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😀 | Illustration of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons "I want you to feel closer to the problem"


Photo Illustration of Mr. Arihara expressing the development of nuclear weapons (both provided by Mr. Arihara)

Illustration of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons "I want you to feel closer to the problem"

 
If you write the contents roughly
The "stockpile" describes that the blue devil is trying to press the red button near the nuclear weapon, and the nuclear button is in a situation where it is unknown when it will be pressed.
 

Seiji Arihara (72) = Tokyo = who makes a movie about the atomic bomb is banned by the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which will come into effect on the 22nd ... → Continue reading

 Nagasaki Shimbun


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nuclear weapons

nuclear weapons(Go to the next level,British: nuclear weapon) IsFissionChain reaction of, orNuclear fusionExplosive energy, heat radiation andradiationUse the action of the effect to destroyweaponIs the general term for.Atomic bomb,Hydrogen bomb,Neutron bombEtc.Nuclear bomb(Nuclear warhead) And a weapon to carry it.

Nuclear weaponsBiological weapons,chemical weaponTogether withNBC weapon(Or ABC weapon)Weapons of mass destructionIs. partRadioactive weaponAlthough it is sometimes referred to as a nuclear weapon, it is erroneous to classify a radioactive weapon as a nuclear weapon.

Nuclear weapons are one of the most powerful weapons developed by humankind, and their explosion can destroy a city in one shot.Because of such power20st centuryAs the number of deployments increases in the second halfNuclear warThreats have come to be envisioned, not just as weaponsCountryIt has been the subject of various discussions such as not only the movement for development and deployment but also the movement for regulation and disposal as it affects the fate of human beings and the survival of humankind.Also, it was used in the actual battleThe United States of Americaby,Second World WarIn2 shots to Japan(Hiroshima-Nagasaki) Only, and it has an aspect that its significance is evaluated as a war deterrent by nuclear deployment, not as use.

Nuclear weaponsFissionMainlyAtomic bombとNuclear fusionMainlyHydrogen bombIt is roughly classified into two.There is a limit to the power of atomic bombs, and the maximum power of hydrogen bombs can be increased.Also, as a form of weapon, at the beginning of development it was only a large aerial bomb,plutoniumIn the case of molds, while advanced manufacturing technology is required, miniaturization is possible.missile,torpedoVarious warheads and shells have been developed.

Classification of nuclear weapons

Classification by principle

Classification by purpose of use

  • Tactical purpose- Tactical nuclear weapons[1].. Nuclear weapons used on the battlefield[1].. Included in the sense of non-strategic nuclear weapons[1].
  • Strategic objective- Strategic nuclear weapons[1].. Used in combination with long-distance transport means to target the enemy mainland[1].. However, due to the geographical conditions of each country, there is no clear boundary between strategic nuclear weapons and tactical nuclear weapons.[1].

Classification by weapon type

Classification about accident

The US military classifies accidents related to nuclear weapons as follows (en: United States military nuclear incident terminology).

History

World War II and nuclear weapons development

1930 era,neutronbyAtomic nucleusIf the divisions ofhypothesisWas set up.Otto HahnAfter the discovery of fission of uranium by1939, Sillard,Enrico Fermi,Frederic Jorio Curie3 groupsuraniumWe found a phenomenon in which the number of neutrons increased, and showed that this enables a chain reaction. In response to that, in each countryReactorDevelopment has started.

Initially it was not necessarily a weapon purpose, but in September of this yearSecond World WarWith the outbreak of, the possibility of an atomic bomb using the huge energy of nuclear fission as a weapon will be actively discussed. Of RIKEN, dated May 1940, 5Yoshio NishinaとTokyo Imperial UniversityFaculty of ScienceChemistryKenjiro KimuraEtc.Uranium 238ToFast neutronIs now known to be produced by the explosion of a nuclear weapon in an experimentneptunium237[2] Generated[3] That year, the same year, American physics magazinePhysical reviewPublished in[4].. In the same experiment, more than 10 neutrons were emitted in one fission.Fission chain reaction(Supercritical) Known to accompanyFissionProduct by[5] Is produced by ``Fission Products of Uranium produced by Fast Neutrons(Fast neutronGenerated byFission products)'', a British academic journal dated July 7,NaturePublished in[6][7].

