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👩‍🎤 | Why a female voice actor makes a boy's voice A university professor approaches the "mystery" of Japanese animation


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Why a female voice actor makes a boy's voice A university professor approaches the "mystery" of Japanese animation

 
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He is the author of "Secret Education: <Yaoi Boys Love> Prehistory" (Rakuhoku Publishing), co-authored "BL Textbook" (Yuhikaku), "<Post 3.11> Media Discourse Reconsideration" (Hosei University Press), "Introduction to Anime Research [Application] -11 Tips for Studying Anime" (Gendai Shokan), "Introduction to Contemporary Hollywood Movie Lectures" (Jimbun Shoin), etc.
 

There are many cultural theories about Japanese manga and anime, but it seems that there are still few that include voice actors. End of December 2020 ... → Continue reading

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Introduction to Anime Research

Boys love

Boys love(Japanglish: Boys' love) orBL(BL) is in JapanMale(juvenile)Homosexuality(ゲ イ) Was the subjectNovel,ComicSuch asGenreThat1990 eraIt is a term that came to be used from the middle to the second half.

Overview

Originally"Dangmei"JUNE FABRICIt seems that it was a paraphrase of[1]. LaterBLIt came to be abbreviated as (BL). Most writers and editors are women, and the majority of readers are also women[2]so,ゲ イIt is largely distinguished from the works for men.それほど確固とした概念ではなく、ボーイズラブとそれ以外のジャンルを明確に分けることは困難であるIt's not a very solid concept, and it's difficult to clearly separate boys love from other genres.[3].

"YaoiIs sometimes confused with, but it is also confused. Currently,Secondary creationDoujinshiAnd works on the web are sometimes called BL, but BL is basically a word closer to commercial publishing.[4].. During the 2000 years of the early 10s, the generic name of the Yaoi / BL genre has changed from Yaoi to BL.[5].. There are works from different media such as manga, novels, drama CDs, anime, and games, and they have developed by interacting with each other.[6].

2014'sArt notebookIn the special feature of "BL, where you find the charm is ten people and ten colors, but it can be said that the expression of" relationship "is worth mentioning." "Sometimes heals the minds of the painter / reader, and sometimes Excited gender,SexualityIt shakes the stereotypes about, and gives an opportunity to think about love and the manifestation of desires. Is introduced[7].

The size of the BL-related Japanese market is said to be 215 billion yen (2012) for the otaku market and 350 billion yen (2013) for other markets.[4].. There are about 100 labels including novels and comics.[4].. Behind the huge commercial BL genre, it's bigger than thatFan・ The world of secondary creation exists[4].. The influence from the coterie world on commercial BL is quite large[6].. While the market is growing, there are also movements to regulate BL from around 2010 (around XNUMX).Later).

Internationally known as Japan's leading popular culture, for fans all over the worldConvention, Translation of Japanese works, and publication of works by foreign artists influenced by it[8].. While globalizing like this[Annotation 1]Localization is progressing in various places[8].

Once recognized as a core genre[9]However, in recent years, "Uncle love』(2018年), "What did you eat yesterday?』(2019年)(bothTV drama, "What Did You Eat Yesterday?" Has a manga original) and became a major hit.[9].. As of 2020, it is widely popular in terrestrial television, live-action movies, and animated works.Is "Weekly postIs the same as "What Did You Eat Yesterday?"Fumi YoshinagaThe original TV drama "Antique-Western antique Western confectionery store-』(2001年) As an example, he pointed out that "in the drama version (at that time), the setting of the character gay was almost gone", and (compared to that time) "it was a good time".[9].

Etymology

December 1991, 12 "Image" (Byakuyashobo) Was launched, and the catch phrase was titled "BOY'S LOVE COMIC". [1].. BLlogia's Gourd Kusuko states that this is considered to be the first appearance of the word "boy's love." The inventor is Tatsuko Araki (Rita Shiraki / Ritsu Shimotsuki), the representative of the editorial production "Standap".[Annotation 2]To be [1], Araki says the same thing[10][11].. ) CartoonistMika KawachiAlso, in his blog, he mentions that "Boys Love" was named by Ritsuko Araki (Tatsuko Araki).[1].

In magazines etc.Rotten girlWrite an article on the subjectEssayist OfYumiko SugiuraIs called "for girls love"Girl cartoon Ofcatch copySawByblos[Annotation 3]Said that the birth of the word Boys Love was what the editor of “I thought was Boys Love”[12].. But this is not the case. This theory is from January 2001, 1channel 2801 board “■ Basic knowledge of Yaoi terms” It seems that it is based on the information of 94th thread, and since it was posted as a fact in this article for a long time, it spread to some extent and affected recognition on the net[1].

At first, unlike the current meaning, "atami" or "JUNE FABRICIt seems to have been recognized as a replacement word of "[1].. (About Atami →Atsumi and Boys Love)

Overview

1990 eraBorn at the beginning[1], A word that became widely used in the second half[13].. It refers to works that deal with love and special bonds between men, but boys love is not such a clear concept, and it is difficult to clearly distinguish it from other genres. In 2008Sakai City LibraryFrom this, there was a case in which about 5500 "BL" books were removed/removed from the open shelves by "citizen's voice" (actually, an anonymous citizen and the members of the parliament who received the intention) without detailed verification. However, sociologist Keiko Atsuta, who analyzed the list of excluded books, points out that the criteria for these books to be BL were not clear and inconsistent. (Details of the incident →Sakai City Library "BL" book exclusion caseAtsuta states that BL is an "arbitrary grouping" and an "undefined genre concept."[3]

Boys' love in recent years has a lot of happy ending romance, but it ranges from serious to gag, and it's a wide range such as historical, fantasy, science fiction, mystery.[4]..は、「マンガと小説が両立して存在する点でも、珍しい」と述べている"It's also unusual for manga and novels to coexist," he said.[4].

Originally, works that deal with homosexuality between boys and men are for women who treat homosexuality of "attractiveness" or aesthetic and immoral and serious boys and adolescents.magazine"JUNE FABRIC"ofNameFrom "JUNE"[Annotation 4]Was called. "JUNE" introduces not only novels, manga, and illustrations, but also movies, music, and other "attractive" aspects of culture, both domestically and overseas, as well as the past.・Translator'sEiko KakinumaHas published a series of Western books) and published various works to expand the culture of "JUNE" and establish a genre called "Atsumi", which depicts the relationship between beautiful men.[14].. In the early days when there was an increase in love among girls for men, bookstores were named "Atami".[15].. JUNE-like works, works depicting boys' love relationships / sexual relationships,Boy loveSometimes called a thing.

Several magazines such as "Byblos" and "Pafu" entered this genre, and men's homosexual ones for women were called "Boys Love" and became popular. Boys Love refers to commercial original workswordWas (amateurThe original by was called "Original JUNE" or "Ori JUNE"), and with the spread of the name, it has come to be used regardless of whether it is a professional amateur or an original/secondary creation. In recent years, works dealing with men's homosexuality for women, JUNE (which refers to works that were published in JUNE and works of a similar style) is often called Boys Love.

Many of the works called Boys Love are brighter and lighter than JUNE. Most boys love lovers are women, but some are men.Fumi YoshinagaStates that BL is not an admiration for immorality like JUNE, but an attempt to portray equal conflicts between men, not a conflict as a gay person.[16].. Toshihiko Sagawa, the editor,<Receive> and <Offensive>The idea was created after JUNE, and it seems that Atsumi became BL due to the great inventions of <acceptance> and <offensiveness>.24 yearsShoujo manga artists, who are called, said that they didn't intentionally divide the characters that way.[14].

It is said that Shonen Ai, JUNE, and Atami developed into BL via Yaoi.[17].. The synonym of BL, "yaoi," is also a collective term for JUNE, parody, yaoi (secondary creation, yaoi, homoparo), and BL. Since the word Boys Love was originally born and popularized in commercial publishing, it is also used to refer to commercial original works, as in JUNE. In some cases, the original work is called Boys Love, and the secondary creation (parody Yaoi) is called Yaoi. Parody and Oito JUNE were almost different genres except that they deal with romance between men, but some boys love writers were influenced by both.

Shotacon[Annotation 5]Is love for boys regardless of genderhobbyWhile referring to itself,Yaoi・JUNE is different in usage because it refers to a genre of creation that focuses on the relationship between men (boys) having the same sex (often accompanied by sexual relationships). Shota is an abbreviation for Shotacon, which also refers to a boy character that Shotacon likes. The work in which such characters appear is called Shota.Boy loveIs used to mean love, taste, or genre for boys.

Originally, the word "yaoi" was "GeekSimilarly, it was one of the "pathological" phenomena for society. "Yaoi" "Woman Otaku" and "BL" "Rotten girlThere is a big image gap in the new word, and it helped to make the work and its lovers about male homosexuality a "new existence".[17].. In recent years, "Boys Love (BL)" has been increasingly used as a generic term for the Yaoi/BL genre, and "Yaoi" has gradually become obsolete as a term for all female works dealing with male homosexuality.[5].

Some Boys Love manga artists are not only BL professional writers,Youth cartoonWriters who are active inGirl cartoonistAs a writer,Boy cartoonThere are a wide variety of artists, including those who entered from. There are also a few authors who also work on gay comics (manga works for gay people). Also in novelsLight novelThere are also writers who work on literary works for the masses. Some writers have changed their pen name when working in other genres.

BL also has an influence from men. Nishimura Mari said, "BLCD reflects the interpretation of the works of male voice actors (appearing), and as a result, it is a feedback to the BL world."[18]

Around 2012, the number of writers who are active in both BL and general magazines, and works reprinted from the general public label/bunko after appearing on the BL label increased, and BL-like elements developed in various genres such as animation and stage. Is being carried out, penetration and diffusion are occurring[19].

Yuki Senda is not a monolith even for BL lovers, but there is also a type that likes the love of the boys who fight, and likes Yai of the genealogy of Aniparo, and boys who love boys but are also interested in the hot friendship of boys who fight If there is no,HetaliaAs seen in the anthropomorphization of countries, such as those who entertain BL and enjoy carefreely, there are several groups, at least two, depending on how they read BL and prefer such aspects. Pointed out that there seems to be more groups[17].. Fumi Yoshinaga says that BL is sometimes ridiculed as "comfort of a woman who doesn't have it," but in fact, there is such a side (of course, that's not the whole thing), and "I feel uncomfortable with the way men and women are today. It's something that some people read.” However, because the oppression and uncomfortableness that the readers have received are different, it is difficult to put them all together.[20].feminismIt is often argued in connection with, but many people dislike it.[20].

