDF)SuchCivil servantMobilization ofPublic financeCondemnation of an emergencycommandPromulgation of government ordinances superior to the law and suspension of constitutional human rights guaranteesWritIn addition to allowing arrests and house searches that do not depend on people, freedom of press and meetings, etc.LibertyThere can be restrictions. But,Japan,アイス ランドAnd someCountry ruled by lawThen, there are some cases where the request is almost unenforceable.

in Japan,1954å¹´Old until (Showa 29)Police lawAuthority to proclaim a "national emergency" under Article 62Prime MinisterWas given to the currentPolice lawbased onEmergency DeclarationOther than that,Disaster Countermeasures Basic Lawbased onDeclaration of a disaster emergency,New influenza measures special measures lawbased onPandemic influenza etc.And so onPrime MinisterIs announced.

アメリカ合衆国Then,PresidentIt is not uncommon to declare a state of emergency, but it is declared when the assets are frozen under the authority of the president as "a threat from foreign countries" (For example, in November 2018, an anti-government demonstration was announced. Central America suppressed by forceEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTo see the turmoil as an American security threat and freeze the assets of those who undermine security and democracyDonald Trump(Proclaimed by the President) and othersterrorism,InfectionIs also declared to correspond to[1].. In the United States, vs. 1979(I.e.Approximately 30 declarations, including asset freezes, are reported to be valid as of February 2019 in US media[1].

FranceThen in 2015Paris terrorist attacksでFrancois HollandeAnnounced by the President and extended until October 2017, 10[2][3].

In a similar situation, “national legislation, judiciary, administrationControlPart or all ofMilitary"Transfer to"Martial"[4].

List of National Emergency Situations

Here, as mentioned above, declarations with names which are almost synonymous with each other, such as "emergency declaration" and "emergency order", are also described.

Before the 20th century

2000 era

2010 era

2020 era

Invocation from outside the nation

Federal systemCountries andDecentralizationIn advanced countries,Local governmentMay be authorized to declare an emergency. Also, although the special law does not come into effect,International organization,armyHas established effective controlArmed organizationMay make a declaration for the purpose of calling attention.

International organization

It is an international organizationFlag of WHO.svg WHOIt is,2005å¹´Since then, in response to a large-scale epidemic,Public health emergencies of international concernIs to be declared. The example of activation is "#Notification/designationSee.

Local Government/Local Government

army

Armed organization

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ at that timeUKAlthough he was a territory, he had already obtained the autonomy of internal affairs.
  2. ^ New influenza measures special measures lawDate of emergency declaration by.Historical emergencyTo3/10However, the declaration date is generally treated as April 4.
  3. ^ The scope of the announcement on April 4 is 7 prefecture, 1 prefectures (Tokyo,Osaka,Kanagawa,Saitama,Chiba,Hyogo,Fukuoka) Was,4/16And expanded to all other prefectures, totaling 47PrefecturesBecame the scope of official announcement[177].
  4. ^ Date of declaration. It will be activated at 9:0 on the XNUMXth of the following day.
  5. ^ The scope of the announcement on January 1 was 7 metropolitan area and 1 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa), but on January 3Tochigi,Aichi,Gifu,Kyoto, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture.afterwards2/7Tochigi prefecture is canceled [200], The period of other 1 metropolitan area, 2 prefectures and 7 prefectures3/7Until (planned).

