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🎣 | [2021 New Product] The new model of Ticto's rockfish rod "Ice Cube" is the long length model of that famous rod ...


[2021 New Product] The new model of Ticto's rockfish rod "Ice Cube" is the long length model of that famous rod ...

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It is a power finesse long rod that has the delicacy and power that can be used for all kinds of lures such as jig heads, plugs, and metal jigs, and can be used anywhere for wading rockfish on rocky shores, gorota, tetra belts, and surf.

From the popular light salt game brand "Ticto" to the company's rockfish rod "ICE CUBE" series ... → Continue reading

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Japanese toad

Japanese toad(Bufo japonicus) IsAmphibian ropeFrogToad familyToadFrogs classified as.


B. j. japonicus Japanese toad
Japan(Suzuka MountainsWest ofKinkiFrom the southSanyo region,Shikoku,Kyusyu,YakushimaNatural distribution)Endemic subspecies[2][3][4][5][6].
Tokyo,Sendai cityTransfer to etc.[5][6].
B. j. Formosus Azuma toad
Japan(Tohoku regionFrom the Kinki region,Shimane To the eastSan'in districtNatural distribution in the north) Endogenous subspecies[2][3][4].
izu-Oshima,Sado Island,Hokkaido(HakodateEtc.)[3][5][6].

In Tokyo, between the native toad Azuma toad and the introduced Japanese toadCrossIs progressing,Preservation of seeds,biodiversityConcerned from the perspective of[7]..On the other hand, the larvae of this species (tadpoles) in Tokyo show a significantly higher survival rate than the tadpoles in the surrounding prefectures, and there is also a view that crossing has increased fitness in the city and succeeded in maintaining the number of individuals. is there[8].


The body color is brown, tan, reddish brown, etc., and some individuals have white, black, or brown band patterns.[6]..Many individuals have red spots on the sides of their bodies, and some have spots on their backs.[6].

B. j. japonicus Japanese toad
Length7 - 17.6Centimeter (Cm) [3][4]..The eardrum is small, and the distance between the eye and the eardrum is about the same as the diameter of the eardrum.[2][3][4].
B. j. Formosus Azuma toad
6-18 cm in length[4]..The eardrum is large[4], The diameter of the eardrum is larger than the distance between the eye and the eardrum[2].

The subspecies Azuma toad larva (tadpole) is 3 cm long and has a black or dark brown body color.[6].

Forty-six GamaIt is called, but it has 4 fingers on the forelimbs and 5 fingers on the hindlimbs.It seems that males in the breeding season misunderstood it as the sixth finger because they have bumps (marital humps) on their hind limbs as anti-slip when hugging females.[Source required].


PreviouslyEuropean toadIt was considered to be a subspecies of, but it was divided and became an independent species.[3].hemoglobin OfElectrophoresisIn the analysis by the method, the analysis results of both variants areJapanese stream toadIt is presumed that the strain is different (not closely related) from the European toad, although it is similar to[9].

The mountainous populations of Hokkaido (introduced) and the Tohoku region are small with a body length of 6-9 cm, and the eardrum is large, so the Japanese common toad and the subspecies Japanese common toadB. j. montanusThere was also a theory that it was divided as[2][3][4], Because there is no difference other than body length, the subspecies of the Japanese common toadsynonymIt is assumed[6].

  • Bufo japonicus japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1838 Japanese toad, Satsuma toad
  • Bufo japonicus formosus Boulenger, 1883 Azuma toad

In Hokkaido1912å¹´7/2Hokkaido Government Hakodate High School for Girls (currentlyHokkaido Hakodate Nishi High School) Was first discovered[10].. afterwardsAsahikawa-MuroranHowever, breeding was confirmed, and various parts of Hokkaido (Sapporo-Ishikari city-Ebetsu-FukagawaEtc.) and there are examples of capture one after another[11]..As mentioned above, it was initially thought to be a subspecies endemic to Hokkaido, but from the genetic analysis results that it is the same as the population in the Kanto region, it is domestic.Exotic speciesHas become clear[12]..Hakodate City still treats it as a "rare Japanese common toad", and its recognition as an exotic species is low.[10]..Yamakagashi, the natural enemy of this species, does not inhabit Hokkaido, and there is concern that the spread of this species and predation will adversely affect insects.[12].


