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Konomoto, who is a hot topic in the popular manga "Setoutsumi" which has been made into a live-action movie and drama, and "Black School Regulations" released in the movie / drama / Hulu, is the first to work on a TV animation work.
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School rulesWhat is (Kousoku)?Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularInsideRuleOf whichCurrent studentIt is a rule related to oneself.Child rules(Jidokisoku),Student rules(Sometimes),Student rulesIt is also called (Gakusei Ikisoku).校則を定めるかどうかはWhether to set school rulesSchool rulesUnlike the above, the format and effectiveness are different for each school, depending on the circumstances of each school.
It is said that the contents of the school rules can be broadly divided into rules regarding procedures and rules regarding the daily life of current students.
As a rule regarding the procedure,家庭Contact, attendance,Discipline(Admonition-Suspension-Drop outSuch),Drop out of school,Transfer,Transfer,Advancement-graduateThere are provisions about such things.In general, these provisions are based on the school rules (rules established by the school regarding education), and details such as specific procedures to be performed for current students and notification methods for current students are stipulated. There are many things.
As a rule regarding daily life,uniform,Standard clothing-Gym clothesHow to wear,Sports bootsincludingshoes,SocksDesignation, hair dyeing, perm, etc.HairstyleRelated tomake up,DecorationsRelated to wearingStudent bagThere are regulations regarding what to bring to school, behaviors inside and outside the school (attitudes during class, behaviors when going to and leaving school, behaviors during midnight and long vacations, etc.).Generally these provisionsStudent guidanceMany of them are closely related to (activities for human development of students) and are defined to achieve the purpose of education (completion of personality, etc.).しかし、多くがBut manyManagement educationIt is done as part of.The teachers of the Lifestyle Guidance Department mainly set the rules.
Both provisions are provided for the convenience of students, and it is desirable that the school rules be operated in consideration of the interests of students.However, the school rules are not strictly formalized, such as procedures for enactment, revision, and abolition, and a mixture of written (written) and non-written (customary) ones. Yes, in such cases, unclear points may be left during operation.In particular, there are some judicial disputes over the validity and pros and cons of the provisions regarding daily life, as they may become the norms for disciplinary action against current students.
In addition, while school rules are rules that current students are directly involved in in school life and are said to be effective for current students to understand social norms such as legal norms, their knowledge of legal norms is not always sufficient. Therefore, it is said that schools need to operate school rules so that they do not unreasonably violate the rights of current students and distrust social norms.
School rules in Japan
Second World WarPreviously, it is said that the authority of the school was to establish rules regarding administrative procedures and educational guidance as a link between current students and the school.At that time, it was also considered mandatory to have an education,GuardianHas a lot of educational mattersTeacherIt is said that the discretion of the school was relatively large because there was a strong tendency to leave it to the school.
After World War IIThe Constitution of Japan,Basic Education LawWas enacted, the recognition that it was a right to receive education increased, and parents began to actively participate in education.At that time, the school was considered to be the maker and responsible person of the school rules, but when deciding the school rules, there was a growing tendency to respect the opinions of parents and take into account the actual conditions of each region. ..Also, at that time, home education and community education were still fully functioning, so there were few things that were enacted in detail in daily life outside the school, except for some private schools with a strong religion. It was.
In the 1980s,School violenceIt is said that the regulations regarding the daily life of current students (including those outside the school, which is originally a home or community area) have become bloated for the purpose of expanding student guidance because problems such as these have occurred frequently in the school.このような傾向はThis tendencyManagement educationIt is said that although it was effective in maintaining the order of the school, there was also a problem in fostering the independence of current students, and in the 1990s, the content and operation of school rules that were not limited to strictness were required. It became so.
From 1994Convention on the Rights of the ChildHas come into effect in Japan as well, so attempts to incorporate the opinions of students regarding the content of school rules have become more active than before. In the 2000sCommunity schoolThe school's ideal way is that parents and local communities also participate in the management of the school, and the idea that school rules should be set with due consideration of opinions outside the school is spreading.