Source

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  2. ^ "That emergency situations become everyday”(May 2016, 11). 2017/4/23Browse.
  3. ^ "After 2 years, France lifts the declaration of emergency 6 times due to terrorism”. TV Asahi (September 2017, 11). 2019/7/6Browse.
  4. ^ “Kotoba Commentary: Difference between “Emergency Declaration” and “Martial Law””. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2015, 12). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20151203/mul/00m/030/00700sc 2017/7/6Browse. 
  5. ^ Question on the Special Measures Act concerning the implementation of humanitarian reconstruction support activities and security assurance support activities in Iraq-House of Representatives 国会House of Representatives: 2004 (Heisei16 years) April 11
  6. ^ State of emergency issuance, confusion overwhelming new government process-Bangladesh AFP (January 2008, 1)
  7. ^ Prime Minister declares emergency, 46 dead in Greek wildfire expansion AFP (January 2008, 8)
  8. ^ President of Pakistan declares emergency and dismisses Supreme Court Reuters Communication (November 2008, 11)
  9. ^ Georgia's state of emergency declared canceled before 22 days of parliamentary approval AFP (January 2008, 11)
  10. ^ Fiji: Heavy rain in western Viti Levu Embassy of Japan in Fiji
  11. ^ Chad issues a national emergency declaration AFP (January 2008, 2)
  12. ^ Declaration of emergency in Mongolia, due to riot over general election Reuters Communication (November 2008, 7)
  13. ^ Zimbabwe declares emergency, cholera dead over 560 Reuters Communication (November 2008, 12)
  14. ^ Hurricane "Ida" hits Central America, killing 124 people in El Salvador AFP (January 2009, 11)
  15. ^ State of emergency declared by police station attack Jamaica Nippon Television News
  16. ^ Eruption of volcanic eruptions in Guatemala and Ecuador, Latin America Rescue Now
  17. ^ Kyrgyz clash, over 80 dead, second emergency state declaration -(June 2010, 6) AFP
  18. ^ Spanish controller abandons all workplaces, declares emergency -AFP News
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  21. ^ (Untitled)(August 2011, 8) Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago
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  25. ^ Egyptian president declares emergency in three provinces after riot after soccer trial AFP (January 2013, 1)
  26. ^ Meteorite falls in Russia, 500 people are injured Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2013, 2)
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  28. ^ Emergency assistance for cyclone damage in the Kingdom of Tonga Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2014, 1)
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  32. ^ “Nigeria also declares an emergency” Third country due to Ebola outbreak”. Kyodo News. 47NEWS(November 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141010214834/http://www.47news.jp/CN/201408/CN2014080901001053.html 2014/10/11Browse. 
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  34. ^ Niger declares state of emergency Boko Haram's offensive AFP (February 2015, 2) Ryukyu Shimpo
  35. ^ UNICEF decides to provide US$60 assistance to Japanese government, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu damaged by Cyclone Pam UNICEF (March 2015, 3)
  36. ^ Ebola fears reignite, Guinea declares "emergency" AFP (January 2015, 3)
  37. ^ Typhoon damage in the Federated States of Micronesia (issue of sympathy messages from Prime Minister Abe and Foreign Minister Kishida) (April 2015, 4) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  38. ^ President of Tunisia announces 30-day declaration of emergency AFP (July 2015, 7) Huff Post
  39. ^ Myanmar flood 47 dead, 21 affected(2015 8 年 月 日 3)
  40. ^ "Simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris: suicide bombing and 120 shooting deaths”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2015, 11). 2015/11/14Browse.
  41. ^ Terror in Tunisia's capital kills 12 presidential declaration Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 11)
  42. ^ Immigration/Refugee Issues: Issuance of Emergency Declaration Embassy of Japan in Hungary (March 2016, 3)
  43. ^ Declaration of health emergency due to Zika fever (Marshall Islands) PIC (April 2016, 4)
  44. ^ Emergency assistance for drought damage in the Republic of Palau Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2016, 4)
  45. ^ Iraq and Shiite demonstrators declare parliamentary emergency Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2016, 5)
  46. ^ President Venezuela declares emergency, "US plans to overthrow government" Reuters Communication (November 2016, 5)
  47. ^ Turkish President announces state of emergency Coup attempt BBC NEWS JAPAN (July 2016, 7)
  48. ^ Ethiopia declares emergency situation Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 10)
  49. ^ Bolivia South America declares emergency due to drought worst in 25 years AFP (January 2016, 11)
  50. ^ Gambia crisis, neighboring countries temporarily dispatch new president inauguration ceremony in Senegal AFP (January 2017, 1)
  51. ^ State of emergency declared in western Niger attacked by Islamic extremists in Mali AFP (January 2017, 3)
  52. ^ Colombian Debris Flow declares emergency BBC (April 2017, 4)
  53. ^ Egypt continuous explosion, 44 deaths Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2017, 4)
  54. ^ Moldova Weekly Report [April 4-16] Embassy of Japan in Moldova (May 2017, 5)
  55. ^ Barbuda, hit by a hurricane, unmanned for the first time in 300 years CNN (January 2017, 9)
  56. ^ Emergency assistance for volcanic eruption damage in Vanuatu Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2017, 10)
  57. ^ State of emergency against Madagascar plague Nihombashi Yumeya (October 2017, 10) Read December 4, 2017
  58. ^ Declaration of emergency in Central America Honduras, violence demonstration after presidential election AFP (December 2017, 12) Read December 3, 2017
  59. ^ Declaration of emergency in Jamaica's second largest city, frequent murder calls alert tourists AFP (December 2018, 1) Read December 21, 2018
  60. ^ Maldives Emergency Situation Cancellation(March 2018, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  61. ^ Bolivian domestic affairs and diplomacy (February 2018)(March 2018, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bolivia
  62. ^ Tonga approaching a powerful cyclone declares an emergency(February 2018, 2) AFP
  63. ^ Sri Lanka is the epitome of a world that leans to the right-emergency statement due to delay in hate speech regulation(March 2018, 3) Yahoo! News
  64. ^ Two people dead, three missing in Oman after cyclone(June 2018, 5) Reuters News
  65. ^ State of emergency declared in the Highlands (Papua New Guinea)(June 2018, 6) PIC
  66. ^ Hawaii approaching hurricane, president declares emergency AFP (January 2018, 8)
  67. ^ Issuance of Emergency Situation (Belize City) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2018, 9)
  68. ^ Cholera expanded in Zimbabwe, 20 dead, state of emergency declared in capital CNN (January 2018, 9)
  69. ^ Burkina Faso Issuance of Emergency Declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 1)
  70. ^ "A lot of ferocious polar bears roam... Declaration of emergency on Russian island”. AFP (July 2019, 2). 2019/2/10Browse.
  71. ^ "U.S. Trump administration to declare state of emergency for construction of" border wall "". NHK News (NHK). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20190215/k10011815671000.html 2019/2/16Browse. 
  72. ^ Gold mine inundation, 24 deaths declared state of emergency Mainichi Newspaper (a 2019th, 19)
  73. ^ Sudanese Parliament Approves Presidential Declaration of Emergency AFP (January 2019, 3)
  74. ^ Cyclone damage and Malawi Seibo Japan (April 2019, 4)
  75. ^ UN WFP strengthens emergency response to cyclones and floods in Mozambique WFP (March 2019, 3)
  76. ^ Sri Lanka declares emergency, terrorist attacks, dead 310 Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2019, 4)
  77. ^ Honduras dengue fever declared emergency declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 6)
  78. ^ Details of areas subject to emergency declaration Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2019, 7)