In the English-speaking worldJapaneseBy introducingBoys Love","Shōnen-ai","YaoiThe term "" is used. Boys Love, Shōnen-ai, and Yaoi are not often distinguished, because boys' love is sometimes translated into Boys Love. In English, the word Boys Love is shunned because it is reminiscent of pedophile and is often called YAOI.[4].. In Europe and America, the light taste works areBoy love", works with sexuality are called "Yaoi"[8].. There are many translations of BL comics, and they were said to have accounted for nearly half of the comic sales rankings of "amazon" in the United States.[4].. Apart from these BLs, we focused on the relationships between men that were originally in the English-speaking world (often including sexual relationships).Fan fiction(Secondary creation) Is "Slash fiction (Slash fiction". The story of male homosexuality by female writers is old, but the slash in the English-speaking world is "ス タ ー ト レ ッ ク, And the SF that was broadcast on the BBC in the late 70's () (Blake's 7) Was triggered by the 1970sSF fandomBecame widely recognized in[21].. Overseas, boys love is still a niche genre compared to Japan, and the market is not as big as Japan (the largest overseas market is France).[22].. In East Asia, light novels such as Japan areLight novel", and there are many products that sell well beyond Haruki Murakami.[23].. BL is also popular and women like to read[23].. Manga artists' covers and illustrations are often used for covers and illustrations, and there are so many fans that a bookstore has a large corner.[23].. Not only translation of Japanese works but also works of local artists are popular in Taiwan[23].. There are few commercial-based works in China, Hong Kong, and Singapore (because Hong Kong and Singapore have small markets, so there are few commercial works themselves, not just BL), but there are fanzines and exchanges between BL fans in each region.[23].

Atsumi and Boys Love

Grape and Kusuko said that Tatomi was a slang term for describing the relationship between men, and it existed before the division of JUNE.[24].. Before the predecessor "comicJUN" of "JUNE" was launched in October 1978, there seems to be a movement among coterie authors to call a male homosexual depiction "Otomi".Mari MoriThe love story of a beautiful boy and a young man drawn byTakahata KayoBeautiful boy picture ofIshihara GojinIt is said that the beauty youth picture of[25].. After that, the creations in and around "JUNE" magazine were called "Atami". The "Atsumi Novel" was used as a catchphrase for a hard cover new book size book published around 1991.[25].. Since JUNE is a proper noun, it seems that it could not be used.[25]. JUNE says that it seems that anything that suits the aesthetic sense of the reader was initially JUNE, and that the aesthetic color gradually became stronger and became the current meaning.[24].

The word Boys Love was originally a paraphrase of Atsumi and JUNE, but its usage in recent years is different. However, at some bookstores, Atsumi and BL are still treated as one package.

Writer'sMiura ShinonAccording to the author, when the story of a man-to-girl romance novel with a profound storyline began to be released in hardcover, the name "Atsumi" came to be seen in bookstores. After that, many specialized magazines of this genre were launched, the novels became novels size and paperback size, a specialized comic label was created, and at that time the name "Boys Love" came to be seen.[15]. Miura created the name "Boys Love" because he wanted to create a more pop and easy-to-take image for a man's love story for girls, which was previously called "Atsumi" at bookstores. It seems that "Atsumi" and "Boys Love" originally refer to the same thing, and the names may have been different due to the difference in the position (intent) of the bookstore and the publisher.[15]. In Miura, "Atsumi" and "Boys Love" are the same name if they are not violent, but there is a difference in "Emi" and "Boys Love" in the design and writing style. He said that the person who was gay could not accept himself easily, and the more hesitation and hesitation became, the more he became "attractive", and the bright school halls that hesitated in the love between men were said to be "Boys Love".[15].

Fumi Yoshinaga says that "boys love" is the name for "atomi", and it is in the same category, but "atami" is an image of "beautiful young man".[20].

Grape and Kusuko haven't defined the definition of aesthetics, but they list the following three as personal impressions.[25].

  1. Too much torment over same-sex romance as shameful and prohibitive.
  2. The characters are always eyebrows. It is also described as having no drawbacks.
  3. There is no Riva (exchange of the roles of <acceptance> and <aggression> in sex). <Reception> <Offensive> is fixed, and there is an implicit understanding that the elder is <Offensive>.

Gay and boys love

Marimo Ragawaof"New York New York』Like, the work on the theme of the homosexuality of men drawn by a beautiful girl cartoonist is also realistic.ゲ イThere is a negative opinion to call the work Boys Love or Somewhat Bad if it describes the conflict, anguish, or realistic life of[26].

Gay people have different opinions about Boys' Love, some say they "read it", some say "I read it but it wasn't interesting", and "I'm not interested in it".[27].

In the early 1980s, gay magazine "Rose family”, a woman who thinks that “homosexuality is a sublime pure love that is not arithmetic like heterosexuality”, wrote a message saying, “The only Rose model is Boo man, it’s creepy” There was an incident that made the readers angry[27].

The gay side has been criticizing the expression of Yaoi and BL since the 1990s. For four years from 1992, the gay side and the yaoi side were controversial in the mini-communication magazine ``CHOISIR'' (Choisir), which was mentioned as a ``mini-comic magazine for women who think about life and sexuality'' for four years.[28][29][30]. Akiko Hori states that the criticism on the gay side can be summarized in the claim that Yaoi is "a gay discrimination expression that forces male homosexuals into stereotypes for slavery in heterosexual societies".[31]. The Yaoi side is arguing that "Yaoi is not a real gay picture = a fantasy", but he is peeping at gay sexuality, which is an escape from the gender issue toward women. There was criticism that it was just that, gay side and oi side asserted each other, and political and wide-ranging debate was held[31]. Regarding the relationship between individual gays and rotten girls, some gay people have good friends and acquaintances of rotten girls, and some people say that they were uncomfortable when they asked a bad question for the first time they met. And varies from person to person[27].

In Japan, BL and gay comics are separated by a historic distance, but overseas there is no history, so there is not much separation between men and women.[22]. In the United States and Europe, BL has more male readers than Japan, mainly gay, but it seems that there are many heterosexual men.[22]. BL and gay comics may be published together overseas.[22].

Difference from shojo manga

Boys' love manga is confused with shojo manga because its style and designs are finished in boys manga style, youth manga style, and theatrical style. Sometimes However, many of the couples in Shoujo Manga are heterosexual, and they are roughly separated as a genre from Boys Love, which deals with male homosexuality.

Fumi Yoshinaga and Shinon Miura are the characters that the current manga is attractive to the main character's girl and yet the reader is not jealous.[Annotation 6]It has been pointed out that Boys Love was created in order to clear such difficulties.[20]..People with narrow strike zones in shojo manga are said to be widely accepted by BL.He also states that the ages and occupations of <offensive> are considerably more diverse than shojo manga.[20].

While Yuki Senda has been drawing more and more heroes in recent years in manga comics that grow in activities other than love[Annotation 7], BL (although it's a prerequisite for him to be compatible with work because the man is the protagonist), says BL's love supremacy stands out.[17]. Also, in the BL, the ideal of an “ultimate pair” couple who loves destined people is alive in BL.[Annotation 8], Said this is an illusion of love already lost in Shoujo manga and nostalgic[17]. (The generations who read the boys' love of shojo manga including girls in the 24th year as a girl are returning to the world of BL regardless of whether they are married or unmarried since they became adults. It reminded me of an old reading experience[17]. ) Moreover, if it was a shojo manga that a girl searched for a “place of residence” when she became a mother or wife, BL is a genre in which “place of residence” can be given without becoming a mother or wife. Says that he has somehow opened up a horizon that cannot be drawn with love[17].

Differences from adult comics

Shion Miura states that the expression of sex is emphasized in boys love, but the tendency is different from that of adult seinen manga (as far as I checked about 30 books). A fascinating sex scene in BL is built into the story and requires a love story in the background.This is not because women are vulnerable to moods and dreamy creatures, but because they know from experience that happiness, satisfaction, and joy cannot be born unless they have "sex with emotional exchanges and conflicts." Pointed out.Therefore, BL states that works with an infinitely dilute storyline, such as adult comics, will not become mainstream. (Miura states that this does not mean that something with a story is good and something that is not is bad, but that women and men seem to have different points of feeling pleasure from the work.) Readers It is meaningless to separate women and men, and the readers of Boys Love expressed the view that they are human beings who support the methodology of "H scene based on emotional exchange (whether it is affection or hate)". There is.[15]

Charm

It is said that it is attractive because it is possible to draw a relationship that cannot be expressed by a combination of men and women, is difficult to accept, and can be expressed only by men. There are many works that include sexual expression, which is enjoyed as pornography. There are also works that have no sexual elements between close friends, and such relationships areBromanceAlso called (Brother + Romance). Some people like romance and say, "It's more like two people are thinking together without having an erotic relationship."[32].

Yuki Senda states, "The appeal of BL is that while maintaining the metaphor of male and female roles such as <receive> and <attack>, two men can play that role and replace that role."In addition, as the rate of unmarried people is rising throughout their lives, the genres that give women the approval that "you are fine no matter what the past, even if you have no children" and "whereabouts" are other than BL. States that it does not seem to be[17].

Shibunna basically has the freedom to see a heterosexual character in 360 degrees in BL, switching the viewpoint as if he was a director, and handling the character in his mind like the power not found in everyday life He points out that it is a tool for liberation at the spiritual level for women because it gives them freedom.[22]. In Japan, there are still social differences between men and women and distances that can be said to be gender discrimination (the poem states that the current situation of men and women in Japan is similar to Italy in the 1960s and 70s). compared toLady firstJapanese women are in a more harsh situation due to the lack of culture, and BL's reason that any <attack> must have love makes a longing for "gentleman culture" (this is Japan). There is also an aspect that (partly due to the absence of "father") is satisfied.[22].

Level up in a variety of occupations and jobs

Fumi Yoshinaga is unique to BL as a reader's appeal because she can learn about unknown professions because she has a variety of jobs, as opposed to the recent shojo mangas where various professions are rarely mentioned. States that it's fun[16]. The stage and work are police, SDF, firefighters, detective offices, small and medium chemical factories.[33],trading company[34], Contractors[35], Bookstore[36]Oil exploration team[37],lawyer[38], Tax accountant, translator, casino dealer[39], Cook, farmer[40],sericulture[41], Fishermen[42], Dog trainer[43], Bus driver, truck driver, driving school instructor[44], Cartoonist, editor, painter, gallery owner[45], Idol, actor, costume actor in theme park[46], Noh performers[47], Social dancer[48]And so on.