The secret study of the atomic bombAlliesside·Axis powersIt is said that it was done together[8].

Manhattan plan

In this era, the most systematic promotion of atomic bomb development wasThe United States of AmericaMet. In America at that timeGermany OfNazi OfJewThere are many excellent scientists who have escaped persecution and immigrated to the United States.Leo SillardIn September 1939ア イ ン シ ュ タ イ ンWith the signature ofRooseveltTo the presidentNuclear chain reactionCooperation with the realization ofHitlerComplain about the danger of nuclear possessionletterIt was sent. This was the earliest opportunity to develop the atomic bomb in America. Then, in October 1941, a report stating that the uranium bomb was feasible was issued.The United Kingdom OfMAUD CommitteeA secret atomic bomb development project in June 1942,Manhattan planHas started[9].

Uranium enrichmentConstruction of each giant plant of the plant plutonium production furnace, andOppenheimerLed byLos Alamos InstituteWas a national project that brought together the best scientists from all over the United States and put all the strength of the US military, industry and academia together. The first atomic bomb1945Completed on July 7 (16 pieces), of which 3 piece (Gadget)AlamogordoIn the desertWorld's first atomic bomb testWas carried out. The remaining two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan.

Atomic bomb drop on Japan

The world's first atomic bomb was actually used in 19458/6At 8:15 amHiroshimaAgainstEnriched uraniumType atomic bombLittle boy OfB-29(Enola Gay) Was executed from the drop. 19458/9At 11:2 amNagasakiAgainstplutoniumImplosionType atomic bombFat man B-29(Box car) Was dropped from.

Both cities were instantly destroyed by the atomic bomb, and hundreds of thousands of people were indiscriminately killed. Atomic bomb explosionMushroom cloudIs 17kmstratosphereReached and contained radioactive material from the cloudsblack RainDrove over a range of 30 km, increasing the human damage caused by radiation exposure.

Military authorities were pleased with the success of the atomic bomb, but when the substance of the use of the atomic bomb became clear, the world shook, and scientists involved in the development of the atomic bomb would be opposed to the atomic bomb.

America's sole hegemony with nuclear power was not as expected. Faster than expected,1949ToUSSR Atomic bomb experimentBecause it succeeded in. Since then, the world hasCold WarEnter the age of.

For the Soviet atomic bomb development, CFR (Foreign Affairs Council) Was a member of the Roosevelt administration and was also the Secretary of Commerce and Deputy Chief of StaffHarry hopkinsHowever, Lacey Jordan said that he intentionally transferred the atomic bomb technology to the Soviet Union (en: George Racey Jordan) There is an affidavit in the US Congressional Committee of the Major[10].

Cold War nuclear competition

Cold WarIn the times, with the United StatesSoviet UnionMass production and deployment of nuclear weapons took place during the period. The United Kingdom in 1952, France in 1960, China in 1964, and India in 1974 developed and owned the atomic bomb. The hydrogen bomb was developed and owned by the United States in 1952, the Soviet Union in 1955, the United Kingdom in 1958, China in 1967, and France in 1968. The amount of nuclear weapons far exceeded that needed to destroy all humankind on earth. At the peak of nuclear weapons, the United States had about 1966 in 32,000, the Soviet Union had about 1986 in 45,000, the United Kingdom had 1981 in 350, France had 1992 in 540, and China had 1993 in 435. Approximately 1986 in 7 in five countries[11] Had. In addition, a system was built to detect the attack of the opponent's country early and take retaliation in order to make the strategy of causing fatal damage to the opponent's country through nuclear preemptive attack and making it impossible to win the war. .. This strategyMutual confirmation destruction(Mutually Assured Destruction, MAD)Nuclear deterrencePlayed an important role in the debate over.

Also, with the miniaturization of nuclear weapons, during the Cold WarstrategyUsed not only for general purpose but also on the battlefieldTactical nuclear weaponsWell developed and of the same agemissileAnti-aircraft missiles to compensate for the unreliability of the, nuclear torpedoes to securely sink submarines, to destroy enemy units with a single blowNuclear shellNuclear weapons of all sorts were done.Strategic bomber,Ballistic mounted nuclear submarine (SSBN),Intercontinental Ballistic Bullet (ICBM)The three are said to be the three pillars of the strategic nucleus (triad).

