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šŸˆ ļ½œ Wakayama Electric Railway Takashigawa Line stationmaster Nitama is promoted to executive officer


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Stationmaster Nitama of Wakayama Electric Railway Kishikawa Line promoted to executive officer

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If you write the contents roughly
I hope Nitama will do his best as the second executive officer. "
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The cat stationmaster "Nitama" on the Wakayama Electric Railway Kishikawa Line has been promoted to executive officer, and today (XNUMXrd) Kinokawa Ichitaka ...怀ā†’ Continue reading

怀Wakayama Broadcasting News


Wikipedia related words

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Tama (cat stationmaster)

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ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć®ę­»ćÆ态ē”Ÿå‰ćØåŒę§˜ć€ęµ·å¤–ćƒ”ćƒ‡ć‚£ć‚¢ć«ę–¼ć„ć¦ć‚‚ē›øę¬”ć„ć§å ±ć˜ć‚‰ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ę­»å¾Œ2ę—„ēµŒć£ćŸ6꜈24ꗄ恫Xinhua News Agency,Union NewsćŖ恩恮äø­å›½ćƒ»éŸ“国ē³»ćƒ”ćƒ‡ć‚£ć‚¢ćŒä¼ćˆćŸć“ćØ悒ēš®åˆ‡ć‚Šć«ć€ēæŒ25ꗄ恫ćÆ悤悮ćƒŖć‚¹with the BBCAnd AmericaCNNćŖć©ć®ćƒ†ćƒ¬ćƒ“å±€ć‚„AFP悄AP通äæ”ćŖ恩恮通äæ”ē¤¾ć€Daily mail,Wall Street Journal,Liberation,ćƒ„ć‚”ć‚¤ćƒˆē­‰ć®ęœ‰åŠ›ē“™ć«ę–¼ć„ć¦ć‚‚å ±ć˜ć‚‰ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ć•ć‚‰ć«ćÆGuardian,New York Times,Washington PostćŖ恩恮äø»č¦ćƒ”ćƒ‡ć‚£ć‚¢ćŒ6꜈28ę—„ć«å–¶ć¾ć‚ŒćŸć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć®č‘¬å„€ć®ęØ”ę§˜ć‚‚äŗ¤ćˆć¤ć¤å ±ć˜ćŸ[49].

ę­»å¾Œ7ćƒ¶ęœˆä½™ć‚ŠēµŒéŽć—ćŸ2016幓2꜈2ę—„ć€å’Œę­Œå±±ēœŒćÆ态ē”Ÿå‰ć®ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ćŒę®‹ć—ćŸåŠŸēø¾ć‚’同ēœŒćØ恗恦ę°ø恏ē§°ćˆć‚‹ć¹ćć€ę€„遽創čØ­ć—ćŸć€Œå’Œę­Œå±±ę®æå ‚ć€ć®ē¬¬1号ćØ恗恦ę®æå ‚å…„ć‚Šć•ć›ć‚‹ć“ćØ悒ę±ŗ悁恟[Note 2].. Receiving this,Wakayama Prefectural Library2éšŽć«å…„ć£ć¦ć„ć‚‹ę–‡åŒ–ęƒ…å ±ć‚»ćƒ³ć‚æćƒ¼ć«ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć‚’č±”ć£ćŸé’éŠ…č£½ćƒ¬ćƒŖćƒ¼ćƒ•ļ¼ˆēø¦45cmƗęØŖ35cmļ¼‰ćŒć€ē”Ÿå‰ć®åŠŸēø¾ć‚’ęŽ²č¼‰ć—ćŸćƒ‘ćƒćƒ«ć‚„å¹“č”ØćØå…±ć«čØ­ē½®ć•ć‚Œć‚‹ć“ćØ恫ćŖć£ć¦ć„ć‚‹[54][53].

ć“ć‚Œć«å…ˆē«‹ć”ć€åŒå¹“2꜈16ę—„ć®åˆå‰äø­ć«ćć®ćƒ¬ćƒŖćƒ¼ćƒ•ć®é™¤å¹•å¼ć‚’ęŒ™č”Œć€åŒå¼ć«ę–¼ć„ć¦å’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµē¤¾é•·ćƒ»å°å¶‹ć«åÆ¾ć™ć‚‹ćƒ¬ćƒŖćƒ¼ćƒ•ć®ćƒ¬ćƒ—ćƒŖć‚«č“ˆå‘ˆć‚‚č”Œć‚ć‚Œć‚‹ć“ćØ恫ćŖć£ć¦ć„ć‚‹[55].