Nishimura says that BL meets not only women's desires for love, but also their desire for professional success. In addition to fulfilling romance, it promises to improve the professional level of <acceptance>, which is often depicted as a disadvantage from a socially and economically <aggressive> perspective, which is different from the marriage ending harlequin. It is said that. "BL is an entertainment that has a close relationship with women's social advancement from the time of its fashion. The women's social advancement that progressed at a burst during the bubble period and frozen during the employment ice age. The BL has been accompanied by such a frustrating period while simulating how a couple should be.” The relationship between a couple who has a profession is a combination of a company worker and a housewife. He points out that it is more like a couple of men.[49]

History

Prehistory

In the 1970s,Keiko TakemiyaA girl manga artist gives a big shock by releasing a girl manga depicting homosexuality of beautiful boys and young men[23].. Against this background[23], October 1978JUNE FABRICThe predecessor of "COMIC JUN" was launched, and in 1981, "JUNE" (later "Novel JUNE", Sun Publishing) was launched.

In the genealogy of Boys Love,1976年から1984年Keiko Takemiya's manga series serialized up toWind and wood poetryIs sometimes cited as the first prominent work. Regarding this work, Takemiya said, "As a matter of expression, if you try to talk deeply about the love of men and women, there is a form that you can not talk about without being in a bed scene. However, at that time, you could draw three legs of a man and a woman on the bed I wasn't able to release the work to the public, but mysteriously it didn't matter for men."[50], It can be seen that the two main characters were set as men to incorporate sex into their expressions. Takemiya himself may have motivated the flow of his work into "Boys Love," but he asserted that his intention was completely different, and said, "I taught you how to wear a mask. It was an irresistible hurdle for the painter to draw a female sexual impulse, but it can be drawn by borrowing the appearance of a man. Such a mask.”[50].. "I can express the whole arbitrary world" (Noa Azusa) The 24-year-old writers who know all about the expression style of Shoujo Manga are a taboo loophole that depicts the relationship between men and women.Boy loveIn the late 70's, boy love was very fashionable in the world of shojo manga[51].

Keiko Takemiya,Ryoko YamagishiEt al.24 yearsShonen Aimono, represented by Shoujo Manga Artist, was mostly serialized in the mid 1980s.[17].Fumi YoshinagaPointed out that "Kaze to Ki no Uta" is an epoch-making work that depicts the love between boys, but it does not directly connect to BL works often seen in bookstores.[16], As a source, I have drawn a work that cleanly excludes women from the world of work and incorporates a world unknown to girls such as information agencies (spies) and politics.Yasuko AoikeIs giving[16].

Yukari FujimotoSuggests that the development of "Yaoi (BL)" should be understood from the genealogy of "woman in a boy".[17].. There is a flow of "Beautiful homosexual things" that have been drawn in parallel with serious boy love, Yasuko Aoike "Eve's sons],Mayo Mineo"PataliroIt also includes comedy works such as "," which apparently draw the genealogy of "a boy in a costume".[17].. Furthermore, Fujimoto'sgenderUnlike the boy-loving thing that was an escape from oppression, the genealogy of "the boy in crossdressing" "allowed the girls to "play sexuality" and opened the possibility to change the viewpoint from passive to active"" Pointing out, Yuki Senda "was able to position women as the subject that looks at the male body"[17].. In addition, "Patalliro" was animated in 1982, and all 49 episodes were broadcast on ground wave at golden time, but the main characterBancoranとMaraichRelationship between men[Annotation 9], Etc., the element of the male homosexuality of the original was not hidden at all. Grapeuri Kusuko said, "In a nutshell, it could be said that the animation related to "Patalliro!" was the beginning of the visualization of BL and Atsumi's work, but that decision was not made even in 2014. Pattern"[1].

Before the word "yaoi" was associated with the so-called BL, "yaoi" seems to have been used to refer to a bad work of "no mountains, no punch lines, no meaning".I have also seen a document in which Tezuka Osamu taught his assistant that such manga (no mountains, no punch lines, no meaning) was useless.Therefore, it is desirable to study why "yaoi" became the word that exclusively refers to BL after that.

Expand from the beginning

In the 1980s, the serialization of Shonen Aimono by shojo manga artists ended mostly.[17].. Since the 24th year, the scholarly manga artists who followed have been unable to fully digest the results, and the dynamism of the story has been lost in shoujo manga.[51].. In addition, many of the editorial policies for girls' comics are "unconsciousRomantic comedyAs a result, it was the one that fixed the sex of the woman and forced the subordination, so it was not compatible with the growing desire for “self-actualization” among the girls.[51].. The painter moves away from shojo manga[51], The readers were also dissatisfied with the shojo manga and moved away[20].

In 1979,Yasuko SakataLavry, a manga doujinkai organized byAkiko HazuIssued "Special Issue on Yaoi"Birth of the word yaoi). Due to this influence, many doujinshis that do not have a story or message and only describe what they want to draw have been drawn, and many of them deal with dangerous relationships between men. In the 1980s, a large number of parody doujinshis about boys' cartoons and boys' anime began to be made, and were called Aniparo and Oi, Parody and Oi. A lot of attractive boy characters appeared in the girl's writer who is far from the girl's cartoon, and the pattern is easy for girls to accept.Captain Tsubasa(Encountered with "(serialization started in 1982)", he started making secondary works with it as a subject.[51]. (In the world of doujinshi, parody of "Shonen Jump" type became very popular, but Shueisha basically had a stance of leaving it. Exceptionally, "Captain Tsubasa was added to the postscript of "Weekly Shonen Jump". ] A message of criticism is posted for the Yaoi book[52][53][54], A warning was given to "Fusion Product", which issued many anthologies of the same work[52]) Shimotsuki Ritsu (Tachiko Araki) said that around 80-85, Aniparro became a big hit at the doujinshi sale of mainstream manga (university manga club), and the number of female writers and readers increased rapidly. Are[10]. (On the other hand, girls' manga will be downgraded for a longer period of time due to accelerated personnel downgrade[51]. ) Captain wing boom occurred from around 86,Saint Seiya,Sky Battle Record Shurat,Samurai looperAn animation that appeared with a lot of beautiful boy characters was broadcast, and the girls' doujin fever increased at a stretch[10]. As a subject for parody and Oi, the work of the pattern that "boys fight with a common purpose" is preferred, and the partner grows up to be a lover, "You need your personal life and work (goal)!" Development such as (Azusa Nakajima) was drawn[17]. Although I like boys' manga and love affairs between men, I don't want to read works like "JUNE", but more girls like doujinshi's Yaoi things. There are quite a few writers who became professional after this doujinshi[10].

Cooking ResearcherRika Fukuda・Fumi Yoshinaga made a different flow from "JUNE" in the doujinshi because it was aesthetic and serious.Boy loveI drew a different kind of light, bright, and homosexual discrimination-free gay school thing (manga/illustration and novel doujin circles)[55]), "Emikuri-san established a world of XNUMX million homosexuals in doujinshi when he was the most popular doujinshi."[16][20]. (Emikuri began to be popular with Captain Tsubasa and Sangokushi in the latter half of the 80s, became very popular around Saint Seiya, and then moved to the original that was originally written.CLAMPBecame popular for coterie activities at the same time.[56]Fukuda isKaoru Tada,Kyoko Okazaki,Shinobu Nishimura``Emikurira, born in 62, is a generation that read 24 years of manga in real time and grew up'' and ``there weren't many manga magazines,'' so I said, ``I was able to conquer almost all of it,'' and said, "Women The generation in which artists of various origins have begun to appear." And “Kyoko Okazaki (who has a high evaluation in general)Yumiko OshimaIt's easy to understand that you read and read the sexes of men and women nakedly, but it's within the scope of what you expect (laughs), but EMIRI says, "People who should have seen the same thing are outside the scope of what they expect." I have made a statement." According to Fukuda, Emikuri described his doujinshi as "man and man'sRibon"" (Mutsu A child,Yumiko TabuchiOf successMaiden tickFukuda says that it is the "Ribon" of the era), and there is Emikuri's "leap of mutational ideas" in that a man and a man tell a story that makes you feel excited just by holding hands. It is said.Also, "Man and Man's" Ribon "" & "GymnasiumIt also touches on the unique shuffle sense of "(dormitory)" & "Kansai dialect", high editing ability, and influence from subculture.[57][58]The influence of the new trend that began with Emikuri later spread to commercial magazines and was established in commercial magazines.Kazuma KodakaTo be[16][20].

December 1991, 12, "IMAGE" (Sakuya Shobo) was first published, and the catchphrase was titled "BOY'S LOVE COMIC" ("Boys Love" was first confirmed)[1]. In 1992Kadokawa sneaker library(At the timeKadokawa ShotenDid not distinguish between boys and girls, and initially published Boys Love works[59]) Independent fromKadokawa Ruby LibraryFirst issue[Annotation 10]. At this point, the word Boys Love was unknown and was called "Atami," "JUNE," "Yaoi," etc.[13]. He was actively producing Aniparo's anthologyCeladon byblosLaunches "BE x BOY Comics," which is said to be the first label specializing in boys love manga in 1992.[1]Launched "(abbreviation: Magaby)" in 1993[16]. In the early 1990s, although there was an anime parody doujinshi, the only commercial manga magazine for women that deald in love between men was "Magazine BE x BOY".[60]Led the BL industry from the beginning until the publisher went bankrupt[16]. Fumi Yoshinaga says she thought she had a pornography magazine for girls when she first launched.[16]. Early Boys Love started with a collection of coterie writers, especially parody and Oi writers, with few commercial magazine writers.[6]. For that reason, there was also a case where the original work was rewritten with what was written as a secondary creation and published on a commercial basis.[6][Annotation 11]. Even now, there are many writers who are active in commercial BL and publish doujinshi at the same time.[6]. Ritsu Shimotsuki (Tachiko Araki) had an early boys loveTeens loveIt is quite free compared to things, it was forbidden in teens love, it is not a happy end, other people can take away their favorite people, the protagonist will be in a terrible eye, and the development is also allowed, ``Even the sex scene I think the freedom to write anything opened up a fairly wide door for female writers."[10].

From 1984 to 95, I wrote the BL novel, which is now called, along with a novel for the general public, and opened up this genre.Kaoru Kurimoto(Azusa Nakajima) serialized "Azusa Nakajima's Novel Dojo", which criticizes novels posted by readers, in "JUNE" to support the creative activities of survivors.Masashi Kashiwaeda,Akizuki Koo,Sadako Sasaki,Kanamaru MakiMany authors grew up and played a major role in the development of commercial BL novels.[5].

First published by Cassette JUNE in 1988, the first is "Tsumigafuchi" by Ryoko Mita. It is said to be the first audio media in the Yaoi/BL genre.[1].

