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👍 | Professor Jiro Yamaguchi "This is unreasonable" in Prime Minister Suga's "Olympic Games not premised on vaccines"


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Professor Jiro Yamaguchi "This is unreasonable" in Prime Minister Suga's "Olympic Games not premised on vaccines"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Recklessness like a battotai plunging into a line of machine guns.
 

Jiro Yamaguchi, a professor at Hosei University, posted a new post on Twitter on the 21st.Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga said, "We will hold the Olympics without the premise of vaccines." → Continue reading

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machine gun

machine gun(Machine gun,British: Machine gun) IsammunitionIt is a gun that fires continuously while automatically loading.Abbreviation is "Machine gun"EnglishとGerman[Note 1]Then "MG. "

Strictly speaking, full size when it is just a machine gun[Note 2] OfrifleIt is common to refer to something that can control the battlefield over a wide area by firing bullets intermittently.On the other hand, a gun that can fire automatically (Submachine gun,Assault rifle,Automatic rifle) Is sometimes called a "machine gun", and its definition is not always strict.

Overview

Some are operated by two people, the shooter and the loader, and some are handled by one shooter.Machine gunIs operated by two or more people.ammunitionSupply was striped in large numbersBelt link methodMost of them are done in, but dozens of shots are attached to the gun.Magazine methodThere is also.

Advantage
  1. barrageCan be stretched
  2. Bullet collection effect[1]Increases penetration
Disadvantage
  1. Heavy ammunition consumption
  2. Heavy guns and ammunition, poor maneuverability

Definition

For machine guns in a broad sense,Rotary multi-barreled machine gun,Heavy machine gun,General purpose machine gun,Light machine gun,Squad automatic weapon,Submachine gun,Assault rifleIncludes all firearms capable of fully automatic shooting.しかし、狭義には持続的なBut in a narrow sense it is persistentSuppressive fireIt refers only to rotary multi-gun machine guns, heavy machine guns, light machine guns, general-purpose machine guns, and squad automatic weapons that can be used. "rifleBullet or more powerbulletIt is a firearm that fires continuously. "[2].

Machine gunThe definition of the difference between a machine gun and a machine gun is also ambiguous and varies by organization and age. 21世紀初頭の日本や米国では基本的にはBasically in Japan and the United States in the early XNUMXst centurycaliberA machine gun with a value of less than 20 mm is called a machine gun, and a machine gun with a size of 20 mm or more is called a machine gun.Machine gunSay.Japanese ArmyThen, until June 40, all are called machine guns, and after June 6, the conventional machine guns with a size of 40 mm or less were renamed as machine guns, and after January 6, this category was abolished. Whether it is a gun or a gun is decided for each formalization[3],Japanese NavyThen gun over 40mm,German armyThen, 30 mm or more was defined as a gun.

Classification of firearms that can be fired continuously

  • machine gun
ConventionalrifleWith bulletsHandgunUse powerful ammo between bulletsAutomatic rifle
A small machine gun that uses weak ammunition such as pistols
Fully automatic launch is possibleHandgun

Similar to the definition, this classification also fluctuates, and squad automatic weapons are not so distinct from general-purpose machine guns and light machine guns.[2].

Mechanism overview and operation method

With machine guns, the cycle of "loading-> firing-> pod ejection" is repeated by simply pulling the trigger, and many machine guns haveboltThis is achieved by the reciprocating motion of the (free bottom).

BipodShoot while moving using (bipod)Light machine gunEtc. are direct sights (sights and gates, or scopes, etc.)SightShoot while visually observing the target using)Gun rackTo useHeavy machine gunIn addition to direct aimingBarrelIndirect fire is possible by specifying the elevation angle of and sweeping a certain section at a long distance.

One shooter is many enemiesSoldierCan be killedfirearmIs. Operation is basically done by two or more people, the shooter fires,ammunitionThe hand is a belt link (Belt) Is often held.infantryGeneral support for the unitfirearm.

If you keep firing, the barrel will overheat and the inside willRiflingIs easily worn out, so many barrels can be replaced quickly.[Note 3].. It is said that it is recommended to replace it with a continuous fire of about 200-500 shots.[2].

With the advent of machine guns and the defensive position centered on machine gunsTrench warfareUntil then due to the spread ofbayonetAssaultInfantry tactics that mainly broke through the front of the machine gun were invalidated, and the main thing was to break through after infiltrating the gap of the machine gun position.Penetration tacticsAndArmored combat vehicleThrow in a group and break throughArmored warfareAnd laterAerial plane operation battleAlso began to take place.