ćŸć¾ć®ē”ŸčŖ•18å‘Ø幓ćØćŖ悋20174꜈29ꗄ恫ćÆć€ę—„ęœ¬ćŠć‚ˆć³äø–ē•Œć®11ć®å›½ćƒ»åœ°åŸŸć®Google DoodlećŒć€ćŸć¾é§…é•·ä»•ę§˜ć«ćŖć£ćŸ[56].

é§…é•·ä»£č”Œć€Œćƒ‹ć‚æćƒžć€ć®ć€ŒćŸć¾IIäø–é§…é•·ć€č„²å

2012幓1꜈5ę—„ć€é§…é•·å°±ä»»5å‘Ø幓čؘåæµå¼å…øć«ćŠć„ć¦ć€ę–°ćŸć«Tiger cat[57]"Nitamać€ć«åÆ¾ć—ć¦ć€Œč²“åæ—é§…é•·ä»£č”Œå…¼ä¼Šå¤Ŗē„ˆę›½é§…é•·ć€ć«ä»»å‘½ć™ć‚‹č¾žä»¤ćŒäŗ¤ä»˜ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ćƒ‹ć‚æ惞ćÆ仔ēŒ«ć ć£ćŸå‰å¹“ę˜„é ƒć«ć€äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ—ć®åœ°å…ƒć§ć‚ć‚‹å²”å±±åø‚å†…ć®å›½é“ę²æ恄恧äŗ¤é€šäŗ‹ę•…ć«é­ć„ćć†ć«ćŖć£ć¦ć„ćŸćØ恓悍悒äæč­·ć•ć‚Œć€äø‰ęƛēŒ«(ēøžäø‰ęƛ[57])ćØ恄恆ēøć‹ć‚‰å’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµć®č¦Ŗ会ē¤¾ć§ć‚ć‚‹å²”å±±é›»ę°—č»Œé“ć«č­²ć‚‰ć‚Œć€ćć“ć§äŗŗå„½ććŖę€§ę ¼ć‚’ć‹ć‚ć‚Œć¦é§…é•·č¦‹ēæ’ć„ć«ęŠœę“¢ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ćƒ‹ć‚æ惞ćØć„ć†åå‰ćÆć€ŒćŸć¾ć«ä¼¼ćŸäŗŒē•Ŗē›®ć®é§…é•·ēŒ«ć€ćØć„ć†ę„å‘³ćŒč¾¼ć‚ć‚‰ć‚Œć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚åœŸę›œę—„ć€ę—„ę›œę—„ć€ē„ę—„ćŖć©ćŸć¾ćŒč²“åæ—é§…ć‚’ä¼‘ć‚€ę™‚ć«ćÆć€Œč²“åæ—駅長代ē†ć€ć‚’å‹™ć‚ć‚‹ć“ćØ恫ćŖć‚‹ć€‚åŒå¹“2꜈18ꗄ恫ćÆ伊å¤Ŗē„ˆę›½é§…恫悂ēŒ«ē”Øé§…é•·å®¤ćŒä½œć‚‰ć‚Œć¦å¹³ę—„ļ¼ˆę°“态ęœØćÆ除恏ļ¼‰ćÆćć“ć§å‹¤å‹™ć™ć‚‹[58][59][60].

ćŖćŠć€ćŸć¾ć®ć€Œć‚¦ćƒ«ćƒˆćƒ©é§…é•·ć€ę˜‡é€²ć«ä¼“ć„ć€ćƒ‹ć‚æćƒžćŒć€Œć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ć€ć®åœ°ä½ć‚’å¼•ćē¶™ć„ć§ę˜‡é€²ć—ć¦ć„ć‚‹[15].

2015幓8꜈10ę—„ć®ćŸć¾ć®50ę—„ē„­ć‚’ę©Ÿć«ć€ēæŒ8꜈11ꗄ恫ćÆć€ŒćŸć¾IIäø–é§…é•·ć€ć‚’č„²åć—ć€ćƒ‹ć‚æ惞ćÆ通ē§°ćØćŖ悋恓ćØ恌ē™ŗč”Ø恕悌恟[61].