In the 1990s, boys love novel labels were born one after another. Magazines are born and disappear one after another[1], Half was in the situation that it ends with issue 3.[10].. In the latter half of the 1990s, a publication recession occurred, and light novels and boys love came to be noticed as influential contents.[13].. This era was like a high-growth period for Boys Love.[10].. In 1994, the manga information magazine "PuffIn the August issue, a special feature “Initial Rush Enters the Warring States Period-“BOYS LOVE MAGAZINE” Complete Strategy Manual” was created (In addition, in this feature, the editor-in-chief of Celadon Byblos's Maki Toshiko called “Boys Love” (I use "yaoi" instead of words)[1]It is said that "Boys Love" was shared as a term that refers to the field since then.[1].. After that, "Pafu" repeatedly carried out the Boys Love feature, which is said to have helped spread the word Boys Love.[10].. The cobalt libraryWhite heartGirls' novel labels such as have increased the number of novels with BL elements, but due to the fierce competition with the BL label that was disorganized, it is not going well and withdrawing[19].

Fumi Yoshinaga is a shojo manga magazine "MargaretWas published inOzaki MinamiCartoon ofZetsuai -1989-』(Volume 1990 published in 1. It is said that Yaoi of the same work is used as an underlay[54][53].. At the same time as the author was active in commercial magazinesCaptain Tsubasa』Yaoi continued to be a coterie writer[1]),Kazuma KodakaCartoon ofKIZUNA-Kizuna-" (Original Doujinshi (1991) originally derived from the author's commercial boy cartoon. Volume 1992 published in 1 in commerce.[62]), of a girl novel labelCobalt libraryCame out ofKuwabara MizunaThe novel "Flame mirage』(Volume 1990 published in 1. It seems that it was not initially classified as BL in the cobalt library.[1]) Is given. Even if you read BL-like things but not much, almost all of these 3 works were read[16].

1991,Saint Seiya』Musical performance, now called "Boys Musical"[Annotation 12]It will be the dawn of. Fledgling at the timeSMAPAppears.

In 1992,Rieko YoshiharaAuthor/Katsumi DoharaOVA based on the BL novel of the illustrationWedge between] Volume 1Magazine magazineWill be on sale. It is said to be the first animated work in the Yaoi/BL genre.[1].. same year,Japan SF competition"Yoi Panel Discussion" will be held as a voluntary plan for[1].

From 1996CLAMPIs a shojo manga magazineNakayoshi"so"Card Captor Sakura] Has begun serialization. In the film, the relationship between the hero Sakura's brother and his friend (who likes Sakura) can be described as having a homosexual relationship. ing). The boy who plays the role of hero is a rival who likes the same person as Sakura at first. This is BL・lily(Female homosexual ones)ロ リ コ ン-Man's daughterIt is pointed out that there are many people who touched this work in their childhood and became nerds.[63].

In 1997, he became famous as a children's literature writer.Noriko OgiwaraBut,ChuokoronshaC★NOVELS FantasiaAnother world fantasy for girlsGood witch of the westIs published. Volume 2 "Secret Garden" depicts the Yaoi and BL doujinshi culture and its use by female students at a closed girls' school where queen and entourage children attend.

In 1998, "Cardcaptor Sakura" was animated on NHK Satellite 2nd TV (BS2). Next year's terrestrial broadcastingNHK educational TVBut it was broadcast.

From around 1999 on the InternetRotten girlThe word "" came to be seen[1].

BL-like diffusion and generalization

In the 2000s, BL works were published as e-books and could be read on mobile phones, so even people who were embarrassed to purchase them at stores could easily buy them and read them anywhere. Spread at a stretch[64].. With the evolution of mobile phones, BL game applications have come to be made, and the frontage has expanded further.[64].. From around 2007, BL games became popular in mobile games and so on, and until around 2010, it became a kind of boom. A game with a way to play utilizing the performance of the mobile phone, such as receiving an email from the capture character, has also appeared.[64].. With the boom, the meaning of "BL" has spread further, and it has come to be widely used as a term for all male homosexual works.[65].

Fumi Yoshinaga says that the boys love market has grown and has reached a ceiling, and it is competing for pie that can meet as much as possible, so that more and more common divisor works are required and formats are being formed. (As of 2006). Compared to the early days when I was allowed to draw in tragedy and could draw as much as I wanted, the restrictions became stronger and it was said that it was conservative[20].. Former BL editors have debuted since 2011 because BL manga has an electronic medium because the number of publishers who tend to “do not win and win (i.e., publish only profitable ones)” is increasing and the market is stalled. Although there are many opportunities to write a novel, it is said that the mainstream is to write one novel, so there is no room to train writers in the long run.[66].. Conservation reduces the number of interesting works, and there is concern that readers will leave[66].. In addition, the atmosphere that sex scene is absolutely necessary has become weaker recently, and BL without sex scene is increasing.[66].. As the situation as of 2014, Mari Nishimura says that evolutionary BL that has reversed / deviated from the royal road is increasing and is becoming mainstream, and as one of the leading actors who created the flow of evolved BL manga, A manga artist who has gained popularity for his coterie activities and has been a huge hit in women's and youth magazines in recent years.Yamashita TomokoAre listed[67].

Junko KanedaRecently, as a work of other genres with BL-like elements,TIGER & BUNNYAnd 'Partner], [Kuroko's Basketball, Etc., "That level of flirting" began in the 1980s, and in the 1990s the boy magazine "JumpWas already conscious[19].. Said that publishers and the production side understood that boys-love things would become a business and started to use them strategically, and it has become commonplace recently (2012) that the recognition has spread. Says[19].

In recent years, the author Shino Miura and the announcerWorking Yumiko[4], Of the actressFumi Nikaido[68]The number of women who profess to be BL readers has increased. Kaneda also knows that women have BL-like elements in various genres, and although the work itself has not changed recently, it was negative for women to find BL-like elements in boys' comics. It is said that the number of men who appreciate and accept such things has increased considerably.[19].. magazine"Da VinciBL has been featured more frequently in magazines that handle annual rankings of books, and more people have known Boys Love before they knew it, even if they were not so interested in subculture.[19].

BL novel

In the novel,Kihara Otose"Outside the Box" was published by Kodansha Bunko in 2007 after being published on the BL label.Hitomi Imura,Sugano Akira,Fushino RoadAre also active in other genres[19].. As of 2008, if you look at Novels by genre, a little less than 4% of the stories are told that "an adult woman who has a job likes an attractive man with a social status, and passes through each other's thoughts and then becomes a companion" ManyHarlequinThe company's adult female translation romance novels occupy, followed by boys love novels about 2%[69]. (Harlequin[Annotation 13]The story structure of is very close to BL except that the main character is female or male, the readers are partially overlapping, and it is pointed out that BL authors also have Harlequin readers.[70][71].. A popular BL novelist says that what he wants to write is "Harlequin for men and men." Nishimura Mari points out that one of the popular BL novel genres, "Arab", was introduced from Harlequin via a coterie.[6]. )

In public novels, profess to love BLMiura Shinon,Arikawa HiroshiWrote a work with a man's romantic taste, BL taste. Junko Kaneda has an overwhelming majority of pure literature related to gender and sexuality, such as winning the famous awards of novels as high culture, and some works are indistinguishable from BL only in terms of settings and stories. Yes,Bungei AwardWonHisao Hiruma"Yes yes yes yes" was also read as BL[19].. In Yoko Eienbo, comics are subcultures in their own right, but novels have a clear relationship that the main novel is the main culture and the BL novel is the subculture.Pure literatureIt is said that it is more difficult to cross the boundaries of categories than comics because the hierarchy with the[19].

Eienbo points out that BL novels may be less permissible for works than BL manga. While the BL novel has been refined through the ages, the patterning such as <accept> and <aggressive> settings and happy endings has become prominent, and Kihara Otose who draws works that are far from the type is exceptional. There is an evaluation. Nishimura pointed out that BL novels tend to narrow down certain types such as "Arab ones", while BL manga is prone to deviations in settings and types.[6].. Shino Miura says that the readers of BL novels are relatively older than the readers of BL manga and are expressed in sentences, so even though BL novels are popping like manga, It is said that works with an "atami" atmosphere, works with adults as protagonists, and ceremonial works also remain from BL manga.[15].

Aihime HimekoIs also active in the BL label and other labels and has established a unique work world, but it is called an aesthetic artist rather than a BL artist[19].

Itinerary

In 2000, BL's first commercial PC game (18 prohibited) from Sofpal Co., Ltd.'s female game brand Platinum LabelI love what I like, so I can't help it!!-FIRST LIMIT-" is released, a long-established store of beautiful girl games for menAlice softIs a BL game brand for womenAlice Blue] And launched "Hidden Moon" (for all ages)[65].. (Early BL games that adopted platforms such as consumer machines and PCs struggled in terms of sales[65]) WOWOWGravitation"(Maki MurakamiThe original) is a continuous animation. There is no terrestrial broadcasting, but this is said to be Boys Love's first continuous TV animation[1].Takabayashi TomoAuthor/Temari MatsumotoIllustrated light novel "Maruma series"ButKadokawa Beans LibraryPublished in (Many characters are light fantasy. The main character is a male high school student, but he becomes a demon king in a different world and engages with a beautiful boy. The love element between men is thin). From around this time, you can read BL e-books on your mobile phone.

In 2001, a comprehensive event in California, USAYaoi-ConIs held and Japanese BL artists are invited as guests[1].

In the January 2002 issue of "Magazine BE x BOY," a catch phrase "Dreaming BOYS LOVE Magazine★" was added, and "BOYS LOVE" was added to the cover catch phrase after that.[1].

In 2003,Weekly Shonen Jump(ShueishaPublished)Takeshi KonomiThe boy's mangaPrince of Tennis"stageTurned intoThe Prince of Musical Tennis(Aka Tenimyu) First performance. The only performers are men. (When a female character such as a director appears, the production is only audio and video.)

In 2004, the light novel "Maruma seriesAs "From today on!NHK educational TVAnd animated. "PuffFor the first time, in the text of the May issue of (Sousasha), Ikebukuro streets are crowded with stores that sell anime goods and fanzines for women.Maiden RoadIs used[1].

In 2005, the PC game "I can't help it because I like what I like!!" is animated on the ground. Probably the first terrestrial animation for Boys Love.[1]Miki Maki4-frame manga byBoy, draw an aesthetic -Boys be tambitious-" (a gag in which a protagonist of a popular man who was shaken by her girl, struggles to draw a BL manga with her friends to look back at her) has begun serialization. magazine"NewtypeIn the December issue of (Kadokawa Shoten), Otome Road will be introduced as "commonly known as Fujoshi Street".[1].. Since this time, an SNS site has been created, and even people who have been quietly enthusiastic about BL can now easily find friends and interact with them.[64].. Around 2005Fumi Yoshinaga,Ono Natsume(Basso) became a pioneer in both BL and general magazines (both were coterie authors), and prejudice that ordinary manga is not applied to manga artists who were previously BL or parody. However, the background in BL and parody doujinshi came to be positively captured.