On March 2018, 3, at the Educational Science Committee,Yoshimasa HayashiThe Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology commented on the strict school rules, saying, "Giving strict guidance without fully considering the characteristics and stages of development of children will lead to a decline in their self-esteem and will mentally hunt down them. However, the strict school rules such as detailed hair regulations, eyebrow shaving prohibition, and underwear color designation have not been revised yet.
There is often suspicion of violating human rights, such as compulsory buzz cuts and prohibition of dating, regarding school rules, especially those that step into moral or private areas such as private life and lifestyle, commonly referred to as "student knowledge". It is in a situation of being contested in a trial.Under these circumstances, the legal basis for the validity of the school rules was questioned.
The rationale for the side claiming the legal basis of the school rules is as follows.
- Special power relation theory
- As a rule for using the building of a school, it is assumed that a special power relationship, which is a comprehensive control relationship under public law, has been established, and that the rule can be freely established within a reasonable limit.However, in public law, the argument that there is a special power relationship has receded, and it is hardly claimed anymore.
- Even if you insist on the theory of special power relationsCompulsory educationOnly national and public schools except.
- Mainly regarding higher education and private schools, regarding the existence of school rules and the right to establish schools, it is considered that a contract was concluded based on free will at the time of admission (even if there is no explicit provision).[Who?]The theory.これについては、人権にかかわる問題については契約も及ばないという点が指摘されるRegarding this, it is pointed out that contracts do not extend to human rights issues.[Who?].
- Partial social theory
- The most openly asserted theory at present is that schools are an autonomous sub-society, and that internal discipline there should not be interfered with by the outside world unless law and human rights are violated.また、憲法上の諸権利を根拠としたAlso, based on constitutional rightsinterferenceAs for, these rights mainly regulate the relationship between public authority and individuals, and are not used for relationships between private individuals.
Contents of school rules
School rules have relatively common procedural provisions regardless of school type.
Specifically, you can use the "contact book" to contact your home.Student handbookUses such as, methods for notifying absenteeism, actions required of current students when disciplinary action (admonition, suspension, dropout, etc.) is taken, late high school, etc.Secondary educationIn the courses at the above stages, there are also provisions for leave of absence, transfer, transfer, voluntary withdrawal, etc.
Many of these are rules that embody the details, and it is possible to create and set individual rules for each.However, since there are provisions related to important matters such as the rights and obligations of current students, they are often incorporated into school regulations that are referred to by current students relatively frequently.
School rules are often not published to the outside world, so it is often the first time that you know the detailed school rules after you enter the school.
Example of school rules
- CorridorDo not run. (Many in elementary schools)
- Running in the corridor is usually a dangerous act..There is also a risk of encountering and colliding with the head at a corner.
- Mobile phone(PHS(Including) treatment. (Many in high schools)
- The handling of mobile phones varies from school to school.
- There are some places that do not allow you to bring it in, but many students hide it.In addition, there are cases where mobile phones are used secretly during class.However, at present, most of the students are brought in at high schools and above, and many schools, both public and private, allow this.In such a case, there are conditions such as "Turn off the power while you are at school." "You can use it during breaks and after school, but be sure to turn it off during class and exams." , Divided into two parts unless otherwise specified.
- In recent years, crimes targeting minors have frequently occurred (I feel), so we are forced to bring mobile phones to elementary and junior high schools, mainly national and private schools, which are forced to go to school for long distances. Some schools have lifted the ban..In that case, many schools take measures such as turning off the power when going to school, keeping it at the school, and returning it when leaving school.
- In addition, in deaf schools, students themselves use mobile phones to contact their parents.電子 メ ー ルMay be required (because of deafness, you cannot make calls and have to rely on text communication), and in some cases you are actively encouraging possession of a mobile phone.
- In this era when the ban on mobile phones is being lifted, some schools prohibit bringing in mobile phones and smartphones, and even owning them.