In relation to nuclear weapons management during the Cold WarBroken Arrow(Loss/fall accident of nuclear weapons) also became a problem (Palomares US military plane crash,Thule Air Force Base U.S. aircraft crashSee).

Nuclear winter

After heavy use of nuclear weapons,Radioactive materialAsh, which is contaminated withFallout) Will fall. It was pointed out that the rolled-up ash blocks sunlight and lowers the temperature on the surface of the earth, killing plants and creating an environment in which humans cannot survive. This situationNuclear winterCalled. There was no provision for survival in this nuclear winter. At a point some distance from the blast center,Nuclear explosionHeat of time,blast,radiationTo wait for the decay of radioactivity after the nuclear explosionNuclear shelterThe underground facility called is only devised. In this way, the use of nuclear weapons is directly linked to the extinction of humankind, and it is said that the war that leads to the use of nuclear weapons can be suppressed.

The fear of nuclear weaponsNuclear warThe risk ofradiationThe cruelty of the killings caused by many people such as intellectuals, writers, politicians, political activists, and the general public. for that reasonAnti-nuclear movementWas born. On the other hand, the abolition of nuclear weapons will trigger war with conventional weapons, so for peaceNuclear deterrenceThere is also an argument that should be maintained.

Nuclear weapons after the end of the Cold War

The United States and the Soviet Union1991In 7 monthFirst Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed and the reduction of nuclear weapons was progressing.Collapse of the Soviet UnionEven after that, Russia was in the process of taking over the present Treaty of Strategic Arms Reduction. HoweverSecond Strategic Arms Reduction TreatySigned a treaty in 1993, but it did not take effect, and negotiations on the Third Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty failed.2001In 2002, the abolition of the XNUMXst Strategic Weapons Reduction Treaty was completed.Moscow TreatyStipulates that the number of nuclear weapons deployed should be reduced (rejection is obligatory, possession is acceptable). Inaugurated in January 2009ObamaThe President of the United States and Russia announced in April 2010 that the United States and Russia would abolish nuclear weapons through the cooperation of countries possessing nuclear weapons as the ultimate goal of disarmament policy.Fourth Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyConcluded.

Collapse of the Soviet UnionAfter that, the economic situation deterioratedcorruptionIt is said that the outflow of weapons or the outflow of engineers from Russia to third countries is increasing due to the lack of management system due to the spread of the. The risks of using and misusing nuclear weapons outside the former nuclear powers have increased in a sense different from the Cold War era.

From these facts, nuclear weapons deployed by the theory of nuclear deterrence of own country's safety are scattered as countries themselves that threaten security, further increasing as security against them, and becoming a cause of turmoil involving the whole world. Is shown.

In 1998 Pakistan developed and possessed an atomic bomb. in recent yearsKashmirIt was feared that a border dispute between India and Pakistan over local territorial rights could lead to the use of nuclear weapons.

またnorth koreaWith the aim of maintaining the system, continued to develop nuclear weapons as a means of negotiation with other neighboring countries, and conducted nuclear tests on October 2006, 10, May 9, 2009, and February 5, 25.

Efforts to reduce nuclear weapons

From the time of the planning of nuclear weapons to the present, there are the following movements such as control, regulation, opposition and abolition of development, possession and use of nuclear weapons.

The movement against the use of the atomic bomb during World War IIFrank reportAnd after the end of World War II,Pug wash conferenceand so on.

1959 yearsAntarctic TreatySince then, in each regionNuclear-free zoneWas set by the treaty. Some treaties also include nuclear weapons states.

Nuclear testThe limit of 1963Partial Nuclear Test Ban TreatyBut there isUnderground nuclear test1996 including prohibitionComprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is not in effect as of 2010. HoweverSubcritical nuclear testIs not prohibited by any treaty.