Machine gun team

infantryWhen dealing with machine guns, generally a few peopleSmall classIs done by. Team leader (Commander), There was a time when it was used by four people, an observer, a shooter, and a bullet feeder,21st centuryCurrently, there are many operations with about 2 people[Note 4].

Construction

Blowback system

The blowback method is an operation method that uses recoil.BarrelとboltRefers to those that do not have a mechanism to lock.

Simple blowback method
The simple blowback method has a simple structure and can be manufactured inexpensively, but it has structural limitations (reference) And powerfulammunitionBecause it is not suitable for useShort recoil method, "Slow blowback method", "API blowback" and other methods were derived.
Slow blowback method
A mechanism that delays the retreat of the bolt is added to the simple blowback method. As an example of adoption for machine guns,Roller delay type OfHK21 / HK23It has been known.
API blowback method
API (Advanced Primer Impact) blowbackOerlikon cannonIt is a type of blowback method used in the above, and there is no example of its adoption in machine guns.
Bolt ignites while advancing the barrel.Since the bolt ignites while moving the barrel forward, the bolt continues to move forward even after the ignition due to inertia for a while.warhead muzzleBy the time it pops out, the bolt begins to recoil, pulling out the cylinder, ejecting the pods, and resetting the firing mechanism.cartridgeMust be a straight case with no bottleneck or taper as it moves back and forth in the chamber during the ignition cycle.
It has the advantage of making the engine part lightweight and simple, and reducing the recoil of the gun itself, but it is structurally severe because the cartridge case moves back and forth in the ignition cycle, and it is a burden on the cartridge case because it is a straight case. There is also a drawback that the initial speed tends to be low.Furthermore, there is a serious drawback that it cannot be used in combination with a propeller tuning device.

Recoil system

Various recoil methods use the recoil at the time of shooting, and have a mechanism to perform some kind of closed coupling until the gas pressure at the time of firing the bullet drops to the extent that it does not harm the shooter.

World War IMost of the machine guns used in each country by then were recoil type.実用化されたPractical useGast typeThe recoil method is used for the cannon.狭義の機関銃には含まれないが、多くの(半)自動式Not included in the narrow sense of machine guns, but many (semi) automaticrevolverAlso adopts the recoil method.

Short recoil method
After the bullet is fired, the lock mechanism is released by the barrel combined with the bolt (free bottom) sitting back together for a shorter distance than the cartridge case.
After unlocking, the barrel stops, only the breech bolt continues to retreat, and the drawer, pod ejection, and firing mechanism are reset.バネなどにより復座した遊底は次のThe breech bolt that has been restored by a spring etc. is as followsammunitionAfter loading the chamber into the chamber, it hits the barrel while sitting back and pushes it back to its original position to rejoin.
Long recoil method
After the bullet is fired, the barrel combined with the bolt (free bottom) sits back together for a long distance (approximately the entire length of the cartridge case) to unlock the lock mechanism.
cartridgeIs held in the medicine room for a long time, so a large amountGunpowderSuitable for burning slowly.For this reason,Large diameter OfMachine gunAlthough it is used for such purposes, the long recoil method was adopted for the machine gun.FM mle1915 light machine gunIs known as a famous failure.

Gas pressure actuation method

BarrelA part of the propellant gas is taken out from the gas port and guided to the gas cylinder, and by moving the gas piston, the barrel andboltThis is the method of unlocking the machine gun, which is mainly used in modern machine guns.

GunpowderCorrosion is likely to occur because it uses the combustion gas offirearmThere was a drawback that the life of theammunitionHas been improved20st centuryAfter the second half, machine gunsAutomatic rifleHas come to be widely adopted in.

Chain gun

Chain gunIs a machine gun that does not use the gas or recoil generated during shooting, but moves the bolt back and forth with external power connected via a chain, and repeatedly fires a cycle of bullet feeding, firing, and pod ejection.Since unexploded ordnance is forcibly discharged, it is unlikely that continuous shooting will be impossible due to jamming.