September 2019, 1, ``ćƒžćƒćƒ¼ć‚øćƒ£ćƒ¼é§…é•·ć€ļ¼ˆéƒØ長職ē›ø当ļ¼‰ć«ę˜‡é€²[62].

September 2021, 1, ``ć‚¦ćƒ«ćƒˆćƒ©é§…é•·ć€ć«ę˜‡é€²[63].

伊å¤Ŗē„ˆę›½é§…駅長見ēæ’ć„ć€Œć‚ˆć‚“ćŸć¾ć€

2017幓1꜈7ꗄ态äø‰ęƛēŒ«ć®ć€Œć‚ˆć‚“ćŸć¾ć€ćŒćƒ‹ć‚æćƒžć®č²“åæ—é§…é§…é•·å°±ä»»ć§ē©ŗć„ć¦ć„ćŸä¼Šå¤Ŗē„ˆę›½é§…ć®ć€Œé§…é•·č¦‹ēæ’ć„ć€ć«ä»»å‘½ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ć‚ˆć‚“ćŸć¾ćÆ2015幓4꜈20ꗄ态äø€é€±é–“å‰ć«é£¼ć„ēŠ¬ć‚’äŗ”ćć—ćŸå’Œę­Œå±±åø‚å†…ć®å„³ę€§ć®å®¶ć«ć€ć¾ć ē›®ć®č¦‹ćˆćŖ恄仔ēŒ«ć®ēŠ¶ę…‹ć§ęƍēŒ«ć«ē½®ć„ć¦ć„ć‹ć‚ŒćŸēŒ«ć§ć‚ć‚‹ć€‚å›°ć£ćŸå„³ę€§ćŒå‹äŗŗ恫ē›øč«‡ć—ćŸćØć“ć‚ć€ćć®å‹äŗŗćŒä»”ēŒ«ć®ä»¶ć‚’å’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµć«ē¹‹ć„恠恓ćØć‹ć‚‰ć€å°å¶‹ē¤¾é•·ćŒä»”ēŒ«ć‚’ć€Œé¢ęŽ„ć€ć®äøŠå²”å±±ć«é€£ć‚Œć¦åø°ć‚Šć€Okayama Electric Trackå†…ć«ć‚ć‚‹ā€œčؓē·“悒恗ćŖ恄ēŒ«é§…é•·čؓē·“ꉀā€[64]恧怌äŗŗćŒå„½ććŖ恓ćØ怍怌åø½å­ć‚’ć‹ć¶ć‚‹ć®ć‚’å«ŒćŒć‚‰ćŖ恄恓ćØć€ć€Œä»•äŗ‹ć‚’å«ŒćŒć‚‰ćŖ恄恓ćØ怍ćØ恄恆äø‰č¦ē“ ć®é©ę­£ćƒć‚§ćƒƒć‚Æć‚’å—ć‘ć€é§…é•·č¦‹ēæ’ć„ć«ä»»å‘½ć•ć‚Œć‚‹ć“ćØ恫ćŖć£ćŸ[65].

ćŖ恊态駅長見ēæ’ć„ć®å€™č£œć«ćÆå²”å±±ć«ć„ć‚‹ć€ŒSUNćŸć¾ćŸć¾ć€ļ¼ˆå¾Œčæ°ļ¼‰ć‚‚ć„ćŸćŒć€č¦Ŗä»£ć‚ć‚Šć®äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ—ć®åŗƒå ±ę‹…å½“č€…ćŒSUNćŸć¾ćŸć¾ć‚’åÆę„›ćŒć£ć¦ć€Œć“ć®å­ćÆę‰‹ę”¾ć—ć¾ć›ć‚“ć€‚å²”å±±ć«ē½®ćć¾ć™ć€ćØę‰‹ę”¾ć•ćŖć‹ć£ćŸćŸć‚ć«ć€ć‚ˆć‚“ćŸć¾ćŒé§…é•·č¦‹ēæ’ć„ć«å°±ä»»ć™ć‚‹ć“ćØ恫ćŖć£ćŸ[65].