- Also, using the recording and recording functions, the teacher's inappropriate remarks,corporal punishmentEtc.Secret recordingThere is also an opinion that a mobile phone is necessary in the sense of recording in. (On the contrary, there is an opinion on the school side that it should be prohibited to bring in "to prevent the teacher from recording inappropriate remarks and actions").actuallySouth KoreaSo, there is a case where the scene of bullying between students, the cheating of teachers, and the scene of corporal punishment were secretly recorded, and the accusation was successful as evidence that this did not work.On the other hand, the same record was ignored as "because it was brought in against the school rules and it was a mobile phone", the teacher's misconduct was "no evidence", and the student was expelled from school because of bringing in a mobile phone (this). In high school, in fact, bringing in mobile phones was usually tolerated, even though many students used it normally in front of teachers).
- Hair inspection
- For the purpose of maintaining school order,hair-clothingas well as the make upA test to check for the presence of.If the inspection violates the school rules, a change is requested. In March 2019, teachers of student guidance became students at a prefectural high school in Chiba prefecturegarbage bagThe Chiba Prefectural Bar Association has issued a warning letter to the Chiba Prefectural Board of Education and schools, saying that it is an act equivalent to corporal punishment for the act of spraying black dyeing spray on it..
KindergartenIn many cases, children are taught how to wear uniforms and how to interact with neighboring residents, but these are carried out as part of daily childcare and educational activities for infants. It is not clear whether it is a "rule for young children".Norms that are required to be adhered to are often addressed by appealing to parents and tend to be more like an agreement between school and home than school rules.
primary schoolThen, there are regulations such as prohibition of buying and eating while attending school and leaving school.このほかにBesides thisSchool districtHowever, in schools that cover a wide area, special provisions for children may be set up based on agreements with the local community regarding actions to be taken when problems occur while attending or leaving school.In addition, there are few terms of "school rules" in elementary school, and "教えIs often said.
Junior high school
Junior high schoolSo in most schoolsuniformIs specified and worn under the uniformunderwearColorwhiteColor orSkin color(Stipulated inBunkyo ku10 out of 6 junior high schools) There is also a school.生徒に自我が芽生え始めるため、特に頭髪について着色やColoring, especially for the hair, as the ego begins to sprout in the studentsHairdressing chargesProhibition of use,PermThere are provisions that prohibitNatural permIn some schools, students had to carry a natural perm certificate.Nowadays, there are an increasing number of cases in which the school and each guardian discuss individually and decide from time to time, without setting specific rules.なお、熊本県などの一部の中学校では、（男子）生徒の頭髪をIn some junior high schools such as Kumamoto prefecture, (boys) students have their hairSchool rules to unify to buzz cutHowever, it remained until very recently (latest, around 2006), and it became a problem, and abolition movements were taking place.Japan Federation of Bar AssociationsBut the compulsion of a buzz cut isThe Constitution of JapanConcluded that it was unconstitutional.
high schoolThen, while students' ability to act and actions that are possible in terms of age are wider than in junior high school, it is probably because they do not place as much emphasis on student independence as in university.Driver's licenseTo get thebikeThe issue is "regulation of legally possible acts" such as whether or not to go to school.Full-time courseThen, while in schoolDriver's licenseMany schools banned the acquisition of motorcycles and employment to raise the cost of purchasing a motorcycle / car / driver's license (scootersIn some cases only permission).このため、秘密のBecause of this, the secretPart-time jobIn some cases, driving a motorcycle was discovered and became a problem.
However, since 1982, the ban on obtaining a driver's license while attending school has been promoted nationwide.National High School PTA AssociationBut "Three movementsSince the "National Resolution" was downgraded to a non-binding "declaration" at the 1997 national convention, the school rules governing the acquisition and driving of automobile and motorcycle licenses have been declining, but the driver's license is still declining. There are still many high schools that prohibit acquisition.
Besides, at girls' schools etc.妊娠Then, there may be customary norms such as withdrawal, but regarding this norm, it is possible for girls to marry in Japan from the age of 16 andMission systemThere are school rules that prohibit dating between men and women, and even conversations may be prohibited, which can be a human rights issue.
In full-time courses, there are often many rules regarding daily life, such as rules for clothes and hair, as in junior high school.But,Part-time course,Communication system courseHowever, there are few restrictions on employment, hair dyeing, etc., and there are many places where there are no uniforms or standard clothing.