To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, in 1968United Nations General AssemblyでNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) adopted. This is United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, People's Republic of China (Five powers) Is stipulated as an internationally recognized "nuclear-weapon-holding country" and the obligation of nuclear disarmament is stipulated. Other "non-nuclear-weapon-holding countries" are prohibited from possessing nuclear weapons and are limited to "peaceful use of nuclear weapons". 2000+ nuclear tests

Since 1969, the United States and the Soviet Union, which are the major nuclear weapon states,Strategic weapons restriction negotiation (SALT) was held in 1972First strategic weapons restriction negotiation (SALT-I) andBallistic Intercept Missile Restriction Treaty(ABM Convention) was signed, but succeededSecond strategic weapons restriction negotiation (SALT-II) isInvasion of AfghanistanIt was invalidated without ratification by the U.S. Congress, which opposes. From 1982Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) started, and in 1987Mid-range nuclear force abolition treatyIn 1991, the two governments confirmed the implementation of the treaty by mutual inspection. In 1991First Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed, and in 2001, the two governments confirmed the implementation of the treaty through mutual inspection. Succeeded in 1993Second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) was signed, the U.S. Senate ratified it, but the Russian Parliament did not ratify it, and in 1997, the U.S.-Russian government postponed the treaty's implementation of the treaty to 2007 and limits the deployment of missile defense systems. And ratified it by the Russian Parliament, but the US Senate did not and the treaty did not enter into force. In 2001Missile defenseBy America to promoteBallistic Intercept Missile Restriction TreatyRussia has announced that it will not implement the Second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty because of the destruction of the. In 2002Moscow TreatyWas concluded. In 2010Fourth Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyWas concluded.

United Nations General AssemblyThen.1994から2012For 19 consecutive yearsNuclear weapons abolition resolutionHas been adopted. In 2009, the United States became the first co-sponsor. In the United States in 2009Barack ObamaFor the first time as the President of the United States of America, he gave a speech in a "world without nuclear weapons (a world without nuclear weapons)" toward the abolition of nuclear weapons.Nobel Peace PrizeWas awarded. But the United States has declared that it will continue to own nuclear weapons. Russia and China also denied nuclear abandonment. In 2012, the resolution on the abolition of nuclear weapons was adopted in favor of 184 countries.[12].

In April 2010, US and Russian governments will further reduce nuclear warheads and vehicles from the First Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyFourth Strategic Arms Reduction TreatySigned.

Nuclear weapons proliferation situation

In addition, a treaty that prohibits the testing, use, manufacture, production, acquisition, storage, deployment, etc. of nuclear weapons may be concluded in a certain region, and the regions that have signed this treaty areNon-nuclear weapon zoneCalled. What became the pioneer of such a nuclear weapons treaty1967ToMexico CityでLatin AmericaSigned by countriesLatin American and Caribbean Nuclear Weapons Convention(Treaty of Tlatelolco), and later1985ToSouth Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty(Rarotonga Treaty)OceaniaBetween countries[14],1995ToSoutheast Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty(Bangkok Treaty)Southeast AsiaBetween countries,1996ToAfrican Nuclear Weapons Zone Treaty(Perindaba Treaty)AfricaBetween countries, and2006ToCentral Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty(Semei Treaty)Central AsiaSigned between countries,Southern hemisphereA vast nuclear-free zone has spread around the globe, centered on.

Nuclear strategy

Nuclear strategy of each country

As a matter of fact, nuclear weapons are weapons that are difficult to use aggressively, and their significance is defense or strategic. In particular, large powers such as the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China hold their nuclear weapons primarily for strategic purposes.

Meanwhile, relatively militarily vulnerable countries, such as Pakistan and North Korea,SecurityHave the idea of ​​relying on the nucleus as. South Korea, Taiwan, Iraq, etc. had the same idea, but in South Korea and Taiwan, due to the persuasion and construction of the United States, Iraq destroyed the nuclear reactor by the Israeli army (Iraqi nuclear reactor bombing), abandoned each development. There are also nations, such as North Korea, who try to cut concessions by cutting out nuclear cards. In the middle of this period, Israel attaches importance to nuclear weapons (including lack of clarification of possession) as a trump card in the Middle East conflict, although military power falls into a fairly powerful category, partly due to US assistance.

In addition to these (primarily rational and original) purposes, the purpose is to raise national prestige.Nuclear developmentThere are many cases where If we aim for ultimate military independence, we will need a nucleus, and the advanced technology itselfSpace developmentSimilarly, it is considered to be a means of honoring the self-esteem of the people. This is some hardNuclear weapons theoryIt is also the claim of the person.

South Africa is the only country that has announced the abolition of nuclear weapons while developing and deploying them.

Against this background, nuclear weapons are sometimes called final weapons.[15].