From lowlands to mountains森林And its surroundingsPrairieInhabit such asAgricultural land,parkWidely inhabits the gardens of private houses[3][4]..This species also shows strong resistance to the progress of urbanization, and has been confirmed to inhabit the central part of Tokyo and the bay area.

Nocturnalで[6], Rest under stones and fallen trees during the day[3].

Toads, including this species, are amphibians with extremely low water dependence.Adults live away from the body of water except during breeding, and especially in the summer, they are often seen wandering on the forest floor and gardens of thickets at night.Warts and wrinkles on the body surface are thought to maximize the surface area of ​​cutaneous respiration in the air.In addition, as will be described later, the size of the water area required for breeding is also relatively small.

The eating habit is animal food,昆虫,EarthwormEat etc.[3][4].Buphotoxin (buhotoxin)Because it is a poisonous species with poisonNatural enemyIs few[13],YamakagashiSeems to be resistant to the poison of this species and prefers to prey on this species[4]..It is known that the poison secreted from the neck of Yamakagashi stores and uses this kind of poison.[14]. Also,Okiberia Ogomushi OfLarvaIs a small frogTadpoleHas a habit of preying on[15], There is a record that this species also preyed[16].

The breeding form is oviparous.During the breeding season, regional variation is large, and populations distributed in the south and lowlands tend to be early (September in Yakushima), and populations distributed in the north and highlands tend to be late ().Tateyama,Mt. ChokaiThen July)[5]..Lays 1,500-14,000 eggs (6,000-14,000 subspecies, 1,500-8,000 subspecies toads) wrapped in long string-shaped egg masses in ponds, puddles, paddy fields, etc.[6]..A large number of individuals gather and breed in a certain water place in a very short period of several days to a week (cattail battle, frog battle)[5][6]..The southern population tends to have a longer breeding season, for example, in Yakushima, which is the southern limit of distribution, the earliest spawning cases in Japan in September and the discovery of larvae in November (estimated to spawn in October). There are cases of breeding in January-March and spawning in March-April.[5]..Breeding males try to hug moving objects, and males may strangle females during hugging.[6]..Larvae metamorphose in 1-3 months[6].

Contrary to its large appearance, the toad has a short larval period, and when transformed into a baby frog, it is only 5 to 8 mm in length.It is thought that this is because the evolution has progressed so that it can breed even in puddles that exist only for a short period of time in areas where water is scarce.

Relationship with human

Although it is hated because of its morphology and poisonous species, it often lives in the gardens of private houses, and can be said to be an animal that lives close to humans.

The oily sweat that was once secreted by this species of skinCattail oilIt is said that it was used as a medicine for trauma, but it was actually used as a medicine for trauma.Horse oil(Horse oil) and plantsGamaIt is said that he is, and in fact it is unknown.[17].. As of 2016, the products released by Tanemura Pharmaceutical, including their formulations,Second World WarIt was made later[18]..However, apart from "gama oil", the parotid gland secretions of toads have medicinal properties, and those kneaded with flourToadGood[19]Used for cardiotonic and anti-inflammatory[20].

As for the Japanese common toad, because the species brought in Hokkaido bred,2017å¹´Specified toExotic speciesSpecified in.FukagawaExtermination is proceeding mainly on[21]But,2018å¹´ToSapporoHowever, the habitat has been confirmed, and it has strong fertility and is secreted from the skin.alkaloidStrong poison of the system (Hokkaido endemic speciesEzo frogIs considered a desperate situation because it kills 100% if it eats a freshly hatched larva of the Japanese common toad.[22].