In 2006, BL's major publisher Byblos went bankrupt due to the bankruptcy of a group company, and in order to take over Byblos' BL business,Animate-Movic-Frontier WorksBy joint investment of 3 companiesLibre publishingWas launched.Kojima AjikoIs a cartoon blog "Tibet 801" depicting her ecology of a rot girl.My neighbor 801][1].Somegoro Ichikawa,Ainosuke KataokaThe Kabuki "Dyeing Pattern Onai Gosho", which depicts the pure love between men, was revived at[4].

In 2007, the magazine "Squid”, a compilation of the insights of related scholars, and a special feature entitled “General Feature: Fujoshi Manga Daikei” (June)[1], "BL study is ripe now, isn't it hot?", and a special feature called "BL Studies" (December) was created.[19].. Korean BL manga Lee Young Hee "Cum" is translated and published in Japan[1].Ohzora PublishingFrom "This BL (Boys Love) is dangerous! 2008 Fujoshi edition” is published.Go ShinobuBL novel "Takumi-kun series"And whisper to the spring breeze,"Keiko KonnoBL Manga "Love of Words" and BL Manga "Someday it will rain"[72].. From around this time, BL games on mobile phones have become popular.

In 2008, for the first time as a manga serialized in BL magazine,Nakamura Shungikuof"Junjo RomanticaWill be animated on the ground wave of[1].Sakai City LibraryThen, an anonymous citizen and the appointed lawmakers demanded that the BL books be removed from the library, and the library removed the approximately 5500 books that were intentionally judged as "BL" from the open shelves (Later).

The BL manga "In the End" by the German cartoonist unit Pink Psycho (Heath & Nheira) published in Germany in 2009 and 2006 will be translated and published in Japan.[1].

Around 2010,Yamashita Tomoko,Haruko KumotaEtc. made hits in both general magazines and BL, and the number of cartoonists who continue to play an active role in both genres has increased.[19].

In 2012, in the tanka boom, BL tanka with the "#BL tanka" tag started and became popular on Twitter, and a doujinshi was also created.[1][73].Akizuki KooBL novel original "Fujimi XNUMX-chome Symphony OrchestraIs a live-action film[1].. "Comic JUNE" (published by Junet) will be suspended in the February 2013 issue (published in December 2), and there will be no JUNE brand magazines published regularly.[1].

2013, BL writerJunkoIs a girl's manga magazine "Separate volume friend』(Kodansha), Fujoshi is the main character, and the concept is "The person who does not want to be the main character has become the main character.Girl game[74]The love comedy manga "What do i do』Start serialization. The hero who suddenly became a beautiful girl suddenly became a beautiful girl due to the shock that his favorite character died in the work will be approached by four handsome men and a boyish beautiful girl who were the targets of delusion until then, but he himself Is still a deep rotten girlReverse haremThe story of being confused by the condition. Although it is published in a shojo manga magazine for the general public, the culture and behavior of fujoshi are depicted in a realistic and detailed manner.

In 2014,Yoneda KouA live-action movie based on the BL mangaI do not want to touch that, no matter what(Released on May 2014, 5) is the first BL live-action movieOriconNo. 2014 in the DVD movie weekly ranking (September 9, 15-September 2014, 9)[75].. Art magazine "Art notebook"Unraveling the expression of Boy's love" relationship "" was held[7], Increased sales[76].

In 2015,The Prince of Musical TennisCumulative number of mobilization exceeded 200 million[77].平凡 社"Classical BL Novels" edited by Chinami Kasama, a collection of stories between men by female writers such as German, French, and English from the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century.Heibonsha Library) Is published[78][79][80].. American comedy anime "South Park"Tweak x Craig (Tweak x Craig) dealing with BL (Yaoi)Tweek x Craig) ”Was broadcast. BL (Yaoi) was introduced as a culture that is popular in Asia at school, and BL illustrations of student Tweak and Craig were given as an example, and the surroundings thought that they were really dating gay couples, East Asian descent The students of Fujoshi are delighted to mass-produce illustrations, they are a big nuisance, and it is popular to support their love in the town. Fan art by actual fujoshi recruited in advance was used during the work.[81][82]Nijie Co., Ltd., which operates the SNS "Nijie" that handles illustrations for adult men, has released the 18-ban BL illustration SNS "Horne", and the number of users has exceeded 6 in 3 days from the start of the service.[83].Sakurabi ladderThe original BLCD "I'm threatened by the man I want to embrace."[84].

In 2016,Asumiko NakamuraTheatrical animation based on the BL cartoon ofPeerHas started screening at 30 theaters nationwide, and in 43 days from the start of the screening, the number of mobilization has exceeded 13.5 and the box office revenue has exceeded 2 million yen.[85].Ibara NishitsuruA collection of short stories on the theme of romance between menGreat Mirror of Male(Published in 1687) is cartoonized in anthology format[86].. Japan 7 in JulySense of Gender AwardGrand Prize "Omegaverse Phenomenon Omegaverse[Annotation 14]Is announced as an award. "What do i do』Animated in the fall.

In April 2017, on the Kansai-Fuji TV nationwide networkChiaki KuriyamaThe starring drama "But I want to get married! ~ BL cartoonist's Kojirase Marriage Report ~ ”was broadcast[87].

Media development

Novel-Comic-moviesAs well,Drama CD-Adult game-OVA-Adult videos-Homo videoand so on. Boys love games are abbreviated as "Bobge" or "BLG". (BOVE is a word proposed and recommended as an abbreviation for Boys Love from the first two letters and the last two letters of BOYS LOVE by the editing of "Image", which is said to have coined the word Boys Love.[88]. )AnimateMany stores that specialize in anime goods have a boy's love corner. The number of services with the BL genre is increasing, and there are also specialized services on the web manga posting site, SNS, etc.[83].

Special term

Label / medium

Boys love novel label

Overview

Most areNew bookEdition (Novels)・PaperbackAlthough it is published as a edition, works that have gained high popularity at Kadokawa Shoten and other stores may be published as books.

2000 eraFrom around the time of entering, publishers of adult books for men began to decline due to various regulations, and new entrants one after another by applying their know-how to the boy's love genre. As a result, the number of labels has become bloated and enormous. As a result, the influence of the well-known label has begun to appear, and the bankruptcy of Leaf Publishing and the slowdown of publishing of Crystal Bunko are occurring.

Major labels

Regarding e-book labels, instead of suspending new publications like the paper book labels, we will only list those that have disappeared because the publishers have disappeared and there is no possibility of new publications.