2014 Crimea crisisAssuming that Russia prepared for the use of nuclear weapons, or assuming the possibility of limited preemptive use of nuclear weapons under the assumption that the Kuril Islands including the Arctic islands and the Northern Territories were attacked and battles occurred. There are cases where active nuclear weapons are supposed to be introduced even in localized battles, such as the same exercises conducted by Russia.[16].. On February 2018, 2, the United States announced a nuclear strategy review and launched the development of small nuclear weapons. There is an idea that the magnitude of this damage is considered as a "weapon that cannot be used" because once a nuclear weapon explodes, the damage will be very large. It is said[17][18].

Japan's nuclear strategy

Japan isSecond World WarinsideAtomic bomb developmentWas conducting theoretical research.Hiroshima cityとAtomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki cityJapan has surrendered because of this.

In 1958Hisashi YamadaUnder Secretary of Foreign AffairsAbout options to have "defensive" nuclear weaponsMinistry of Foreign AffairsIf you are consideringUnited States Ambassador to Japan OfDouglas MacArthur III was told. This nuclear weaponSoviet UnionTo prepare for an invasion fromSurface-to-air missileIt was supposed to be installed in. AmbassadorJohn Foster DullesSecretary of StateIn a telegram to the Japanese Prime Minister considering the strong anti-nuclear sentiment of Japanese public opinion,Shinsuke KishiAnd the Foreign MinisterAiichiro FujiyamaComment that they are not at the stage of making policy changes at this time[19].

Wakaizumi KeiImmediately after China's nuclear test in 1964, the Cabinet Office of Research (currentlyCabinet Information Research Office) Submitted. Wakaizumi argued that Japan should maintain its potential nuclear weapons capabilities through the development of nuclear power plants and the development of domestically produced rockets, while adhering to the national creed that Japan will not be nuclear-armed. In 1968 and 1970, the Cabinet Office made a two-part "Basic Research on Japan's Nuclear Policy," and in 1969 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs prepared the "Japan's Foreign Policy Outline" as a confidential report. Among them, it was pointed out that "always maintain the economic and technological potential of nuclear weapons manufacturing" (foreign policy outline).[20].

After World War II, the Japanese government said, “Japan is the only world in the war.A-bombAs a country"Nuclear powerIs limited to peaceful use,Nuclear Weapons Prevention Convention Ratified (NPT),International Atomic Energy Agency Accepting the (IAEA) inspection,Three non-nuclear principlesThenational policyAnd[21]. Also1994LaterUnited NationsIt has submitted a resolution for eliminating nuclear weapons to the General Assembly for 16 consecutive years.

Japan isUS-Japan Security TreatyBased on the United StatesNuclear umbrellaHave been offered. It is also known that there is no means to verify the “non-nuclear weapons” that is one of the three non-nuclear principles, and that the Japanese and US governments secretly permitted the introduction of nuclear weapons (Japan-US nuclear import problem).

On December 2006, 12, the Sankei Shimbun reported that the Japanese government had prepared a document "On the domestic production potential of nuclear weapons." In this document, "It is impossible to domestically produce nuclear weapons within the deadline of 25 to 1 years", and it is necessary to construct a graphite slowdown reactor. "At least 2 billion yen to 2 A budget of 3 billion yen, hundreds of engineers, and a period of 3 to 5 years are required, and the cost and period will increase further if development is carried out without nuclear tests."[22].

Nuclear proliferation

Nuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyIn the United States, international management of nuclear weapons by nuclear-weapon states was advocated.Nuclear proliferationSay. HoweverNuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyWithdrawal is allowed as long as it is a treaty.

Possibility of secretly developing nuclear weapons

"Nuclear Club" consisting of nuclear-weapon states (Nuclear supplier group) Countries,Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty It does not allow other countries to possess new nuclear weapons, whether they agree with the (CTBT) or not. In particular, the United States is promoting a nuclear deterrence policy on a global scale, and continues to develop and operate nuclear warhead production, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, etc. It is a difficult situation to do.

Nuclear materials and nuclear technology and equipment, even if they are for peaceful purposesNuclear powerEven if you claim that it is forInternational Atomic Energy Agency Installation is only allowed under strict scrutiny of the (IAEA). It is always suspected that some countries may use it for nuclear weapons development while claiming peaceful uses, and it has become a central issue in international nuclear issues.