  79. ^ Information on the issuance of hygiene emergency declarations against Zika virus infection and dengue in Peru Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Quarantine Station (August 2019, 8)
  80. ^ Wildfire state of emergency announced on an island in eastern Greece TV Tokyo News (August 2019, 8)
  81. ^ Bananas disappear from the table? New Panama disease goes to South America Nationalism (August 2019, 8)
  82. ^ State of emergency in eastern Chad = President due to intensified collision JIJI (August 2019, 8)
  83. ^ State of emergency declared in Bolivia due to forest fire sputnik japan (August 2019, 8)
  84. ^ Hurricane, Florida landing on the 2nd or declaration of emergency(March 2019, 8) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  85. ^ Guatemala Calling attention to the state of emergency -Nihonbashi Yumeya
  86. ^ Regarding the issuance of an emergency situation declaration following the radicalization of the Ecuador strike(March 2019, 10) Nihombashi Yumeya
  87. ^ "State of emergency declared in Chile's capital, violence over subway fares”. AFP (July 2019, 10). 2019/11/3Browse.
  88. ^ Bolivia, presidential election declared emergency situation suspected of intervention(March 2019, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  89. ^ Israel bombs Gaza and announces emergency(November 2019, 11) TRT
  90. ^ Congo (joint) monthly report November 2019
  91. ^ Extension of the emergency declaration Travel Sun
  92. ^ Albanian earthquake continues to rescue 28 dead(November 2019, 11) JIJI
  93. ^ Eastern Kingston Area Emergency Declaration Target Area Map (Issued January 2020, 1)(Jan 2020, 1) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica
  94. ^ "Italy declares emergency with new coronavirus, first domestic infection confirmed“Reuters” May 2020, 1.2020/2/1Browse.
  95. ^ Micronesia Presidential Office Declaration of Emergency for New Coronavirus(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
  96. ^ Marshall Suspension of air and sea routes with China, Hong Kong and Macau(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
  97. ^ South Korea declares emergency due to spread of coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  98. ^ Declaration of emergency due to new pneumonia in Herat, Afghanistan(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  99. ^ Presidential Emergency Order in Bishkek Embassy of Japan in Kyrgyzstan
  100. ^ Declaration of emergency in all three Baltic countries and restrictions on foreign entry(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  101. ^ Declaration of emergency in France following pandemic of new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  102. ^ Measures for new coronavirus infection by the Guatemalan government (general)(Read April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Guatemala
  103. ^ COVID19 Related Information 7(March 2020, 3) Viking Co., Ltd.
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  105. ^ Confirmed first person infected with new coronavirus, issued national emergency declaration(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  106. ^ Argentinian flight stop from Europe and America in new Corona(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  107. ^ "Czech Republic declares emergency Slovakia closes border". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2020/4/5Browse.
  108. ^ Even in Venezuela in South America, the new Corona economic collapse makes it difficult to prevent(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  109. ^ New Coronavirus: Latvian Government Declares Emergency Situation(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Latvia
  110. ^ "Trump declares emergency with new Corona”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/3/13Browse.
  111. ^ Confirmed the first new corona infection in Uruguay, currency depreciation(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  112. ^ Estonian Government Announces Emergency Situation Regarding New Corona Infection(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Estonia
  113. ^ "Spain declares emergency to reduce spread". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  114. ^ National Emergency Declaration on the New Coronavirus in Panama(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Panama
  115. ^ New Coronavirus-related information (extension of the expiration date of measures to spread infection accompanying declaration of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bulgaria
  116. ^ Issuance of emergency declaration regarding the new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in El Salvador
  117. ^ [Poland] Prohibition of entry by foreigners-With the spread of coronavirus infection [Declaration of emergency](March 2020, 3) European navigation
  118. ^ Coronavirus infection (Honduras: Stay-at-home order issued: As of 3:16 pm on March 9)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Honduras
  119. ^ "Libya declares emergency situation Temporary administration, airports etc closed”(Japanese). Tokyo Newspaper. 2020/3/13Browse.
  120. ^ "State of emergency declared in Kazakhstan Concerns over spread of infection in Central Africa". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  121. ^ Information on new coronaviruses in Slovakia (declaration of emergency, etc.)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Slovakia
  122. ^ "Status of new coronaviruses in Serbia (PDF)”. Embassy of Japan in Serbia. 2020/3/27Browse.
  123. ^ First community-acquired president declares emergency(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  124. ^ New Coronavirus in Peru (National Emergency Ordinance-Part 2)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Peru
  125. ^ "South Africa National Emergency Situation Prohibition of entry from Italy". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  126. ^ Alert regarding the new coronavirus (9: State of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Maldives
  127. ^ Lebanon defaults, state of emergency declared against coronavirus, major airports closed(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  128. ^ Armenian government declares emergency against new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  129. ^ New coronavirus (situation until 6:16 on the XNUMXth)(May 2020, 5) Embassy of Japan in Ecuador
  130. ^ Announcement of the National Emergency Declaration in Costa Rica(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Costa Rica
  131. ^ Switzerland also declares an emergency situation: store bans, entry restrictions(March 2020, 3) Tokyo Shimbun
  132. ^ Lebanon, Jordan, and Sudan are limited to economic activities due to extension of international flight suspension and outing restrictions(March 2020, 4) JETRO
  133. ^ New coronavirus infectious disease (restriction on night out due to public health emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Paraguay
  134. ^ Finnish government declares emergency with new coronavirus measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  135. ^ "Romanian government announces emergency”(Japanese). Business report. 2020/3/24Browse.
  136. ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
  137. ^ The government issued an emergency declaration and announced 10 economic measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  138. ^ New Coronavirus Measures (Sao Tome and Principe: Emergency State Declaration on Public Health dated 17th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
  139. ^ Namibia Monthly Report (March 2020)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Namibia
  140. ^ Information on the new coronavirus in Palau (March 3th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Palau
  141. ^ Alert about new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Luxembourg
  142. ^ Australia's "emergency declaration" de facto ban on new corona(March 2020, 3) Sankei Biz
  143. ^ [Emergency] [New Coronavirus] Declaration of emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Macedonia
  144. ^ Declaration of emergency due to expansion of new coronavirus infection, impact on Japanese companies due to blockade of some local governments(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  145. ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