Old junior high school-High schoolIn schools with a long history, such as the predecessor ofBunkaraIs a remnant of those days whenTrumpet trousersWear and下 駄Wearing school (going to school)Cheer teamThere are still meaningless provisions in modern society, such as a clear ban (which is not totally banned because of this) (it seems to be because the sound is noisy), and school rules are not frequently revised, causing modern problems. In some cases, it is rarely specified.
If the school side dismisses the school, it is often the case that the image of the school is lowered, voluntary withdrawal or transfer is recommended, or the school is suspended indefinitely and the school is repeated or dropped out due to lack of attendance days. It's just the tip of the iceberg.There is a logically strange school rule that "in the case of XX, you must voluntarily drop out".
University,Junior collegeThen, whether or not to go to school by car may be an issue.Also,University conflict / university struggleSchools that have a history of confusion may have provisions such as a notification system for student political movements (posting signs and sowing villas).Since the inside of the university is divided into an administrative organization and an education and research organization, each may set school rules for students independently.
Special schoolIn, it is divided into kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, and high school, and each of them provides education according to kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, and high school.School rules are often made according to the educational stage for each department, but probably because of the small number of people, the detailed rules are a little small, and the uniform teaching about school rules is also small. Will beIt does not mean that student guidance is not provided, but if it violates the norms, individual measures will be taken.
School rules style
Of the textbookStylisticSimilar to the above, the style of school rules is often written in honorific style, which often uses "... let's" in kindergartens and elementary schools (however,1980 eraUntil then, there were many elementary schools that used regular bodies), and in junior high schools and above, the overwhelming majority of notations in regular bodies such as "..., ... to do, ... must" are the same as in the law. ..
Back school rules
There may be what is called a "back school rule" based on customary rules between students, such as the relationship between seniors and juniors, rather than the rules decided by the school.The so-called "Henritun Rule".服装などを理由にBecause of clothes etc.BullyingThere are cases where it develops into.
Overkill school rules
There are school rules that are clearly overkill, especially from the postwar period to the early 1990s.Psychology-GutsIn Japan, where management education based on the above was the mainstream, many schools adopted this.Stepping into the privacy of students, restricting expressions (even if the school's inconvenience is a fact, it violates school rules), and excessively interferes with life outside the school (always wear uniforms even when going out privately) (Mandatory), and the disposition for violation of school rules is very heavy / unreasonable (at the beginning of the school rules, "If you violate the following school rules, you will be expelled from school regardless of the content and degree". There are various types of overkill school rules, including exemption from school / suspension with donations).
In some cases, overdoing school rules simply neglected to revise due to changes in the background of the times, but dare to set unnecessary rules / heavy penalties, which are not normally applied, and the school wants to exclude specific students for some reason. There are also arbitrary ones that apply only occasionally.These school rules are taken up in TV programs and books as "overdoing school rules".Attach a name tag (elementary school) Cut your nails Do not step on the sole (junior high school)
Black school rules
Black school rules are similar to "overdoing school rules" and refer to unreasonable school rules that are unreasonable or have no reason to follow (Management Education # What may be considered management educationSee also).
It has been pointed out that the school rules that uniformly restrict and regulate hair and underwear are problematic from the perspective of human rights and diversity, and criticism is spreading.
It has been regarded as a problem for a long time and was mentioned in the media, but in 2017,Osaka Prefectural Kaifukan High SchoolA girl student who goes toBrown hairDespite beingProceedings over the teacher's compulsion to dye blackSince then, it has been attracting public attention in earnest.
At the end of 2017, the "Let's get rid of the Black School Regulations!" Project was launched.発起人はThe founder isLGBTActivistHiroko Masuhara, NPO "Stop!Deputy representative of "Bullying Navi", NPO corporation "Kids door』ChairmanYumiko Watanabe3 people.The main activities areSignature activityThe result ofMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologySubmitted to, a fact-finding survey of "Black School Rules", and proposals for school rules and rules suitable for children..Change.org As of January 2018, 1, there are 25 supporters of the signatures solicited at.TwitterThen, in "#Black School Regulations"hashtagThere is also a phenomenon of sharing the unreasonable school rules that I experienced.