Consideration of possibility

Nuclear material
There is a genuine rumor that some amount of purified nuclear material was illegally brought out during the collapse of the Soviet Union.[Source required]The time when a large amount of nuclear scientists of the Soviet era leaked overseas after the collapse of the Soviet Union[When?]There is. It can be inferred that uranium ore itself can be obtained because it can be mined in various parts of the world, such as in Japan.
Refining facility
To obtain highly purified nuclear weapons-class nuclear material that can be used as a nuclear weapon, it is necessary to concentrate uranium or purify plutonium produced in a plutonium production reactor.Uranium enrichmentBecause of the large-scale equipment required, it is extremely difficult to build and operate secretly while overlooking the surveillance of nuclear clubs. Moreover, if a power plant is constructed to cover the huge amount of electricity required for refining, it will have power generation facilities that are disproportionate to the demand for electricity, which will raise doubts. The productivity of weapons-grade uranium is extremely low, and a large amount of money and long years are required to produce one uranium atomic bomb, but on the other hand, the failure rate is extremely low and the reliability is high, and the structure is simple and the life is long. Because it is long, it is possible to threaten a virtual enemy country for decades with just one shot. On the other hand, since the unit price is extremely high, they are not suitable for mass production, and most of the currently deployed nuclear weapons use plutonium, which can be mass produced and requires small equipment.
High power consumption for uranium enrichmentCentrifugeThere is also a view that it can be realized with low power consumption by using the laser method instead of the method[By whom?]However, the actual power consumption is unknown because the laser method itself is only researched at the laboratory level. Even if the laser method has low power consumption, it is certainly necessary to introduce advanced technology. Even if it can be realized at the laboratory level, its quantitative practicality as a means of industrial production of weapons is another problem. Uranium 235 in natural uranium is only 0.7%, and at least 80% enrichment for weapons, and 90% for practical use is desirable. On the other hand, the concentration of power generation fuel is about 3% to 5%, which is a completely different matter. This large difference in enrichment is important for knowing whether uranium nuclear technology research and development of a specific nation is for peaceful purposes or military purposes.
Demonstration experiment
In order to complete a nuclear explosive device as a weapon, at least a proof experiment such as a nuclear explosion experiment is essential,Reconnaissance satelliteAnd high-precision seismographs in the airFission reactionToday, with the development of monitoring technology such as gas collection, many traces are left.Nuclear testIs said to be difficult to implement in secret.
Subcritical nuclear test
In the United States, it has not reached criticality since the 1990s.Subcritical nuclear testThe Nuclear Weapons Development Law was introduced to improve the capabilities and accuracy of nuclear weapons and verify the reliability of existing nuclear weapons.[23].
Russia has been conducting subcritical nuclear tests since the end of the 20th century[24] However, these are the results that were realized only with the help of computer simulation technology, based on countless nuclear explosion experiments and knowledge of extremely advanced nuclear physics.

Peaceful use of nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons are capable of concentrating a great deal of energy in extremely dense areas, and peaceful uses of this property are being sought. For example,NASAIs all on earthBiology Can be a threat to小 惑星Change the trajectory ofNuclear warheadHas been designing a spacecraft that will be equipped with[25].. If the possibility of an asteroid (giant meteorite) colliding with the earth arises, the only evasive measure currently possible is to use nuclear weapons. However, when blasting an asteroid, simply subdividing it will cause it to reassemble due to gravity, so a sophisticated simulation is required to distort the trajectory of each fragment in all directions.[26].. Since the situation in which large asteroid fragments are scattered in all directions is very dangerous, a realistic method is to offset the orbit slightly enough to minimize collisions and prevent collisions.

In addition,Fission chain reactionTheradiationBy holding down just before,Nuclear explosionWithoutHeat energyProduce onlyNuclear powerThere is. However,Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Accident,Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentNo matter how you implement the measures, radiation is involved, as represented byradioactivityIs at risk of polluting large areas.