  146. ^ Issuance of a curfew by the government of the Dominican Republic(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Dominican Republic
  147. ^ Haiti first confirmed new coronavirus infected person(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  148. ^ Alert about new coronavirus (partial relaxation of emergency orders)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Samoa
  149. ^ About National Restrictions Notice(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Tonga
  150. ^ New coronavirus (infection control measures in the Bahamas)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Bahamas
  151. ^ "New Coronavirus Brazil declares emergency". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  152. ^ Regarding the National Disaster Declaration by President Mutarika(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Malawi
  153. ^ New coronavirus (sanitary emergency, long-term stay, health consultation)(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Morocco
  154. ^ Declaration of national emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Georgia
  155. ^ Declaration of national health emergency and implementation of inspections for Madagascar immigrants within 14 days(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Madagascar
  156. ^ a b c d Monthly situation report for 6 countries returning to the East Caribbean countries (March 2020) -Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago (read April 2020, 4)
  157. ^ Sierra Leone's New Coronavirus Measures (Part 6): National Emergency Situation (1 Year)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Ghana
  158. ^ Congo (People) Declaration of Emergency: Border closure, Kinshasa-Prohibition of traffic between states, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  159. ^ Declaration of emergency in Senegal: Prohibition of movement between cities, restrictions on transportation, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Senegal
  160. ^ Coronavirus Response <Papua New Guinea> Latest Information(April 2020, 4) Nippon Express Pelican Travel Net
  161. ^ "NZ declares national emergency”(Japanese). Kobe Shimbun NEXT. 2020/3/24Browse.
  162. ^ "Thailand, new corona to declare emergency situation Number of infected people ... (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2020/3/24Browse.
  163. ^ Alert about the new coronavirus (Vanuatu government announced "Emergency Declaration")(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Vanuatu
  164. ^ Fiji alert for new coronavirus(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Fiji
  165. ^ New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases: Announcement of Presidential Decree on Declaration of Emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Angola
  166. ^ Declaration of Emergency Situation in Guinea Due to Epidemic of New Coronavirus: Border Blockade, Regulations on Transportation, etc.(2020 3 年 月 日 26)
  167. ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Niger (Part 3))(2020 3 年 月 日 27)
  168. ^ East Timor Banned foreigners from entering the country (March 2020, 3 28:00 to April 00, 4:26)(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  169. ^ Announcement of hygiene emergency declaration (Mexico)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Mexico
  170. ^ Equatorial Guinea: Prime Minister's Ordinance on Extension of Hygiene Emergency Declaration and New Measures(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Equatorial Guinea
  171. ^ New Corona virus protection-Botswana declared a state of emergency(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Botswana
  172. ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Togo (Part 3))(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Ivory Coast
  173. ^ Declaration of emergency situation nationwide, prohibition of going out at night from 4 April, daytime, shops, banks are open(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Belize
  174. ^ The "actual situation" of the new corona that cannot be seen in numbers Africa where poverty is serious(March 2020, 4) Yahoo! News
  175. ^ Ukrainian new coronavirus countermeasures (addition of prohibitions, penalties, etc .: April 4)(2020 4 年 月 日 5)Embassy of Japan in Ukraine
  176. ^ Prime Minister Abe declared an emergency situation 7 prefectures Effectiveness Until May 5 -NHKNEWSWEB, delivered at 2020:4 on April 7, 18.
  177. ^ Declaration of emergency, spread all over the country Until next month, 6th month Corona infection explosion sense of crisis-Government(April 2020, 4) Jiji Press
  178. ^ Declaration of national emergency with new coronavirus countermeasures (Ethiopia)(March 2020, 4) JETRO
  179. ^ Liberia National Emergency Situation (April 2020, 4-)(March 2020, 4) Nihombashi Yumeya
  180. ^ Downtown only watched by mannequins(February 2020, 4) AFP
  181. ^ Temporary interruption of inter-city traffic in Mongolia(March 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
  182. ^ [Correction] New Coronavirus Measures (Health Emergency Declaration: Great Libreville Blockade)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Mongolia
  183. ^ Is corona infected person outbreak in North Korea?(March 2020, 7) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  184. ^ [Summary] Response to new coronavirus infections(January 2021, 1) WAVOC
  185. ^ 30 countries around the world are implementing the strictest measures such as emergency declarations and city blockades(March 2020, 3) Japanese version of People's Network
  186. ^ New virus, which country will reach the end in the world?(April 2020, 4) BBC NEWS JAPAN
  187. ^ Somalia declares emergency situation Kenya is the worst outbreak in the last 70 years(February 2020, 2) Japan Agricultural Newspaper
  188. ^ Fuel spill accident in Russia's Arctic, climate change-permafrost melts(June 2020, 6) bloomberg
  189. ^ "Ministry of Agriculture declares phytosanitary emergency for South American grasshopper hordes”(Japanese). JETRO. 2020/7/4Browse.
  190. ^ Lebanon Declaration of Emergency Situation, Beirut Explosion Receives 135 Dead(August 2020, 8) Yahoo News
  191. ^ MOL's ship aground, Mauritius “environmental emergency declaration”... Request for heavy oil recovery cooperation(So-net, August 2020, 8)
  192. ^ California wildfire declares "emergency"(ParsToday, August 2020, 8)
  193. ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(ASC, September 2020, 9)
  194. ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(AFP, September 2020, 9)
  195. ^ Hygiene emergency declaration reissued throughout France(March 2020, 10) JETRO
  196. ^ Spain declares state of emergency again Italy also restricts food and beverage business(March 2020, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  197. ^ Extension of the Portuguese State of Emergency (until December 2020, 12)(March 2020, 12) Nihombashi Yumeya
  198. ^ "State of emergency in the Kyrgyz capital spreads political unrest-Livedoor News”(Japanese). news.livedoor.com. 2020/10/13Browse.
  199. ^ "Thailand's big blow, anti-government demonstration continued, state of emergency, capital outflow and tourism reconstruction fear of retreat"SankeiBiz" Sankei Digital, October 2020, 10.2020/11/13Browse.
  200. ^ "Tochigi Prefecture Declaration Cancellation Relaxation is step by step". NHK News. 2020/2/14Browse.
  201. ^ Announced tomorrow's state of emergency, to announce restaurants that do not respond to time saving requests at XNUMX:XNUMX pm(January 2021, 1) TBS NEWS
  202. ^ "Declaration of emergency Expanded to 11 prefectures Government refrains from going out unnecessarily during the day". NHK News. 2020/1/14Browse.
  203. ^ "Texas Retreats Economic Resumption-Houston Declares State of Emergency”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. 2020/6/27Browse.
  204. ^ London UK declares serious incident, corona infection "out of control"(REUTERS, January 2021, 1)
  205. ^ Jakarta declares emergency in new Corona request to stop using office -Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  206. ^ "Foot-and-mouth disease, culling of more than 11 heads, Chief Cabinet Secretary, considering all heads" Asahi Shimbun, May 2010, 5 evening edition (Tokyo head office version), page 18.
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外部 リンク