  • Aino Bells (Yuhi)-2007 disappeared due to former bankruptcy.
  • I'S (Ice) Novels (Okura publishing)-Suspended.
  • I'S (Ice) Bunko (Okura Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Aqua Novels (Okura Publishing)-Discontinued.
  • Aqua Bunko (Okura Publishing)-Suspended.
  • As Novels (East Press)-Renewed as a splush library with Az Bunko.
  • As Novels extra (East Press)-eBooks only.
  • As White (East Press)-Suspended.
  • Azu Bunko, Az Bunko White (East Press)-Renewed as a splush library with Az Novels.
  • Adonis Novels (From Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Apricot Novels (Anzudou)-Suspended. It is different from APRICOT NOVELS published by Million.
  • Aprico Roman (Anzudou)-Suspended.
  • Aruru Novels (One Two Magazine Company)-Change the publisher name to Uni Hougen. Suspended.
  • AI-M Bunko (K-Ad Planning)-e-book only. It disappears with the disappearance of the publisher.
  • EASY BOOKS (Movic)-Suspended.
  • Vario Novels (Sakura Shobo)-Suspended.
  • Velvet Novels (Sony Magazines)-Suspended.
  • Ale Blanche (Publishing link)-E-book only.
  • Eclips NOVEL, NEW Eclips NOVEL (Sakura Shobo)-Suspended.
  • Eclipse romance (Sakura Shobo)-Suspended.
  • Eclair library (MUGENUP)
  • X-Kids NOVELS (Kasakura publishing company)-Suspended.
  • Emu Novels (M Wave)-Suspended.
  • Enkunoveluzu (Seeds information publishing and salesMoer publishing)-Suspended.
  • ohta BL NOVELS (Ota Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Ovis Novels (Akane Shinsha)-Suspended.
  • Guy Novels (Jesse Publishing・SaleHit publisher)-Suspended.
  • Cocktail Kiss Bunko (Julian Publishing)
  • GUSH NOVELS (Kaioh company)-Suspended.
  • Gash Bunko (Kaiohsha)-Suspended.
  • Kadokawa sneaker library (Kadokawa Shoten)-In the beginning, we deal with both boys and girls, not only girls' novels,Kaoru KurimotoThey also published works in "Novel JUNE" until they launched the ruby ​​library in 1992.
  • Kadokawa Ruby Library(Kadokawa Shoten)-Published in 1992, independent from Kadokawa Sneaker Bunko. The work published in "Novel JUNE" was the main.
  • KAREN new book (Akimizusha・SaleJapan Literature Company)-Suspended.
  • KAREN Bunko (Akisuisha/Sales Nippon Bungeisha)-Suspended.
  • KAREN Bunko M Series (Akisuisha/Sales Nippon Bungeisha)-Suspended.
  • Character library (former: Tokuma AM character library) (Tokuma bookstore)
  • Kirara Novels (Crocodile books)-Suspended.
  • Kirara Novels Selection (Wanibooks)-Suspended.
  • Kirche Novels (Micro Magazine Company)-Suspended.
  • GLASS BLUE NOVELS (paradigm)-Suspended.
  • Clear NOVELS (Million Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Crystal library (Seimidou Publishing)-Suspended.
  • CROSS NOVELS (Kasakura publishing company)
  • GENKI NOVELS-Discontinued.
  • Kodansha X Bunko White Heart(Kodansha)-Has also been dealing with Boys Love since January 1993.
  • Cosmic Romance (Cosmic publishing)-Suspended.
  • Cobalt library(Shueisha)-BL route ends in 2005. The BL special issue that started in 2001 in the magazine "Cobalt" ended in 2005.
  • Sunny Side Romance (Sunny Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Gene Novels (E Connection)-Suspended. Only e-books. It disappears with the disappearance of the publisher.
  • CV Novels (Leaf publishing)-2007 disappeared due to former bankruptcy.
  • JNPC NOVELS (Japan Nature Photo Club)-Suspended.
  • Jam Plus Novels (Shinfusha)-Suspended. LilyHe also handled romantic comedy between men and women.
  • CITRUS NOVELS (Ohzora Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Chiffon Novels (Kyrick)-e-book only.
  • SHY Novels (Ocean books)
  • SHY FANTASY (Taiyo Tosho)-Suspended.
  • SHY Bunko (Taiyo Tosho)-Suspended.
  • Charade Bunko (Futami Shobo)
  • Charade Pearl Bunko (Futami Shobo)-End of publication of paper books in 2008. After that, only e-books.
  • Charade Books (Futami Shobo)
  • JUNE Novels (Magazine magazine)-Suspended.
  • Julian Novels (I Digital Publishing)-eBook only.
  • Chocolate Novels (Shinkosha)-Suspended.
  • Chocolate Novels HYPER (Shinkosha)-Suspended.
  • Chocolate Bunko (Shinkosha)
  • Chocolat Lite (Shinkosha)-e-book only.
  • Sweet honey love BL library (network publishing)-e-book only.
  • Stella Novel (Akane Shinsha)-e-book only.
  • SPARK NOVELS (Shodensha)-Suspended.
  • Spica library (Kurumisha)-e-book only.
  • splush library (East Press)
  • Cecil Bunko (Cosmic Publishing (formerly: Cosmic International))
  • Cecil Premier Bunko (Cosmic Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Tanatos Bunko (Takeshobo)-Suspended.
  • Dahlia Erotica Books (Frontier Works)-E-book only.
  • Daria Series (Frontier Works)-Suspended.
  • Dahlia Novels (Frontier Works)-Suspended.
  • Dahlia Bunko (Frontier Works)
  • Moonlit night library (Media Tunes)-e-book only.Teens loveI was also dealing with novels.
  • Deer plus library (Shinshokan)
  • DEEP collection (Million Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Teddy Bunko (Thai is)-Suspended.
  • Dominique BL paperback (Dominique)-e-book only. It disappears with the disappearance of the publisher.
  • Dolce Novels (Movic)-Suspended.
  • Harlequin Lovesick(Harper Collins Japan)-A foreign translation of a novel. No publication.
  • BasiL Novels (Dream Maker/DistributorBunendo)-Suspended.
  • Hug Bunko, Hug Novels (Mediation・SaleAsuka Shinsha-Kosaido Akatsuki)-Suspended.
  • Passion Novels (Hikari Corporation (formerly: Hikari Publishing))-1997 disappeared due to bankruptcy.
  • HANAOTO NOVELS (Houbunsha)-Suspended.
  • Hanamaru Novels (Hakusensha)-Shifted to the BL label from 1993. Suspended.
  • Hanamaru Bunko (Hakusensha)
  • Hanamaru Bunko BLACK (Hakusensha)
  • Honey Ice Novels (Okura Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Vanilla new book (Core magazine)-Suspended.
  • Vanilla Novels (Core Magazine)-Suspended.
  • Vanilla Romance (Core Magazine)-Suspended.
  • Papaya ROMANCE (Scola)-Suspended.
  • Pallet library(Shogakukan)-May 1994 also deals with boys love. Suspended.
  • Pierce Novels (magazine magazine)-Suspended.
  • B-cube (East Press)-e-book only.
  • BL Suite Novel (ASCII Media Works)-E-book only.
  • BL pink library (Akimizusha ORIGINAL)-e-book only.
  • Peach library (Literary company)-Suspended.
  • Be Game Novels (Byblos)-Suspended.
  • B-PRINCE Bunko (Ascii Media Works & Libre Publishing)-Suspended.
  • Beboy Slash Novels (Byblos(Old: Celadon Byblos))-Due to former bankruptcy in 2006, new companyLibre publishingTook over.
  • Beboy Novels (Byblos)-Same as above.
  • Bee Boy Plus DX (Libre Publishing)-Suspended.
  • bijou (Ira Netbooks)-e-book only. A common label with comics.
  • Pichikomino Bells (Gakken)-suspended.
  • FUDGE NOVELS (Sakura Shobo)-Suspended.
  • Furin NOVELS (Furinkan)-Suspended.
  • Petit Jean (E-Connection)-Suspended.
  • Platinum library(Printing and selling PrintempsFrench institute)-Suspended
  • Platinum Bunko Alice (Printemps Publishing and Sales French Institute)-Suspended.
  • Printemps e-Boys! (Printemps Publishing and Sales French Institute)-e-book only.
  • Prism Bunko (Okura Publishing)
  • Fritillaria library (Yugiri library)-e-book only.
  • Fleur Bunko Blue Line (media Factory)-Suspended.
  • Blue Mint Novels (paradigm)-Suspended.
  • Berry Novels (Nagaoka Shoten)-Suspended.
  • Holly Novels (Schola Magazine (formerly Souryusha)) --Closed.
  • White Roman BL Bunko (Network Publishing) --E-books only.
  • Mahoroba Bunko (Odessa Project) --E-books only.
  • Milk Crown (K-Ad Planning)-E-books only. Due to the disappearance of the publisher, Sakuraunsha took over part of it. Suspended.
  • MoonLight Romance (Four Seasons Sales Koala Bux) --Closed.
  • Mega hit romance (Crocodile magazine)-Suspended.
  • Moegi Bunko (Gakken) -Sales subsidiary established in 2009 Gakken PublishingMoved to. Only e-books after 2012. Suspended.
  • Moegi Bunko Purely(Gakken) --Same as above until the transition of publishers. I also dealt with girl novels. Suspended.
  • Monochrome Romance Bunko (Shinshokan) --Translation of foreign novels.
  • Live novels (MandarakePublishing Department) --Suspended.
  • Lovers Bunko (Take Shobo)
  • Lovers Bunko GREED (Takeshobo) --Closed.
  • Ravender Romance Series (Byakuyashobo) --Translation of foreign novels. Suspended.
  • Rakia Novels (Highland)-The publisher, Highland, was an affiliate of Byblos, so it went bankrupt. The label disappears.
  • Rakia Super Extra Novels (Highlands)-Same as above.
  • Rakish Novels (Tosuisha(Old: Kichijoji Planning)) --Closed.
  • LAPIS CURIO (France Shoin Publishing and Sales) --Closed.
  • Lapis Bunko(Renamed to f-LAPIS) (Printemps Publishing / Sales France Shoin) --Suspended.
  • LAPIS more (Printan Publishing / Sales France Shoin) --Closed.
  • LOVE xxx BOYS (Gentosha Comics) --E-books only. A common label with comics.
  • Laluna Bunko (Sea Lab / SalesSankosha)
  • Laluna Bunko Original (Sea Lab) --E-books only.
  • Laluna Bunko K-line (Sea Lab)-E-books only. Suspended.
  • Liam Novels (DeNIMO)-E-books only.
  • Reef Novels (Leaf Publishing) --2007 edition Extinguished due to the bankruptcy of the former business.
  • LiLiK library(Bright Publishing) --Suspended.
  • Links Romance (Gentosha Comics)
  • Rutile Novels (Scola) --Suspended. After that, the publisher disappeared in 2001, and the "Rutile" brand was taken over by Gentosha Comics.
  • Rutile Bunko (Gentosha Comics)
  • Rutile Bunko L (Gentosha Comics) --Closed.
  • LUNA NOVELS --Closed.
  • Le-Rin romance Bunko (Network Publishing) --E-books only.
  • REIJIN NOVELS (Takeshobo) --Closed.
  • ROSE Bunko (Tenkaisha) --E-books only.
  • Rose Key Novels (Bright Publishing) --Closed.
  • Rosekey Bunko (Bright Publishing) --Closed.
  • Lower Novels, Lower Blanc (Ichijinsha)-Suspended.
  • Crocodile novels (Bestsellers) --Although BL has been handled since 1998, the BL route will be completed by 2001.

Major Boys Love Manga Magazines

All Boy's Love manga magazines currently being published areJapanese Manga Magazine #Boys Love Comic MagazineAnd if it's an e-bookJapanese manga magazine #BL comic magazineSee.

  • Aqua BL Kingdom (Okura Publishing) --Mobile comic magazine. Suspended.
  • ihr HertZ (Ihr Hertz)Ocean books)
  • エ メ ラ ル ド(KADOKAWA) --In addition to manga, novels are also posted.
  • GUSH (Kaiosha)
  • Karen (Nihon Bungeisha) -Closed.
  • Chara(Character) (Tokuma Shoten)
  • Monthly Links (Gentosha Comics) --In addition to manga, novels are also posted.
  • Comic Aqua (Okura Publishing) -Closed.
  • Comic JUNE-Suspended.
  • Comic Magazine Links (Gentosha Comics) --- Merged with the novel Links to become Monthly Links.
  • SKY(Ciel) (Kadokawa Shoten) --Paper media has been suspended and switched to e-books.
  • Splush (East Press)-Only e-books since its inception.
  • Daria (Frontier Works)
  • Deer Plus(Dear +) (Shinshokan)
  • drap (Core Magazine)
  • BasiL (Dream Maker &Bunendo) --In addition to manga, novels are also posted. Suspended.
  • Flower sound (Houbunsha)
  • BE x BOY GOLD (Libre Publishing)
  • BOY'S Earrings (Junet) --Paper media has been suspended and switched to e-books.
  • Magazine BE x BOY (Libre Publishing)
  • Reito (Takeshobo)
  • Rutile (Gentosha Comics)

Major Boys Love Novel Magazine

  • Charade (Futami Shobo) --Closed.
  • Novel Aqua (Okura Publishing) --Closed.
  • Novel Eclipse (Oakla Publishing) --Closed.
  • Novel character (Tokuma bookstore)
  • Novel Chocolat (Shinkosha) -Paper media is suspended and shifts to e-books.
  • Novel Dear + (Shinshokan)
  • Novel Hanamaru (Hakusensha) -Paper media is suspended and shifts to e-books.
  • Novel earrings (Magazine magazine)-Suspended.
  • Novel b-Boy (Libre Publishing)
  • Novel Links (Gentosha Comics) --- Merged with Comic Magazine Links to become Monthly Links.

Major Boys Love Drama CD Labels

As of 2014, there are more than 3,000 BLCDs[18].. Due to the influence of illegal uploads, the mainstream labels went bankrupt and withdrew one after another.

Major boys love game labels (company)

Sakai City Library "BL" book exclusion case

In Osaka Prefecture in 2008Sakai City LibraryThen, there was a case in which 5500 books which were supposed to be Boys Love were removed from the open shelves, because they were requested to be abandoned by a "citizen's voice" blaming the collection and lending of Boys Love novels. This "citizen's voice" is actually the city council who has received the intention that "anonymous citizen (from the same person)" is actually accepted by the library.[3].. City council'sWorld daily reportArticle blamed the library for boys' love, arguing that it's a "substantially pornographic book" and that it's strange to be in the library.[89][Annotation 15].. Citizen activist Midori Teramachi said, "What I found from the email that arrived in Sakai City is that people who want to exclude specific books dislike "homosexuality" itself. Due to discrimination and prejudice against homosexuality, "BL children "Don't show it to me" and urged me to "dispose of the BL book."[91].