Gatling gun

Gatling gunIs numerous around the gun shaftBarrelIt has a structure in which it is continuously loaded, fired, and ejected by rotating it with external power (there is also a self-driven type by gas pressure operation method).この方式の最大の利点は、不発The biggest advantage of this method is misfireCartridgeEven if it is mixed in, it can be forcibly eliminated by power and the firing can be continued.また、銃身一本当たりの発射速度は低くて済むためにAlso, because the rate of fire per barrel is low.GunpowderThe barrel is less likely to overheat due to the heat generated by the combustion and friction of the barrel, and it is also less likely to cause distortion of parts.However, the number of parts used is inevitably larger than that of the single barrel type, which is a factor that causes excessive weight.

History

14st centuryOr later,銃Trial and error has been repeated by various people in order to improve the rapid fire performance.Leonardo da VinciAlso wrote down the idea of ​​a machine gun.

16st centuryAs an engineer and polymathPersiaBornIndianFat Fuller Shiraji,BarrelThere are 17Black powderInvented a stuffed (hand gun).The United KingdomThen, a person named Palmer wrote a paper addressed to the Royal Society.bulletIt describes the possibility of automatic shooting using the recoil of the firing and the leaking gas pressure.

The first one with detailed material leftUKInvented by a lawyer17185/15Obtained a patent under the name "Defense". Ahead of the timescaliber25.4mm flintlock typeRevolver cannonThen, a concrete explanation such as the structure of the chamber is given.1722In the public shooting test conducted in, 7 shots were fired in 63 minutes. However, there were some unrealistic parts such as the use of round bullets for Christians and square bullets for Turkish heathens, and they were never actually manufactured.

19st centuryMany barrages by the middlefirearmAndSemi-automatic firearmAppears.Volley gun(MitrailleuseEtc.) and double barrelHandgunRelied on multiple layers of gun parts.Pepper box pistolMade one hammer, but needed multiple barrels.revolverIn advanceMagazineIt is possible to fire with one barrel as long as you put a bullet in it, but it was still semi-automatic like Pakkulugan.

1834,デンマークInventor NJ Rapenitz invents the pneumatic machine gun. It was possible to fire 1 shots per minute, but it was not put into practical use because it was a very large-scale device, such as requiring two 80m flywheels.1854, BritishSir Henry Bessemer vaporAutomatic usingBreech loaderObtained a patent. CompleteAutoloaderWas equipped with, but later epoch-makingSteelmakingLaw (Converter), I have come to pay attention to it.

Until this time,EuropeMachine guns were developed mainly in society, but in Western society where the spirit of chivalry still remained, white people戦 争Their use is repelled, mainlyColonyIt was used against the inhabitants of (it is said that it had to be used because it was overwhelmingly defeated by the number of people on the battlefield of the colony, not chivalry). It was these less ethically constrained emerging economies that were first used extensively among whites.The United States of America OfCivil WarIt was from. The military rationality of the machine gun was prioritized over the chivalry spirit[4].

1861During the Civil War, salesman JD MillsLincolnIn front of the presidentUnion Repeating GunWe demonstrated a gun called. This gun was a hand-cranked machine gun capable of automatic firing with a single barrel, and was capable of firing up to 1 shots per minute. Lincoln called it a coffee mill gun, and with the enthusiastic persuasion of Mills, he pushed the opposition of the surroundings and pushed 120 per one.DollarI bought all 10 of Mills's at a high price. This is the first record of a machine gun being sold. The developer and origin of this machine gun is unknown.1860-Although it is said to have been manufactured by Wilson Ager in 1861,1855It is possible that the prototype was manufactured in. With the names of Williams Palmer and Edward Nugent along with the ager, there is a court case over the patent right of the gun, and there is no record of the patent for this gun in the United States. In England, Azure was patented and was known as Azure Gun. This gunU.S. Forces OfOfficerIt was purchased in small numbers by the company and was used for defense of bridges and the like. It is the first record that a machine gun was used in the war, but its reputation was extremely bad due to its lack of reliability and safety.1865By then all had been sold by the military.

1862August-1863During May, there were more than 5 patents related to machine guns in the United States, but in factarmy,NavyOnly 7 were tested in.

The most successful and first successful of this eraGatling gunIn 1862Richard Jordan GatlingInvented. By manually rotating the bundled barrel and chamber, it was possible to load the next bullet and fire continuously, which was the most reliable compared to other machine guns. Even so, ammunition with low processing accuracy quickly caused a jam, and the military's reputation was low. The model 1865, announced in 1865, has been significantly improved in reliability, and the military has revised its reputation.1866Was officially adopted by the United States Army. In addition to being adopted by the United Kingdom overseas,Japan,ロシア,FranceIt became widespread as each country purchased it. In the United States, it was also deployed to the Self-Defense Forces, etc., and was also used by mining companies to combat worker strikes and riots.