South Kanto

Japan > Kanto region > South Kanto

South KantoWhat is (Minami Kanto)?Kanto regionIt is a general name that refers to the southern or central southern region of.Tokyo,Kanagawa,Saitama,ChibaIn many cases, it refers to one city and three prefectures.Also as a name to refer to the northern or central northern regionNorth KantoThere is.

Definition

What is Minami Kanto?Kanto regionIt is a popular name for the southern part.There is no clear definition of an area, and it is defined by various classifications according to the field or situation, but it is often used to refer to the following areas.

  • Generally, of the 1 prefectures in the Kanto regionTone RiverSouth Central and Southern region (Southern region)Saitama-Chiba-Tokyo-Kanagawa) Often refers to 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures.
  • Capital AreaIn some cases, the name refers to the three prefectures of "Chiba, Kanagawa, and Yamanashi", including Yamanashi, instead of including Tokyo out of one city and seven prefectures (in national elections).Proportional South Kanto blockSuch).
  • When including Tokyo in South KantoTokyo islandsIs also South Kanto.

Classification by prefecture

1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures (Saitama prefecture + Chiba prefecture + Tokyo + Kanagawa prefecture)
The definition of "Minami Kanto", which refers to one of the three prefectures of Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, and Kanagawa, is widely seen in the government.[1]..These 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures have administrative areasTokyo WardCentered onTokyo metropolitan areaIt has a population of more than 3,000 million (Tokyo 1,400 million, Chiba prefecture 627 million, Kanagawa prefecture 919 million, Saitama prefecture 736 million).Since these 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures have unique problems and policy issues due to dense population, common efforts are often made in the administration to address these issues.As a typical framework of this, "Nine capital prefecture summit meeting(1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures and 5 included in this rangeGovernment-designated city(Meeting by the chief of the) is set up.
South Kanto block of national elections (Chiba prefecture + Kanagawa prefecture + Yamanashi prefecture)
Since 1/6 of Japan's total population is concentrated in 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures in the Kanto region, the proportional districts of the national elections are divided into 3 regions: Tokyo block, South Kanto block, and Northern Kanto block.In this case, Tokyo is the XNUMX wards.Tama area・ The entire area of ​​the Tokyo Islands is the Tokyo block.The South Kanto block includes Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures on the south side of Tokyo, and Yamanashi prefecture, and the North Kanto block includes Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, and Saitama prefectures on the north side of Tokyo.
Jurisdiction range of South Kanto Defense Bureau (Kanagawa prefecture + Yamanashi prefecture + Shizuoka prefecture)
Ministry of DefenseOrganization that has jurisdiction over defense facility management operationsSouth Kanto Defense BureauIs Kanagawa Prefecture,Yamanashi,ShizuokaThe jurisdiction covers the three prefectures of.
Jurisdiction of Japan Post South Kanto Branch (Kanagawa + Yamanashi)

Historical classification

Kenogawa・ South of the Tone River basin (first half year)Sagami country+Awakuni+Kazusa+Shimosa/ LateSagami country+Musashi country+Awakuni+Kazusa+Shimosa)
Ritual systemWas laidNara periodSouth Kanto from the Middle Ages to the Middle Ages.
Takehira HiranoMr. Ryu (Kamakura,Miura,Chiba,Hojo,Chichibu,Mr. NagaoEtc.) dominated by the area.Fujiwara KitaMr. Ryu (Utsunomiya,Mr. Oda,Mr. Koyama,Mr. Yuki,Mr. Sano,Mr. Kawanobe,Mr. Hiki,Mr. NasuEtc.) orGen SeiwaMr. Ryu (Ashikaga,Mr. Nitta,Mr. Satake,Mr. Takeda, Etc.) dominated the northern Kanto region.In addition, it should be notedKinaiRegional division based on land transportation in the era when was the center of Japan (Goki Shichido), In addition to the five countries listed, Hitachi isTokaidoBelongs toTakehira Hirano流Mr. Ohsui,Taira ShomonThere is also a way of thinking that it is considered to be the South Kanto only when they ruled, but since it was the reign of Mr. Oda and Mr. Satake after the Middle Ages, it is virtually the same area as the North Kanto.
Countries around Kamakura (Sagami Province + Musashi Province + Kazusa Province + Awa Province)
Kamakura PeriodSouth Kanto.Takehira HiranoIn the territory of Mr. RyuGen SeiwaTorrentYoritomo Gengen Kamakura ShogunateIt was the first step for Seiwa Genji, who is based north of Kita-Kantou, to advance to Minami-Kantou.Sagami Province centered on Kamakura was the center of South Kanto.
South of the Tone River
Sengoku periodLate,OdawaraSwept the Kanto region with its headquarters inMr. Isehira流Mr. GohojoTheHideyoshi Toyotomi-Utsunomiya national rope-Yoshitake SatakeSuppressedGen SeiwaMr. Nitta流Tokugawa IeyasuWhen he entered the Kanto region, the Kanto area was the power of the northern Kanto region at that time.Fujiwara Kita-Gen SeiwaIt was unified by the system of Mr. Ryu.Ieyasu TokugawaTone River East Transition ProjectThe rampage river, Tone River, which was pouring into Edo BayTaihi RiverIt moved eastward (currently Watarase River-Edo River) and was a wetland due to the flooding during the heavy rainy season.Iruma River - EdogawaReclaiming (reclaiming) the lowlands in the middle and lower reachesEdoEstablished the town of.From now on, the south side of the Tone River will be regarded as Minami Kanto.CurrentThree prefecturesCorresponds to.Due to the eastern transition of rivers in the Kanto Plain, the Iruma River, which used to spread in the central part of the Kanto Plain as a natural barrier, has been reclaimed at once over many rivers and vast lowland areas over the Mohno River.Fujiwara Kita-Gen SeiwaThe area south of the Tone River, including some areas governed by Mr. Ryu, was incorporated into the forces of the South Kanto region.During this period, the center of Minami-Kantou moved north from Sagami Province (Kamakura and Odawara) to Musashi Province (Edo).It was an important base in South KantoOdawara CastleToFujiwara KitaUtsunomiyaCall the flowMr. OkuboIs sealedMeiji EraContinued until.

Minami Kanto and Tokyo

In South KantoJapanese capitalIsTokyoIs located.Tokyo WardCentered onMetropolitan areaPointing toCapital AreaOr "Tokyo area" may refer to 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures of Chiba prefecture + Saitama prefecture + Tokyo metropolitan area + Kanagawa prefecture.[2]..Therefore, the terms "metropolitan area" or "Tokyo area" and the term "Minami Kanto" may refer to the same range.In the case of "Greater Tokyo Area" or "Tokyo Area", in addition to the above-mentioned 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures, the southwestern part of Ibaraki Prefecture (formerly) is located within 50 km from central Tokyo and has many commuters to Tokyo.Shinji prefectureRegion) may also be included.

Geography

Geology

Sagami TroughとJapan Trench,Itoigawa Shizuoka Structural LineIt is a complicated structure surrounded by, and each different plate sneaks directly under the South Kanto.Because of this, it ’s huge.EarthquakeHas been repeated in the past, and the danger has been pointed out in the future.The remarkable damage earthquake in South Kanto1703年(Genroku Earthquake),1855年(Ansei Edo Earthquake-Bakumatsu),1923年(Great Kanto EarthquakeCausedKanto earthquake) And so on.Genroku and Taisho were huge earthquakes with the Sagami Trough as the epicenter (the mechanism of the Ansei Edo earthquake has various theories and has not been settled. In addition to this,Ansei earthquakeと 呼 ば れ るAnsei Tokai Earthquake-Nankai earthquakeIs different from).Also in recent years1987年 OfChiba Toho Oki Earthquake(Inside the Philippine Sea Plate),1992年Uraga Suido Earthquake (inside the Pacific Plate),1980年,2005年Earthquakes in the northwestern part of Chiba Prefecture (near the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate) have often caused shaking and damage with a seismic intensity of less than 5 lower.IbarakiIn the southTokyoThe Tama area is also active due to seismic activity.In this way, South Kanto has a nest of earthquakes for people.Once a big earthquake occurs, the damage is likely to increase because it is a densely populated area.Also,OdawaraSagami Trough andMount Fuji(Fuji volcano belt) NearSwarm earthquakeMay occur.Kanto PlainBecause the ground is soft, the surrounding area(I.e.The shaking tends to be greater than in some areas.

terrain

climate

The whole areaPacific climateIt belongs to, and generally has a warm and humid climate throughout the year,The Pacific OceanSince the plain facing the side is wide, there is a tendency for heavy rain in summer and light rain and dryness in winter.North KantoCompared to this, the tendency of light rain and dryness in winter is weak.