[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Bufo japonicus (Japanese Common Toad)”. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. As of May 2012, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/4/9Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e Tsuyoshi Ebinuma "Visual Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians Frogs 1 Frogs in Eurasia, Africa and Madagascar, Australia and the surrounding islands",Seibundo Shinkosha,2006å¹´, 23.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shoichi SengokuSupervised by Takuya Nagasaka, "Reptiles / Amphibians 800 Encyclopedia", Pieces,2002å¹´, 297.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j TR Haridi, edited by K. Adler, "Animal Encyclopedia 12 Amphibians and Reptiles", supervised by Fukada平凡 社,1986年, 69.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Frog Breeding-Reviewing Common Japanese Species-" "Ha Petology" Vol.3,Seibundo Shinkosha,2005å¹´, Pages 66-67.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Toshimitsu Matsuhashi, Futaro Okuyama "Yamaki Handy Encyclopedia 9 Japanese Frog + Sanshou",Mountains and valleys, 2002, 26-39, 108.
  7. ^ "Tokyo toad invaded by West Japan type". Tokyo University (September 2013, 5). 2019/2/21Browse.
  8. ^ "Tokyo toad improves survival rate with mixed race". Japan Science and Technology Agency (September 2013, 5). 2019/2/21Browse.
  9. ^ Masafumi Matsui, Takashi Sato "Analysis of Japanese Common Toad Hemoglobin by Electrophoresis" "Herpetology Journal" Vol.7 No.1,Japan Reptile Amphibian Society,1977å¹´, Pages 15-19.
  10. ^ a b Komasa Murakami and Izumi Washitani (supervised) Japan Ecological Society (ed.) "Invasive Species Handbook" Chijin Shokan, September 2002, 9.ISBN 4-8052-0706-X.
  11. ^ "Hokkaido Blue List-Details”. Hokkaido. As of December 2012, 12オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/4/9Browse.
  12. ^ a b Tatsuhiro Tokuda, "Hokkaido Reptile / Amphibian Handy Picture Book", The Hokkaido Shimbun Press, March 2011, 3.ISBN 978-4-89453-592-3.
  13. ^ "Fujimi City History Material 1 (Nature)" Fujimi City General Affairs Department City History Office,Fujimi,Japanese flag Japan-SaitamaFujimi City, March 1984, 3, p. 1.
  14. ^ Deborah A. Hutchinson et al., "Dietary sequestration of defensive steroids in nuchal glands of the Asian snake" Rhabdophis tigrinus", PNAS, Vol. 104, 2007, pp. 2265-2270
  15. ^ Masahiro Sakai (October 2014). “Chlaenius nigrum: Ehime Prefecture Red Data Book”(Japanese). Kagawa Prefecture Official Website. Ehime.As of August 2020, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/6/11Browse. --From "Ehime Prefecture Red Data Book" (published in October 2014)
  16. ^ Kôji Sasakawa "Notes on the preimaginal stages of the ground beetle Chlaenius (Epomis) nigricans Wiedemann, 1821 (Coleoptera: Carabidae)" "Biogeography" Vol. 19, Biogeographical Society of Japan, September 2017, 9, 20 -Page 167, two:10.11358 / biogeo.19.167, ISSN 1880-8085.
  17. ^ "[September 2010 issue] Oil trivia". Yomeishu productionCo., Ltd. 2016/9/4Browse.
  18. ^ "Tanemura Pharmaceutical «Exquisite Ibaraki”. General Incorporated Association Ibaraki Prefecture Tourism and Products Association. 2016/9/4Browse.
  19. ^ "Crude drug story Senso Part XNUMX". Seishin PharmaceuticalCo., Ltd. 2016/9/4Browse.
  20. ^ "Crude drug story Senso Part XNUMX". Seishin PharmaceuticalCo., Ltd. 2016/9/4Browse.
  21. ^ "About the extermination of the Japanese common toad”. Fukagawa City Homepage (August 2017, 8). 2018/5/6Browse.
  22. ^ "Serious impact on the ecosystem Why is there a large number of "poisonous frogs" in Sapporo?”. FNN.jp Prime Online (October 2019, 6). 2019/6/19Browse.

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