This boys love book removal movement is a parliamentary intervention[91],Chastity education,Gender-freeA cult of Korean origin, which is lobbying to enforce legal restrictions on sexing and violent expressions of bashing, manga, anime, and games.Unification ChurchAffiliated companyWorld DailyIt was pointed out that he was receiving a backup of.[92][93](The Unification Church denies that homosexuality is an unnatural relationship that goes against the principles of creation, and claims that homosexuality is a matter of ethical morals, not a human rights issue.)[94][95][96]) The reason for the exclusion indicated by the library changed over and over, and the standard for boys love was unclear.[3]About 5500 Boys Love books were listed, and Sakai City decided that these books would be "stored in a closed shelf," "will not be collected in the future," and "will not be rented to young people."[97]No discussion or process leading to this decision is recorded[91].. Citizens distrusted the library's uncertain response[98].

Even in Fukui before this incident,BacklashIn the flow ofgender,Gender equalityThe book "Gender Books", which is said to be related to the "Citizen's voice", has been removed from the library.Chizuko Ueno・A group of plaintiffs to investigate “excluding gender books” was formed by them. Teramachi has been trying to prevent similar incidents since the Fukui incident.Feminachi[Annotation 16]``Watch bulletin board'', saying that he learned that an anonymous man was making a phone call to the library complaining about a large number of BL books.[99].. The plaintiffs saw Sakai City's decision as a similar issue, and when they were contacted, Waseda University analyzed the removal list. Keiko Atsuta is on the removal listMiyanozaki Sakurako"Saihime Ibun"(5thWhite heartThe grand prix-winning girl novel) is also included, and it is said that it was something that was strange before a deep examination. Sakai City said that the reason for exclusion was that it had "extreme sexual depiction", but it also included books with no sexual depiction and books with few sexual depictions, and "illustration" was also cited as a reason, The illustrations included books with no nude or sexual expression, or books without illustrations in the first place. It includes girls' novels without male homosexuality and works depicting the daily life of sexual minorities, and works that are considered BL by the same author may or may not be designated by the publisher. Only parts are specified, light novels are specified but literature is not specified, books that are thought to be for girls and women are specified, but if it is men and women who have sex for men It is not specified regardless of the degree of depiction, does not include what is recognized as "gay literature" in the theme of male homosexuality, is not sorted according to the degree of sexual depiction, has a storyline or literary character It is said that the removal list was not consistent as if the librarian chose it at the discretion and did not have the criteria to be shared by the librarians.[3](Specific details are listed by Atsuta.[100]checking)

In response to Sakai City's decision, there were various opinions in and out of the news in the press and online, some criticized that BL was in the library, and some disliked BL readers. In order to protect "liberty of the library" and "freedom of expression," Ueno and others, civic groups, and representatives from all over the country voiced their opposition. 97 groups were offered[97].. Citizens and others also made audit requests to Sakai City, with Ueno as the representative.[97].. After the audit request, Sakai City Library withdrew the policy/agreement that "it will not be provided to youth," and decided, "If there is a request, the policy is to lend under 18 years old. The operation started on the same day. Was reported in the newspaper[91].. Sakai City said it was "quick and misjudged"[98].. The measure that "BL books will not be collected or stored" has not been reviewed as of 2008.[91].

Sakai Municipal Library denies that there was external pressure to decide to eliminate BL books[91].. On the other hand, Teramachi stated, "It is contrary to the facts from various information on the Internet, news reports such as newspapers, and the progress of the case."[91].

Midori Teramachi also said that the Sakai Municipal Library, which obeyed the demands based on aversion to homosexuality, had a prejudice that "boys love should not be shown to young people" and a prejudice against sexual minorities. That is why. What happened at the Sakai Municipal Library is nothing but the "gender book exclusion" case.[91]"It is a common practice for discriminators to further disseminate the bad image of the" BL book "that overflows in the streets and press for self-regulation. (Omitted) I must select, distinguish, and hide books. Is a "burning book" and I would like to say that it leads to "discrimination".[91]"Unless the basic principle is'do not exclude books for whatever reason', the second and third'book exclusion'cases will occur."[101][97].

Keiko Atsuta has a big problem in removing a large amount of books from the library in the first place, but as a principle problem of removing books with such a rough designation, it can be roughly divided into "BL" arbitrarily. In a nutshell, books are excluded "(there is no clear definition of whether it is BL, so the library can choose the books to be removed arbitrarily)," "BL" can be excluded in a lump sum. It's arbitrary in the first place "(the libraryZoningShould be done)[3].. Other issues are as follows:[102].

  • What is BL?
  • Is BL obscene? 18 prohibited? Is it pornography?
  • If BL is harmful, "for whom" and "why" is it harmful?
  • Is it okay for obscene books to be in the library?
  • From the perspective of library freedom, how is the Sakai City Library responding?

The following points have been pointed out as problems in the controversy.[102].

  • The position of the library to provide all kinds of knowledge based on the freedom of the library is unknown.
  • Due to discomfort with BL / self-weight consciousness, thinking was stopped or the issue was replaced.

This case was both a violation of freedom of expression and a clear discrimination case, but it was difficult to understand, and at that time it received little attention from the press and intellectuals.[3].. In the background, women's own contempt for enjoying sexual expression and the coldness of the world (conservative)Feminist(Including), as well as bashing from male nerds to fujoshiHomophobia,Sexual minoritiesIt has also been pointed out that there is discrimination[3].