As we approach the southern Pacific coastJapanese CurrentIt tends to be warmer under the influence of, and this tendency becomes more pronounced in winter.Taking advantage of such a climate,Boso PeninsulaIn the south (Minamiboso)Rape blossomIs actively cultivated.This area is dry and has many sunny days, and the dry windSky windAlso called. Also,snowIs only when the temperature in the sky is low (less than -1500 ° C at 6m above or less than -5500 ° C at 30m above) and the south bank low pressure or trough approaches, and there are many patterns of powder snow or doka snow.SnowfallIs few, especially in the plainsTokyo metropolitan area-横 浜 市-ChibaSnow cover is rare around the big cities of Japan.However, once snowfall occurs in the South Kanto area (in the case of Tokyo, snowfall occurs only a few times a year and the snowfall itself is rare, so a snowfall of about 5 cm is considered to be "heavy snow"). Due to suspension of operations, traffic jams on the road, stuck cars, etc.TransportationIs paralyzed.It is difficult to predict heavy snowfall from the weekly forecast.

As you go northInland climateAs a result, the annual temperature range is large and the dry tendency in winter becomes stronger.In the westKanto MountainsBecause there are highlands such asCentral highland climateThe climate becomes cooler due to the influence of the above, and in winter, unlike the flat land, a lot of snow of 10 cm or more can be seen, and depending on the place and year, it becomes heavy snow.In the Kanto Mountains, spring arrives later than in the plains, and autumn arrives earlier, but in springFresh green, AutumnAutumn leavesIs beautiful.

Also, because it is widely covered by urban areas, especially in TokyoHeat island phenomenonThe weakness of the cold in winter and the weakness of summerIntense heatIs brought about, and the phenomenon undergoes climate modification.Especially on sunny winter nights, the temperature drops sharply as we go to the suburbs, and Tama (especially Ome Plain, Hachioji), central Kanagawa (Ebina), Midwest Saitama (Hatoyama, etc.), and inland Boso Peninsula (Ushihisa).・ It is not uncommon for the minimum temperature to differ by as much as 7-10 ° C between (Sakahata) and the city center.

History

In ancient times, it flowed through the central part of the plain in the Kanto region.Iruma River(CurrentArakawa - Sumida River),Arakawa(CurrentMotoarakawa --Nakagawa), (CurrentFurone River - Nakagawa),Watarase River / Taihi River(Current Edogawa) and Mohnogawa (current)Kinugawa) Is called "Rampage River", and it is said that wetlands spread in the lowlands in the middle and lower reaches because of repeated flooding every time heavy rains occur.

CurrentKasumigaura - TeganumaA series of wetlands including the cultivated land was reclaimedEdo PeriodIt is after that.Tokugawa IeyasuAfter entering Edo, ordered the former Tone River and the former Arakawa River to be replaced, and moved the former Tone River and the former Watarase River, which had been poured into Edo Bay (Hashirimizu Sea), to the east and split them into the Mohno River. We moved the Arakawa west and made a change to join the former Iruma River (currently Arakawa-Sumidagawa).Chubu Musashi Province in this project Hitachi countryLowlands spreading in the water townKatori seaIt is said that Tonoura was reclaimed and turned into cultivated land, and the mouth of the Iruma River (currently the mouth of the Sumida River) was reclaimed and reborn as a downtown area of ​​Edo.Prior to this project, the current Tokyo Hibiya was in Edo Bay.BeachFacingSeaweed,OysterIt is said that it was a farm in Japan, and that a mountain near Kanda was destroyed and the earth and sand were used for reclamation.

Ancient Kita-Kantou (Kanto region)HigashisendoArea)Kono countryIs established, while in the south KantoUnrequited countryWas established.Separated from Keno ProvinceShimono country OfNational constructionFamily clanShimoge Komaro TheNara period,Yamato Imperial CourtCalled byFujiwara Nori etc.と と も にGreat treasure law(701年Engaged in the compilation of)Ritual systemSince Musashi Province was assigned to the area division of Tosan-do when it was laid, it may be considered that Musashi Province at that time was in the same area as Kita-Kantou.Immediately after that771年, Musashi Province was incorporated into the Tokaido, and the regional divisions before the Edo period were formed.

Heian period,Emperor HanmuIs blessed with many princes and to increase their positionProminent countryCreate a system,Ueno country, Hitachi Province, and Shimousa Province were designated as this.PrinceWas a low-ranking aristocrat of the prince's kinship because he was able to obtain a grace without being assigned.Takehira HiranoPower spreads throughout the Kanto regionBando HeishiHappened (Kamakura,Miura,Chibaetc).Mr. Bando Heishi became indigenous to the area and became a strong force, and started the Kamakura Shogunate.Gen Seiwa-Yoritomo GengenEven the clan of the Bando Heishi familyHojoDestroyed bySengoku periodChanted the championship in KantoMr. IsehiraThe prestigious Kanto region for Mr. HojoGen Seiwa流Yoshitake SatakeAnd the sameYoshiyasu Satomi,Fujiwara Kita流Utsunomiya national rope,sameHaruki YuukiWas exhausted, but all of them are the forces that call Seiwa Genji (Mr. Nitta,TokugawaEtc.).

After the suppression, Seiwa Genji style in KamakuraAshikagaBut again in OdawaraFujiwara KitaUtsunomiyaMr. Okubo, who calls the style, was assigned and ruled this.During this period, KamakuraWakae IslandWealth is gained through trade with Song and Yuan, who are based in Kamakura, and from Kamakura to various parts of the Kanto region.Kamakura HighwayWas established and prospered greatly as the core of South Kanto.

Edo Period,Tokugawa ShogunateSecured a waterway from Edo to Kita-Kantou by the above-mentioned Tonegawa eastern transition, and Kita-KantouMutsuSucceeded in developing a distribution channel connecting Edo and Edo.This waterway development was the basis for making the town of Edo a world-famous metropolis.Tokugawa familyIs arranging Hatamoto, etc.Meiji RestorationByRoyal reconstruction-RedemptionUntil this was done, the Kanto area became a land dominated by the Fujiwara Kita family and Seiwa Genji style, and on the contrary, it can be said that this relatively standardized and flattened the culture of the Kanto region.