Due to this growing social interest, the "Black School Regulations" have been taken up in the Diet. 2018年3月には、日本共産党の吉良よし子議員が参院文教科学委員会In March XNUMX, Japanese Communist Party Representative Yoshiko Kira joined the House of Councilors Education and Science Committee.So, he accused the actual situation of "Black School Regulations" that hurt the mind and body of the students.Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (at that time) also expressed concern that "it could lead to a decline in self-esteem and mentally hunt down children and students."
Tokyo Shimbun investigates "Black School Regulations" in October 2019There is a growing social interest in the "Black School Regulations".
Examples of black school rules include the following in addition to the black hair extortion mentioned above..
- BangseyebrowUp to the bottom line (above the eyebrows), no eyebrows, submit a hair certificate
- When I get home文 房 具With the storelibraryNo drop-in except
- Arcade,Movie theaterNo entry or exit
- Days OffWhat to wear when you go outuniformonly,Private serverNo going out in
- underwearColor specification and its check, etc.sexual harassmentaction,ポ ニ ー テ ー ル禁止
- Drinking watermoistureProhibition of replenishment
There are also movements to abolish unreasonable school rules such as the Black School Rules, but there are also cases where the opinions of parents are respected rather than the complaints of the students.
Gifu Prefectural Hida High SchoolThen.tightsBecause only beige was allowed and black could not be wornstudent councilHowever, the principal dismissed the complaint because of "subjectivity" and "tradition."しかし保護者や卒業生との会議の場で生徒が訴えた際に賛同を得られると、態度を一変し黒いタイツを認めることになったHowever, when the students got approval when they complained at a meeting with parents and graduates, they changed their attitude and accepted black tights..
On the other handOld junior high schoolTraditional school that forms the flow ofNumber School (Miyagi Prefecture)Etc.), the school spirit is relatively free and the student organization activities are active, so there are cases where uniforms were abolished at the initiative of the students.
"School rules" are generally not published to the outside,At school, students will obey school rules, so we need a way to know the school rules before they decide to enroll.In many cases, "confidentiality of school rules" is a hotbed of unfair problems for students in the school, such as teachers' retaliatory evaluation and disciplinary action against teachers who refuse guidance..
According to a questionnaire to the Board of Education, more than XNUMX% of the surveyed members, the XNUMX Board of Education, answered that it is desirable to disclose the school rules to the outside.The education administration department's understanding of the disclosure of "school rules" is also increasing.
Even in Gifu prefecture, Osaka prefecture, and Tokyo, Setagaya Ward (junior high school) has decided to publish "school rules". , In June 2020, in NagoyaTakashi KawamuraThe mayor has indicated a policy to publish the school rules of all Nagoya municipal junior high schools on the homepage so that parents and the community can discuss...In addition, volunteers' "school rules" public activities (national school rules Wiki)Is also underway.
Federal Republic of Germany (formerlyWest Germany) School rules
For more information on West German school rules, see Die Bildung in der. Bundesrepublik Deutschland Education in Germany ”(Amano Shoji-Tadashi Yuki-Beppu ShoroEdited,Toshindo, "Part II School Education Organizations, Contents, and Methods", "Chapter 1998 Primary Education and Children's School Life", "7 Children's School Life" (written by Tadashi Yuki)Hesse OfComprehensive school(Gesamtschule) Is devoted to the spot and introduced as follows.
④ School rules, hairstyle, clothes
German schools also have school rules.However, it is very different from the school rules of our country, and it is only a minimum convention in school (life).So, for example, it only stipulates start / end times, break times, and rules in the schoolyard.Matters that touch the legal status and authority of children / students are not stipulated by school rules due to the principle of the rule of law in education.
As a general rule, there is no control over hairstyles or clothing.Hairstyles and clothing belong to each individual's personal freedoms and preferences, and therefore, in the first place, the students themselves and their parents have the rights and responsibilities, which hinders school management and classes. The idea that schools cannot intervene in principle except in certain cases, such as in some cases, is legally established.