The movement to regulate expressions for BL has continued since then, for example, as of 2020.Tokyo Metropolitan Youth Development OrdinanceSpecified monthly byUnhealthy booksMost of them are BL works[103].. In addition to being unable to sell the designated works to young people in Tokyo,Amazon.co.jpSales will be suspended in Tokyo (book titles designated as unhealthy can be found on the Tokyo website.List of unhealthy designated documentsCan be confirmed at).Member of the House of Councilors Of山 田太郎Has expressed concern about BL regulations for the reason of healthy youth development.[104].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ American critic Drew Pagliasotti has described BL, which is spreading internationally, as Glo.BLiIt is called zation (global BLization) and is defined as a concrete example of globalization itself.
  2. ^ Araki originally presided over a doujin circle[10]It's been half a year since I started the company from the general public and published the BL anthology.
  3. ^ Founded as Blue Porcelain Byblos in 1988, in 1997ByblosIt became.
  4. ^ Do not read "June".
  5. ^ The first appearance was in the 1981 magazine "Fan Road"[1]
  6. ^ "Nodame Cantabile』Nodame, the setting of a piano genius and a garbage woman.
  7. ^ Fumi YoshinagaIt is,Girl cartoonHowever, at first glance, women who are on par with men are often drawn, but in that case, not only can they work, but they also look good and fashionable.Woman powerIt is pointed out that it is a high character. In shojo manga, "女 の 子It's full of implicit messages that you have to be fashionable and fall in love, and it's great to keep taking it like a shower.stressAnd some women are unacceptable. He states that the reason why there is a big vein of painters in the world of BL is that there are many female artists who want to draw something else, freed from "fashionable" things.
  8. ^ Fumi Yoshinaga jokingly calls it "one-hole, one-stick principle," and Kazuma Kodaka states that this is because the <Uke> character is to some extent the reader's ideal.
  9. ^ A couple of men, but a child is born between them.
  10. ^ Currently, it is famous as a long-established store of BL paperback, but it seems that it was not specialized in BL at the beginning.[1]
  11. ^ Not BL, butSunako KayataPopular fantasy "DelphiniaWas also first announced as a derivative work of "Captain Tsubasa".[61]
  12. ^ CartoonistYamada NaitoIs named.
  13. ^ Harlequin OfRomance novel The1979å¹´Was first translated into Japanese. The word harlequin refers not only to the publications of the company, but also to works of a similar story type.
  14. ^ Originally it was a slash that originated overseas, and it was also popular in Japan due to a special setting regarding gender and control/controlled relationships in the Yaoi/BL genre. Detail isFujoshi #Terms mainly used by FujyuSee.
  15. ^ Still moreJapan Library AssociationIt is,Declaration on liberty of the librarySo, "the library does not specially treat certain materials, modify the contents of materials, remove them from the bookshelf, or discard them, unless there is a valid reason." That it is an obscene publicationThe judgment has been finalizedHowever, these restrictions should be applied as limited as possible and should be reviewed over time.”[90]As for books containing sex expressions, there is no problem in collecting and lending by the library unless it is decided that they are obscene publications. "We will not abandon the freedom of collection due to pressure or interference from individuals, organizations or groups, and will not self-regulate because of fear of conflict."
  16. ^ What is feminachi?feminismとNaziFeminism andGender-freeA coined word used by people who are hostile to. It does not mean that there is a relationship between feminism and the Nazis.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Boys Love Retrospective Chronology: Gourmet/Kusuko Fubun [20160322 Edition] BLlogia preparation room
  2. ^ Former editorial staff talk about the BL industry situation XNUMXst "Relationship between author and editor" Boys' Love Special Review Site Chiruchiru
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Keiko Atsuta "Disappearance of Discrimination and Enjoyment of Sex Seen from "BL" Exclusion" The Case of "BL" Exclusion at Sakai City Library" "Poetry and Criticism Yuriika Special Feature BL on the Run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nishimura Mari Part 1: Women love love stories between men! Boys love is fun! --Yaoi/Yaoi/YAOI now Seitosha
  5. ^ a b c Higashizono “Story for Me and Yaoi Reconsidered” “Poetry and Criticism Yuriika Special Feature BL on the Run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Nishimura Mari 4th Where is the Arab Prince going?-BL is a multi-layered structure Boys love is fun! --Yaoi/Yaoi/YAOI now Seitosha
  7. ^ a b Bijutsu Techo December 2014 Boys Love | Bijutsu Shuppan Co., Ltd.
  8. ^ a b c Kazumi Nagaike “Globalization of BL Studies From Japanese BL Studies to Transnational BL Studies” Fusumi Oshiro ed. “Woman Manga Research MANGA Connecting Europe, America, Japan and Asia” 2015, Ayumisha
  9. ^ a b c "The reason why the "BL" work, which depicts romance between men, has become major”. NEWS Post Seven (August 2020, 10). 2020/10/4Browse.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ritsu Shimotsuki (Ruta Shirogi, Tachiko Araki)I'll talk about Yaoi.Stagger 2013.01.24
  11. ^ Image XNUMX yen Byakuya Shobo Co., Ltd. Published on December XNUMX, XNUMX (AXNUMX size) Gabacho's room
  12. ^ Yumiko Sugiura "Otaku Women's Studies: Corrupt Women's Thought System" Hara Shobo, 2006, 136 pages.ISBN-978 4562039920.
  13. ^ a b c Light Novel History Chronology 1990-1999 Light Novel Method Research Institute
  14. ^ a b Eiko Kakinuma, Toshihiko Sagawa "From "Atsumi" to "Boys Love"! What was "JUNE"Sai Sai Woman
  15. ^ a b c d e f Shinon Miura "I'm Not a Sumi" Shinshokan, 2006
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kazuma Kodaka x Fumi Yoshinaga "What You Can Only Draw with Boys' Love" "Fumi Yoshinaga Interviews: Chat with that person and here only" Ota Publishing, 2007
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Yuki Senda "The secret pleasures of the noble man or the super-bad man" "Poetry and criticism Yuriika special feature BL on the run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  18. ^ a b Nishimura Mari Fifth substitute bride: a fighting girl and a passive man Boys love is fun! --Yaoi/Yaoi/YAOI now Seitosha
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Atsuko Kaneda and Yoko Ekobo "On the Permeation and Diffusion of BL" "Poetry and Criticism Yuriika Special Feature BL on the Run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shinon Miura x Fumi Yoshinaga "Feminism has nothing to do with you" "Fumi Yoshinaga Interviews, Chat with that person and here only" Ota Publishing, 2007
  21. ^ messy "Corruption Women's Culture in the English-speaking World: The World of Unknown Slashfiction" BIGLOBE News May 5
  22. ^ a b c d e f Shibunna "My BL Nouvelberg School" "Poetry and Criticism Yuriika Special Feature BL on the Run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Chino Takumasa Subculture in East Asia, Transformation of Literature and Mind of Youth ─ Anime, Manga, Light Novel, Cosplay, Haruki Murakami ─ WASEDA RILAS JOURNAL NO. 1 (2013. 10)
  24. ^ a b Q. Definitions of BL, JUNE, and Ami: History of Words Gourd BL site Chiru Chiru
  25. ^ a b c d Q. What is Atsumi? Temporary flow Gourd BL site Chiru Chiru
  26. ^ nodada "Is Marimo Ragawa's "New York, New York" "Yoi BL"? " 2008-12-01
  27. ^ a b c Do gay people read BL? Are you bad at rotten girls? I asked the parties withnews (with news)
  28. ^ Follow-up of "Yaoi Controversy" Dearly Beloved
  29. ^ Masaki Sato "Shoujo Manga and Homophobia" Nishihuku Orientation to Occident
  30. ^ Mitsui Koizumi Correct Boys Love Course Special Extra Edition To You Who Want to Write "Yoi-Iron" rather than Yaoi Honey Kitchen Internet Archive 2007/4/26
  31. ^ a b Akiko Hori "Reality and Fantasy, Dreams in Between" "Poetry and Criticism Yuriika Special Feature BL on the Run! ] Seitosha, 2012
  32. ^ Inoue It's not easy to say that it's a rotten girl! ? Difference between "BL" and "Bromance"
  33. ^ Akira Karasujo "Please give me a permit!" series
  34. ^ Izumi Tanizaki "Happy Happiness" Series
  35. ^ Saemi Yoda "Brilliant ☆ BLUE"
  36. ^ Ayaka Hanakawa "In the Lips rather than a Kiss" Series
  37. ^ Matsuoka Natsuki "WILD WIND"
  38. ^ Mayu Ueda "Romance Silent Rights"
  39. ^ Michi Ichiho "No More Bed"
  40. ^ Sachi Michiru "Ikuta-san's Little Prince"
  41. ^ Yanako Sakurai "Cocoon"
  42. ^ Miki Shinya "Why don't you come to my wife-the wife of a fisherman?"
  43. ^ Sakura Sakuya "Permanent Location"
  44. ^ Miyako Fujisaki / Natsuki Koujima "After the driving school!?"
  45. ^ Toko Kawai "In the walnut"
  46. ^ Tobinase Kevin "Love and Translation Cider"
  47. ^ Tomoki Takaya/Waiat "Hanagura"
  48. ^ Sato Inoue "10 Dances"
  49. ^ Nishimura Mari The 2nd BL has a royal road-Cinderella is a professional Boys love is fun! --Yaoi/Yaoi/YAOI now Seitosha
  50. ^ a b "Creation and education" by Keiko Takemiya, a manga artist and educator when singing poems of the wind and wood Asahi Shimbun
  51. ^ a b c d e f Naoto Misaki Girls aim for paradise Doujinshi Life and Culture Research Institute
  52. ^ a b Naoto Misaki 2007 years 7 month 21 day (Saturday) Doujinshi Life and Culture Research Institute
  53. ^ a b [Ota Angry rot girl, angry rot girl] 1976 rot girl
  54. ^ a b Grape cucumber Adult thoughts inside and outside the humorous words
  55. ^ Emikoyama "Skeptical Dance XNUMX" Deer Plus Comics Udauda Weblog
  56. ^ Naoto Misaki History of Female Anipalo after "Captain Tsubasa" Doujinshi Life and Culture Research Institute
  57. ^ Fumiko Yama, BL Supporters, “I Love Boys Love-Complete BL Comic Guide” Ota Publishing, 2005
  58. ^ Kazuko Kawahara "After all, I like Boys Love" Manga Laboo
  59. ^ Satoshi Takagi Reexamination of "Light Novel" and "Girl Novel" Genres-Reorganization from the Viewpoint of Bisexual and Unified Literary History- Core Ethics Vol. 7 (2011)
  60. ^ Pioneer of the BL world "BE x BOY" is the 20th anniversary. Master Maho Mineo finally talks about BL. September 2013, 2 Livedoor News
  61. ^ Doujin Senjou Doujinshi Roche Road
  62. ^ "KIZUNA-Kizuna-" Kazuma Kodaka's Immortal Nintendo BL Manga PUUL
  63. ^ Chiputaso I tried to illustrate the ecology of an overly complicated "nerd woman". In the end: Alasa nerd woman, the theory dropped by "CC Sakura" ITmedia
  64. ^ a b c d Yuri Torimura World's No. XNUMX [Receive] Wanted BL History Class APPREVIEW
  65. ^ a b c BL/ Boys Love Basic knowledge of coterie terms
  66. ^ a b c Former BL editors talk about the BL industry situation XNUMXth "Becoming a BL writer" Boys' Love Special Review Site Chiruchiru
  67. ^ Nishimura Mari The 3rd Butler, Maid, and Glasses: BL of inversion and deviation Boys love is fun! --Yaoi/Yaoi/YAOI now Seitosha
  68. ^ Fumi Nikaido, a cultural actress acclaimed for the movie "Himizu", was a fujoshi girl! Da Vinci News
  69. ^ The new book publication situation in 08 National Publishing Association
  70. ^ lisagasu's entry
  71. ^ Megara's entry
  72. ^ Mediaization BL (Boys Love) Chronology Book off online
  73. ^ What is BL Tanka with a big boom on the net? Da Vinci News
  74. ^ Interview with Jyunko's "What do I do?" Otaku girls decorate flowers on the altar when their favorite character dies!?
  75. ^ A feat! "I don't want to touch it" No.1 in the Oricon weekly ranking! ZIP introduction BL site Chiru Chiru
  76. ^ BL commentary is booming in 2015! BL site Chiru Chiru
  77. ^ The musical "Prince of Tennis" has accumulated over 200 million mobilizations! ! Tenimu news
  78. ^ The recording artistRaschild(France),Annemarie Schwarzenbach(Switzerland),Mary Renault(England),Mari Mori(Japan), Janet Shayne,Marion Zimmer Bradley(USA) + John Jay Wells
  79. ^ Classic BL novel collection 平凡 社
  80. ^ Heibonsha releases BL novels "Classical BL novels" written by women in various countries before Yaoi culture Netorabo
  81. ^ BL's finally appeared in that South Park! BL site Chiru Chiru
  82. ^ [Fujyo] South Park official BL [Tuicre] Present the France Trip
  83. ^ a b It's dug and dug around! Birth of 18 prohibited illustration SNS "Horn" for rot KAI-YOU.net
  84. ^ BL Drama CD ranked No. 1 in Oricon Daily Ranking IRORIO
  85. ^ Kenji Nojima, Hiroshi Kamiya, etc. have been mobilizing 13 people for the theater animation "Classmates" and box office revenue has exceeded 2 million yen! The screening theater is expanding! Animate Times
  86. ^ Nishihara Tsuru Ihara "Otokodai Daikan" is comicalized by a group of modern BL artists! Da Vinci News
  87. ^ But I'm getting married! ~A BL comic artist's mess about marriage~ Kansai TV
  88. ^ Grape XQO (Grape and Cusk) "Reika's Memory ~ Shota Yaoi Miscellaneous Story ~ ☆ Volume XNUMX'
  89. ^ Large amount of homosexual novels in Sakai City Library World Daily October 2008, 10
  90. ^ Declaration on liberty of the library Japan Library Association
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mu-Shino Sound Communication" No.68 (Published December 2008.12.5, XNUMX)
  92. ^ December 20, 12 Sakai City Audit Committee Publication No. 28 Sakai City
  93. ^ BL novel removal case at Sakai City Library (2008)
  94. ^ Shunsuke Uotani About the Unification Church's View of Marriage Uncover the fiction of "brainwashing" and "mind control"
  95. ^ The same-sex marriage problem that affects the future of Japan World Peace and Unification Family Union (former Unification Church)
  96. ^ [Christianity Conservation and Korean Society-2-] Not just the Unification Church! DailyNK Japan
  97. ^ a b c d Chika Igaya TSUTAYA Library selection problem shakes up. Who is "librarian freedom" and "inappropriate books" inappropriate for? December 2015, 12 Huffington Post
  98. ^ a b Sakai City swaying in the library "Boys Love" raises distrust of citizens Kyodo News
  99. ^ 5499 books have disappeared from the bookshelf of Sakai City Library! ?/ Protect your right to know and freedom of expression! Midori no Ichikai
  100. ^ Sakai City Library's 5706 "Specific (BL) Book Exclusion Lists" are all released! / Classification and organization by author and publisher Midori no Ichikai
  101. ^ Why did the "Specific Book Exclusion" Case Occur at Sakai City Library? "Gender Book Exclusion" Investigation by Plaintiffs Secretariat, Teramachi Midori Midori no Ichikai
  102. ^ a b natsu_san Sakai City Library BL problem summary (not organized) __ScrapBook of Plumber
  103. ^ Tokyo. "List of unhealthy designated documents, list of unhealthy designated cancer tools and blades". 2020/7/11Browse.About 2017% of BL works in 6, and 2018% of BL works in 2019 and 8.
  104. ^ RAKUJOB. “Special Interview Planning ・ Interview with Member of the House of Councilors Taro Yamada! (Part XNUMX): Is BL illegal? !! How is "freedom of expression" at stake?". 2020/12/11Browse.

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