At the end of the Edo period, South Kanto had more opportunities to come into direct contact with foreigners.Namamugi IncidentForeigner murder cases such as, have come to occur frequently.Meiji EraSince then, a trading port has been established in the South Kanto region, and a huge amount of wealth has been obtained, and policies that utilize this wealth have been adopted.

The Meiji governmentCentralizationSince the establishment of the system, rapid modernization and centralized economic policies have engulfed Tokyo, where the administration is located, and its vicinity in a whirlpool of rapid change.

When we say "South Kanto", in a narrow sense, "Tokyo and its vicinity", But in realityMinami BosoAnd like the Izu Peninsula, ""Tokyo and its vicinity』There is an area to the south of", so be careful.

Features

in this way,Tokyo BayNearKamakuraKamakura Shogunate,Edo(After the Meiji eraTokyo)Tokugawa Shogunate,Meiji governmentThe government was set up.One of the characteristics of the administration near Tokyo Bay isKinai(Kinki)WhenMutsu(Tohoku regionThe Pacific OceanLocated between (side) "East baseThe position as "is large.

There is also the fact that South Kanto was easy to become a political base.Hironobu SatoTomohiko OkanoAccording to the report, the medieval Kanto region is divided into Higashi Ueno, Shimotsuke, Hitachi, Shimosa, Kazusa, Awa (A region) and Ueno, Musashi, Sagami, Izu (B region) with the Tone River as the boundary. Was there. Area A is a region dominated by traditional Australians, which constitutes a vertical society of general rule, and was not obedient to the administration.On the other hand, area B is flatRebellionWas composed of and was obedient to the administration.Until Mr. Gohojo established the "Kanto Hachishu System", Region A and Region B were in a confrontational relationship, and the administration was confronting the large powers in Region A with the small and medium-sized nationals in Region B as the administration base. That[3].

During the period when the Kamakura Shogunate and the Tokugawa Shogunate laid down the rule of Bunji, the samurai corps and local kingdoms were inundated, if anything.DecentralizationThe color was strong, "Independent nation of the Kanto plain".

Historical geography

The area of ​​South Kanto has changed due to the place of administration, the development of highways, defensiveness, economic development, etc., and the terrain within the area has also changed.

An era without geographical cohesion

Ritual systemUnderGoki ShichidoIn the classification of, "HigashisendoUsui Seki (Usui Pass) From the eastern countryIsUeno countryAnd ShimotsukeHigashisendoBelongs to, "East country from Ashigara Seki (Hakone Pass) on the TokaidoSagami Province, Musashi Province, Awa Province, Kazusa Province, Shimousa Province, Hitachi ProvinceTokaidoBelonged to.

However, although Musashi Province is a coastal country, it was transferred to Tokaido.770å¹´After that, Musashi Province before that belonged to Tosan-do.this is,"Japanese calligraphy"ofEmperor AnkanIn the periodInternal conflict of Musashi KokuzoAfter that, he was a powerful family in Kozuke.KumanoIt is said that Musashi Province was still under the influence of Kozuke Province when the province of Japan was established.

At the timeKokufuLooking at the location, in Musashi ProvinceKofu basinからKanto PlainIt is the first flat land that appeared inMusashi FuchuIn Sagami, Awa, Kazusa, Shimousa, and Hitachi,Hakone-AshigaraImmediately after crossing the Kanto areaSagami Riverin front ofOdawara-Oiso-Hiratsukanear,Sagami BayProceed alongMiura PeninsulaCrossingUchiboGo southMiyoshi, Immediately after going north on the UchiboIchihara, Further north to the coastTaihi Riverin front of(I.e.,Katori seaOn the opposite bank acrossIshioka(Former name: Hitachi Fuchu), and in Kozuke and ShimotsukeUsui PassIt is the first flat land that crossed over to the Kanto Plain.Maebashi,Ashio MountainsAround the southern end ofKenogawain front ofTochigiIt was placed like that.In other wordsHigashisendoKozuke and Shimotsuke of the group, Musashi of the inland group,TokaidoThe group was divided into Sagami, Kazusa, Awa, Shimousa, and Hitachi.

The national government of Gokishichido was placed on a land with good defense and water use, which was convenient for the descending aristocrats and bureaucrats.Also, the governing system at that time wasYamato kingshipSince the structure was such that the people in power in Kyoto, who were close to the area, owned and governed the territories in various parts of Japan, the southern Kanto and Kanto regions also had no geographical unity as a whole and were divided and ruled.

Also, in the South Kanto region during the Ritsuryo eraexileInExile landTherefore, in spite of the fact that it was a remote place, there are cases where relatively high-ranking people were indigenous and had a great influence on the local culture and the subsequent governing system.

The era of defense in depth on the Tokaido

  • Kinai vs Minami Kanto

In response to this recognition of Kinai, the Kanto area(I.e.Has excellent military power as a production center ofSamuraiHas emerged, and the ground for the future independent administration has been created.Heian periodIn the second half, as a lower aristocratRegionIndigenous military aristocratsTairaとGenjiHowever, when he became a builder in various parts of Japan and began to fight for power,Hiruga KojimaWas exiled to (Izu Province)Yoritomo GengenSouth Kanto will be united militarily.South Kanto at that timeHojo,Chiba clan,Miura clanな どBando HeishiIt was the ground of the north KantoAshikaga,Mr. Koyama,Mr. Yuki,Mr. Hatta,Utsunomiya,laterMr. Nitta,Mr. SatakeWhen these forces could follow behind, they established a samurai government in the land of Kamakura, southern Kanto.

Imperial courtWhen the two governments, the Kamakura Shogunate and the Kamakura Shogunate, stand side by side, it is a natural barrier to the Tokaido.Yui --Mt. Fuji --Hakone Toge --- With the Izu Peninsula as the first line of defense, the Kamakura Shogunate (Home:Kamakura),Sengoku periodMr. Gohojo (Home:Odawara) Became the ground.TenshoIn the times,Tokugawa Ieyasu (I.e.,浜 松,Sunpu(After the Meiji eraShizuoka) Etc. as a baseTokai region) Reigns as the champion and is eventually located east of Hakone PassEdoMoved to1603年3/24ToTokugawa ShogunateWas established.