School rules in New Zealand
In New Zealand, a Catholic junior and senior high school, St. John's College, states that the length of hair is "not on the back, not on the front," and one student refused to cut the hair, so he was suspended from school. The proceedings led to a proceeding, and on June 2014, 6, the court ruled that heavy disciplinary action should be applied to truly serious issues and allow the boy to keep his hair long..
- ^ Tamura Municipal Kodo Elementary School "School rulesMarch 2011, 4 (Retrieved January 8, 2011.)
- ^ Wajima City Oya Elementary School "23 startsMarch 2011, 4 (Retrieved January 26, 2011.)
- ^ Kyotango City Kurobe Elementary School "Rules of Kurobe Elementary School"(Retrieved June 2011, 7.)
- ^ Kawachinagano City Amano Elementary School"Amano Elementary School Promise"(Retrieved June 2011, 7.)
- ^ Setouchi City Ushimado Junior High School "Ushimado Junior High School Rules"April 22, 4 (viewed July 30, 2011)
- ^ Daito City Sumido Minami Elementary School"Suminan Small News No. 4"April 23, 5 (viewed July 17, 2011)
- ^ Black-dyed spray on garbage bag covered hair Bar association warning to Chiba Prefectural High School Kyodo News, viewed November 2020, 11.
- ^ Controversy over the school rules of Bunkyo Ward Junior High School "wearing plain white underwear" - R25(201610/25）
- ^ AERA1998From the June 6 issue of the special feature "School Back School Rules"
- ^ ""Let's get rid of black school rules!" Project". 2018/1/26Browse.
- ^ ""Black School Regulations" is a violation of human rights / There is a notification from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the background of unreasonable guidance / Mr. Kira at the House of Councilors "Withdraw"”(Japanese). www.jcp.or.jp. 2019/12/9Browse.
- ^ ""Black School Regulations" This Paper Survey Eastern Prefectural XNUMX High Schools "Notification System"”(Japanese). Tokyo Shimbun TOKYO Web. 2019/12/9Browse.
- ^ ""Let's get rid of black school rules!" Project". 2018/1/26Browse.
- ^ News Up Why black tights are not good Fight against school rules - NHK
- ^ a b "All prefectural high schools publish school rules on school website Gifu Prefectural Board of Education policy”(Japanese). 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ "Shouldn't Japanese schools also publish the full text of the school rules?”(Japanese). A site for those who love freedom and technology. 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ "Osaka Kohoken News No. XNUMX (January XNUMX) (Request for provision of materials such as school regulations at Osaka Prefectural High School (report)”(Japanese). 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ a b "(Educational differences) School rules disclosed, "desirable" XNUMX% public junior high and high school, XNUMX Board of Education survey”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ "[Updated 2020/1/22] School rules are now available on the web at public high schools in Gifu prefecture.”(Japanese). note Maki Sato. 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ "About the results of a school-wide survey of school rules at Tokyo Metropolitan High School”(Japanese). Japanese Communist Party Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly. 2020/4/1Browse.
- ^ "Tokai TV NEWS”(Japanese). www.tokai-tv.com. Tokai TV (September 2020, 6). 2020/6/26Browse.
- ^ "National School Regulations Wiki”(Japanese). National School Regulations Wiki. National School Regulations Wiki Production Committee. 2020/6/26Browse.
- ^ "High school student suspended due to long hair wins trial NZ". AFP (September 2014, 6). 2017/4/9Browse.
- Student guidance - Management education - corporal punishment - School violence - Kobe Takatsuka High School School gate pressure death case
- uniform - Name tag
- Children's association - student council
- Toyama University Incident
- Maya Koizumi(Talent activity will be expelled as a violation of school rules)
- Three movements
- Academic harassment
- Human rights violations against children-school rules-
- About "School Regulations" Hiroshima Prefectural Education Center PDF
- Meeting to eliminate the buzz cut school rules of junior high school - Wayback machine(For archived March 2018, 11)
- School rules proceedings and human rights of children in Japan
- National school rules wiki
- "Let's get rid of black school rules!" Project