Gatling guns and similar ones are from the Civil WarIndian War,French-French warAlthough it was put into the field, its mobility was poor and only a small number were put in, so although its usefulness was recognized, there were many issues and the results of the battle were limited.The first machine gun used in Japan was this Gatling gun.1868ToBoshin WarIs one aspectHokuetsu WarでNagaoka DomainWas the elder ofTsunenosuke KawaiWas put into actual battle for the first time.

Introducing a reliable machine gun

In the United States1871Utilizes gas pressure in FranceHotchkiss machine gunHas appeared. 1884年(特許取得は1883年)には、アメリカ人のIn XNUMX (patented in XNUMX), AmericansHiram MaximIs in EnglandWater cooling・ Recoil typeMaxim machine gunInvented1891ToBritish ArmyWas adopted by.マキシム機関銃はMaxim machine gunVickersIt was mass-produced by the company and similar products were produced in many countries.1905ToColtCompanyAir cooling-Produced a gas pressure type Browning machine gun.As a result, the Gatling gun, which had a complicated mechanism and was heavy, was rapidly obsolete.これには燃焼カスが大量に発生し銃身あたりの連射数の限界が低いThis causes a large amount of combustion residue and the limit of the number of continuous shots per barrel is low.Black powder-Brown powderCartridgeTherefore, the number of continuous shots is relatively large even without cleaning.Smokeless powderSwitching to cartridges also contributed significantly.

Massive use of machine guns

Russo-Japanese WarThen,Japanese army"Hotchkiss machine gun"Stapler type cannonAdopted as, on the other handRussian army TheMaxim PM1905 Heavy Machine GunIt was used.Siege siegeThe Russian machine gun showed overwhelming destructive power against the attacking Japanese army.その一方、日本側もOn the other hand, the Japanese sidecavalryI made him carry a machine gun and developed an effective usage.At that time, the method of operating the machine gun at the time of the attack had not been established.Also, early machine guns were big and heavy,tripodSuch asGun rackIt is put on the screen and operated by 3 or more people.Base,FortressAlthough it was suitable for defensive weapons such as, it was not suitable for attacks.その後、攻撃時に歩兵とともに前進し1-2人で運用できるAfter that, when attacking, you can move forward with the infantry and operate with XNUMX-XNUMX peopleLight machine gunWas developed.

With the advent of machine guns, a large number of personnel have been worn out.

World War I machine gun

World War IEven in, the machine gun is very powerful and chargesinfantry Barbed wireThe defensive side shot down the place where it was stranded with a machine gun, and the attacking side caused a large number of casualties.そのため、双方ともTherefore, bothTrenchThe front line was stalemate by building a position in the camp, and this wastankIt became a factor to give birth to.Also,aircraft OfArmedInitially, it was an improved version for the ground, but it was required to have a high rate of fire, a lighter weight, and to operate reliably even under acceleration.SynchronizerIs invented, etc.For aircraft onlyWas developed.

With the advent of machine guns, the amount of ammunition that can be fired per person has increased dramatically.World War IThe battlefield has changed completely since then.それまでの戦争ではIn the war until thenAutomatic firearmIs not widespread and is the main thermal powerrifleHas low accuracy and took a long time to reload.従って、お互いが密集形態により、銃剣Therefore, due to the dense form of each other, the bayonetAssaultIn many cases, it was settled.This is due to the large number of reliable machine gunsTrench-Barbed wireIt is no longer possible for a living human to break through the position composed of by bayonet.This makes it impossible for each other to break through each other's trench positions.arms,tacticsConsists of a machine gunBaseChanged to something to break through [5].

As a firearm that can be switched between semi-automatic and fully automatic and can be carried, loaded, and fired by one soldier, it was developed and mass-produced just before World War I (deployment started after the war started) and was regarded as a problematic work.FM mle1915 light machine gun(Still mass-produced about 25 and adopted by the military of at least 11 countries), development and mass production started almost around the time of the outbreak of World War I, and it was regarded as a successful work.Browning M1918 automatic rifleIs mass-produced and used in later generationsAutomatic rifleとSquad automatic weaponDevelop into.

At the end of World War ISubmachine gunWas put into actual battle, and showed its usefulness in trench hand-to-hand combat.