Both governments made Hakone Pass and Yui on the Tokaido a large shield against Kinai.Defense in depthSouth Kanto developed as one.

The era of the Five Routes centered on Edo

  • From a "straight" defense-in-depth city array to a "radial" city array

Tokugawa Shogunate TheGokaidoIn the Kanto region, a radial road network centered on Edo was developed.Between Minami Kanto and Kinai, by land, with TokaidoNakasendo(IncludingKoshu Highway) But by seaThe Pacific OceanThe route via the route has been improved.On the other hand, between Mutsu and Mutsu, by landNikko Kaido(Oshu Kaido) AndMito Highway(After the Meiji eraRikuzenhama Highway) However, the distribution route of Edo Bay-Tone River-Arakawa was established by sea.

Furthermore,Change of attendanceAs a distribution center for information, EdoDamingWhen we bring local wealth to the Edo clan's residence, Japanese wealth concentrates in Edo.Then, in Japan after the Ritsuryo era, it became the center of Japan beyond Kinai for the first time outside Kinai.Also, by the Tokugawa ShogunateInbaReclamationMusashino PlateauNitta development was also carried out, and it came to have the expansion of the "face" of "South Kanto" or "Kanto".

Throughout the Edo period, local low-ranking samurai who joined the platoon of attendance change lived in Edo and could not inherit the land.FarmerThe second son and belowAdoption,Apprentice serviceI came out to Edo.FurthermoreTohoku regionEtcfamineEvery time an event occurs, a large number of non-residents who have abandoned agriculture will flow into Edo.For this reason, most of the population of Edo, especially after 1800,Birthless classWas formed by.And like the Japanese aristocratic and samurai culture until thenwealthy class-Ruling classFrom the culture of the proletariat, the common people's culturePopular cultureHas blossomed in Edo and has been passed down to the present day.

The era of becoming the center of Japan

  • Base point of railway line, exchange window with foreign countries

Tokugawa Shogunate Meiji governmentWhen defeated by (Meiji Restoration),royal TheKyoto Imperial PalaceからEdo CastleMoved to.At this time, Edo was renamed Tokyo,ChiefとEmperorLed byMeiji governmentAs the base of thecapitalBecame.thus,TokyoIs outside KinaiCentralizationIt was the first city to be the location of a type government.Due to the centralized system, the Edo periodHeavenTokyo, where taxes have been collected from other sources, has begun to develop as if it monopolizes Japan's wealth, and its population has also increased rapidly.

In Japan before the Meiji era, it was a diplomatic window.Harbor(Nambatsu,Fukuhara,Hakata,Nagasaki) And the government location (Nara,Dazaifu,京都, Edo) is of foreign origin, in addition to geographical reasonsEpidemicIt was customary to stay away for reasons such as the spread of the economy and the prevention of linkage with foreign economies.However, in Japan, which became a modern nation after the Meiji era, the government's location, Tokyo, and the outer port that opened at the end of the Edo periodYokohamaBetweenTrainDiplomacy and domestic affairs became closer.Also, in terms of economy and culture, the inside and outside are getting closer, and Tokyo and Yokohama are in western Japan.KobeAlong with, it became a window for Western cultureCivilizationBrought in.

Events that brought about the population decline in Tokyo

1923年9/1Occurred inGreat Kanto EarthquakeAs a result, the structure of the city has changed significantly.After the earthquake, escaped from the disaster area of ​​Tokyo City and moved to the adjacent county.EmigrationAppearedSuburbanizationHas advanced.Also,ChukyoSome people move to other cities such as Kinai and Kinai.Osaka Japan's largest cityOn the other hand[4], The population of both Tokyo and Yokohama has decreased.

Second World WarInside,1945年3/10 OfTokyo air raidStarting with千葉,Tokyo,(I.e.,Yokohama,YokosukaCities such as are all fierceAir raidI was hit by.During World War IIRegionIn small cities and villagesEvacuationThe population of the urban area has decreased as the number of people who do so has appeared one after another.Even after the war, the population did not recover immediately due to food shortages.

Economy

Remarks

  • Local horse racing(Public horse racing)Oi Racecourse(TokyoShinagawa),Kawasaki Racecourse(Kawasaki City, Kanagawa PrefectureKawasaki ku),Funabashi Racecourse(ChibaFunabashi),Urawa Racecourse(Saitama, Saitama prefectureSouth ward) 4 racetracksSouth Kanto 4 Racecourse(Abbreviation is Nankan Horse Racing).
  • Bicycle race Ofラ イ ンThen, the line formed by the players in the areas of Chiba, Kanagawa and Shizuoka is called the "Minamikan Line", and Tokyo and Saitama are included in the "Kanto Line" along with Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki and Niigata.
  • City competition baseball tournamentIn the district division of, Saitama, Chiba, and Yamanashi form the South Kanto block. (However, this is also because Tokyo and Kanagawa have quotas for each prefecture.)[5]
  • Japan Post Co., Ltd.Has two prefectures, Kanagawa and Yamanashi, under the jurisdiction of the South Kanto Branch (Yokohama City).Of the general South Kanto, Tokyo is under the jurisdiction of the Tokyo branch, and Saitama and Chiba are under the jurisdiction of the Kanto branch (Saitama City) along with the three prefectures of Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma in the northern Kanto.
  • NHKMetropolitan area networkThen, from 18:30, "Specialized for the four prefectures of South Kanto"With you, Chikasato'[6]An information corner entitled "Information Corner" was established from the reorganization in the spring of 2020.[7].

footnote

  1. ^ For example,Cabinet Office
  2. ^ For example,Annual report on metropolitan area development (white paper on metropolitan area)
  3. ^ Tomohiko Okano "Why Ieyasu chose Edo" Educational publication 1999年 ISBN-978 4316357508
  4. ^ Osaka city1925å¹´In the neighborhoodTosei District-Nishinari-gunBecause of the annexation, not only the population but also the area surpassed that of Tokyo City at that time (Great Osaka era).
  5. ^ Since 2013, Kanagawa has composed Yamanashi and the West Kanto block.
  6. ^ ChiBa (Chiba, Voice actor in charge :) ・OrNagawa (Kanagawa, Voice actor in charge:Meme Tachibana)・さTama (Saitama, Voice actor in charge:Kaji Yuki)・とUkyo (Tokyo, Voice actor in charge:Yuuki Mizuki)
  7. ^ "Summary of February Broadcasting Director General Press Conference”. NHK Public Relations Bureau (created on February 2020, 2). P. 13. 2020/3/2Browse.

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