Also, once a huge nuclear weaponblastingTherefore, it was also considered to be applied to large-scale civil engineering work.Peaceful nuclear explosionThis plan, which is called as, has been studied and tested in both the United States and the Soviet countries, and its use has been actively considered especially in the Soviet Union. In addition to these two countries, the secondPanama CanalPlan orKurachikyoConsidered for use in canal planning,EgyptWesternCutterra LowlandsThe artificial lake plan has been examined in detail[27] However, all were canceled due to fear of radioactive contamination.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2016). “Japan's Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Diplomacy (3th Edition) Part 28 Nuclear Disarmament, XNUMX". 2019/5/28Browse.
  2. ^ "Neptunium-237 (237Np)”. Nuclear Information Center. 2018/2/12Browse.
  3. ^ "Dr. Yoshio Nishina's 120th Anniversary Lecture Lecture of Dr. Yoshio Nishina, father of modern Japanese physics-Discovery of uranium-237 and symmetric fission-Table 40 Chronological table (p.XNUMX)”. Nishina Memorial Foundation (December 2010). 2018/2/12Browse.
  4. ^ "NISHINA Memorial Foundation 2008-Induced β-Activity of Uranium by Fast Neutrons (p.15)”. Nishina Memorial Foundation. 2018/2/12Browse.
  5. ^ "Fission Chain Reaction_Trends of Fission Products_Symmetric Fission Products”. The Chemistry LibreTexts library (Jan 1, 2016). 2018/2/12Browse.
  6. ^ Y. NISHINA, T. YASAKI, H. EZOE, K. KIMURA & M. IKAWA (1940) "Fission Products of Uranium produced by Fast Neutrons". United Kingdo.Nature Research. Retrieved August 2016, 8)
  7. ^ "NISHINA Memorial Foundation 2008-"Fission Products of Uranium produced by Fast Neutrons(p.16)”. Nishina Memorial Foundation. 2018/2/12Browse.
  8. ^ For example,U-234Uranium ore necessary for nuclear weapons as seen inGermanyからJapanThere was a plan to carry it to (Japan's atomic bomb developmentSee).
  9. ^ Rose, Richard, The Birth of the Atomic Bomb, translated by Nishin Kaminuma and Taiichi Shibuya, Keigaku Shuppan, 1993. Kinokuniya Bookstore, 1995, <above>ISBN-4 314-00710-9,<under>ISBN-4 314-00711-7.
    Rhodes, Richard (1987). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN-0 684-81378-5 (pbk) 
  10. ^ George Racey Jordan (1965). From Major Jordan's diaries. Western Islands 
  11. ^ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist. “Global nuclear stockpiles 1945–2006". 2009/4/25Browse.
  12. ^ United Nations> General Assembly> 67th session> Resolutions> Convention on the prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons
  13. ^ "Transition and current status of US strategic nuclear operation policy" Kenji Matsuyama, National Diet Library Research and Legislative Examination Bureau 2009.1
  14. ^ "World situation read on map Part 2 What will happen to the world in the future?"
  15. ^ Usage example:East and West leaders faced each other with their ultimate weapons and nuclear weapons
  16. ^ Russia's “nuclear threat” repeats
  17. ^ Nuclear changes from "unusable weapons" to "usable weapons" Minimize damage... fear of "psychological hurdle has dropped" -Sankei News Edited on March 2018, 3
  18. ^ Trump announces a step towards a preemptive nuclear attack -Newsweek Japanese edition viewed March 2018, 3
  19. ^  , (March 2013, 3). “Japan mulled possessing "defensive" nuke weapons in 1958”. . http://mainichi.jp/english/english/newsselect/news/20130317p2a00m0na011000c.html 2013/3/17Browse. 
  20. ^  , (March 2013, 2). “Countermeasures for China's nuclear test in XNUMX: Nuclear power with nuclear power”. Tokyo Newspaper. http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/national/news/CK2013022602000118.html 2013/3/17Browse. 
  21. ^ Disarmament and non-proliferation diplomacy in Japan-Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  22. ^ http://hw001.spaaqs.ne.jp/iica/1006mr.pdf
  23. ^ Federation of American Scientists July 1997, 7 "Pentagon announces first successful subcritical nuclear test'
  24. ^ Boston University "Global Beat" Verona Foundation Announced December 1997, 12 "Russia conducts subcritical nuclear test (draft START-II method)'
  25. ^ NASA Developing Asteroid Interceptor to Fend off Armageddon
  26. ^ 'Terminator' asteroids could re-form after nuke. New Scientist April 2010 by David Shiga, Houston; Magazine issue 2751.
  27. ^ Latest Science Series 13 Latest Giant Project (Gakken 1991)

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