Fully automatic shooting with practical accuracy is possible even for general soldiers by loading a large number of weakly armed small caliber cartridgescarbine(At that time) class fully automatic rifle, later generationAssault rifleEquivalent to its ancestorFedorov M1916Was put into development and mass production.

Gast type GermanyWas developed inSecond World WarLaterUSSR(Afterロシア) Will start mass production.

World War II machine gun

Second World WarでGerman armyUsed byMG34Is usually a light machine gun, if you attach a tripodHeavy machine gunDeveloped as a multipurpose machine gun that can be used as a. GPMG (General purpose machine gun) Is a precursor.

Revolver cannon GermanyDeveloped in Japan, mass production will start in the west including postwar (west) Germany.

During the interwar period, the technical prospects for full-load bullet-class (semi-) automatic rifles were established, and during World War II, they were put into actual battles in the United States and other countries, showing their usefulness.In addition, a group of (semi-) automatic rifles that use bullets that are not small in caliber but have characteristics such as weakness, shortness, and carbine have been developed and mass-produced, and have shown their usefulness.

Machine guns since World War II

Among the light machine gunssquadThe lighter type equipped for each is "SAW (Squad automatic weapon) ”, Which became popular in the postwar military.Normally, it is operated by only one shooter.rifleThere are also many simple machine guns developed from.戦後実戦で高精度全自動射撃が困難なフルロード弾を使用するUse full-load bullets that are difficult to shoot with high accuracy in actual postwar battlesBattle rifleFully automatic shooting of lightweight, small caliber, high initial velocity, low recoil bullets (intermediate bullets) with practical accuracy is possible in competition withAssault rifleAs a result of overcoming and replacing, squad automatic weapons also tend to switch to those that use assault rifles and common weapons.

In a broad senseSubmachine gunIs also included in this category.特にIn particularVillar Perosa M1915It is,HandgunIt is deployed as a lightweight twin machine gun that uses bullets.但し各国軍でHowever, in each country's armyAutomatic rifleAs a result of the widespread use of (especially assault rifles), submachine guns did not become the main armament of infantry.

aircraft jetWhen it was changed, it became difficult to deal with high-speed aircraft because the rate of fire was insufficient with single-barreled machine guns and cannons.Therefore, as a machine gun that bundles multiple barrels and is more effective in continuous shooting, "Vulcan cannonThe Gatling gun has been revived in the form of a motor-fed type.さらに、大型で発火し難いIn addition, it is large and difficult to ignite.KeroseneUse system fuelThis aircraftAs a result of the need to mount a large amount of explosive charge in order to cope with the above, the diameter was increased in combination with other methods.

Chain gunHas been developed and mass-produced in the United States.

Related books

  • "Social History of the Machine Gun" Heibonsha Library 635 Translated by John Ellis Michio Ochi Heibonsha 2008 ISBN 978-4-582-76635-6

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Machine gun is called "Maschinengewehr" in German
  2. ^ It is a 7.62mm or 7.92mm class bullet used in rifles at that time, and it has a strong recoil because it is premised on injective function.後に反動が弱く連射しやすい中間弾を使用するアサルトライフルが登場したため、それと区別するため以前の単射を前提とした小銃弾をフルサイズと呼ぶLater, assault rifles that used intermediate bullets with weak recoil and easy firing appeared, so to distinguish it from that, the rifle bullets that assumed the previous injective function are called full size.
  3. ^ Until after World War IWater coolingThe formula cooling method was the mainstream, but before World War IIAir coolingAppeared, and 21st century ago, the air-cooled method of exchanging barrels became the mainstream.
  4. ^ It consists of a shooter and an ammunition hand, although it varies depending on the application such as a heavy machine gun.運搬に関してはその限りではないNot limited to transportation

Source

  1. ^ The bullet-collecting effect means that if you focus on one point with short-range shooting, you are more likely to break through strong protection.
  2. ^ a b c Atsushi Ohnami "Illustrated Heavy Arms" Shinkigensha September 2008, 9 First edition published ISBN 9784775306512
  3. ^ "Abolition of the designation classification of machine guns and machine gunsAsian Historical Materials Center Ref. C01005020700 
  4. ^ Akira Kato, "History of Weapons", published by Fuyo Shobo, January 2008, 1, first printed ISBN 9784829504130  John Ellis, The Social History of the Machine Gun, Heibonsha, 1993
  5. ^ Impact of World War I on the Japanese Army-Focusing on adaptation to infantry tactics- --Ministry of Defense Access: April 2017, 4

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