2018幓1꜈5ꗄ态äø‰ęƛēŒ«ć®ć€Œć‚ˆć‚“ćŸć¾ć€ćŒä¼Šå¤Ŗē„ˆę›½é§…ć®ć€Œé§…é•·ć€ć«ę˜‡ę ¼ć€‚ä½µć›ć¦ć€ć€ŒćŸć¾ā…”äø–é§…é•·ć€ćŒé§…é•·ć‚’å‹™ć‚ć‚‹č²“åæ—é§…ć®ć€Œé§…é•·ä»£č”Œć€ć«å°±ä»»[66][67].

September 2019, 1, ``ć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ć€ć«ę˜‡é€²[68].

Work day

  • č²“åæ—é§…ć§ć®å‹¤å‹™ę™‚é–“ćÆ10:00 - 16:00ć€ę›œę—„ć«ć‚ˆć‚Šå…¬ä¼‘ć‚’čØ­ć‘ć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚ļ¼œ ļ¼žå†…ćÆē„ę—„恧态ćŖć„å “åˆćÆå¹³ę—„ćØåŒę§˜ć€‚
  • 2013å¹“ä»„é™ć€ćŸć¾ć®é«˜é½¢åŒ–ć«ä¼“ć„ćƒ‹ć‚æćƒžćŒč²“åæ—é§…é•·ä»£č”Œć‚’å‹™ć‚ć€ćŸć¾ćÆ非åøø勤ćØćŖ悋怂
  • 2015å¹“ć®ćŸć¾ę­»åŽ»å¾Œć€ćƒ‹ć‚æćƒžćŒć€ŒćŸć¾IIäø–ć€ć‚’č„²åć—ć€č²“åæ—駅恫åøøå‹¤ć€‚
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2008幓4ęœˆć®é§…é•·å®¤ē«£å·„ć«ä½µć›ć¦ć€ćŸć¾ć‚’ć‚¤ćƒ©ć‚¹ćƒˆåŒ–ć—ćŸćƒž ć‚¹ ć‚³ 惃 ćƒˆć€Œć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ćŸć¾ć€ćŒå…¬č”Øć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚å’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµć®å°åˆ·ē‰©ć«ęŽ²č¼‰ć•ć‚ŒćŸć‚Šć€å®Ÿå†™ē‰ˆć®ćŸć¾ć‚°ćƒƒć‚ŗćØä½µć›ć¦ć‚¤ćƒ©ć‚¹ćƒˆē‰ˆć®ćŸć¾ć‚°ćƒƒć‚ŗ恌ē™ŗå£²ć•ć‚Œć‚‹ćŖ恩恗恦恄悋[25].

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2009幓3꜈22ꗄ恫ćÆć„ć”ć”ćƒ»ćŠć‚‚ć”ć‚ƒäø”電車恫ē¶šććƒŖćƒ‹ćƒ„ćƒ¼ć‚¢ćƒ«č»Šē¬¬3å¼¾ć€Œć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ćŸć¾ć”ć‚ƒć‚“é›»č»Šć€ć€ē•„ć—ć¦ć€ŒTama trainć€ćŒćŠęŠ«éœ²ē›®ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚ć“ć®é›»č»Šć®č»Šä½“ć«ćÆ꧘怅ćŖćƒćƒ¼ć‚ŗć®ćŸć¾ć®ć‚¤ćƒ©ć‚¹ćƒˆćŒęć‹ć‚Œć‚‹ćŖć©ćŸć¾ć„ćć—ć®é›»č»Šć«ćŖć£ć¦ćŠć‚Šć€ć€ŒćŸć¾é›»č»Šć‚µćƒćƒ¼ć‚æćƒ¼ć€ćØ恗恦åŗƒå‘Šč²»ć®å½¢ć§ć®ę”¹č£…č²»ć®åÆ„ä»˜ć‚’å‹Ÿć£ć¦ć„ć‚‹[70][71]怂ē¾åœØćÆ他恮電車ćØå…±ć«č²“åæ—川ē·šć‚’äø€ę—„恂恟悊6 - 13å¾€å¾©ć—ć¦ć„ć‚‹[72][73].

ć¾ćŸ2009幓4꜈30ꗄ恫ćÆåŒć˜äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ—ć§ć‚ć‚‹å²”å±±ēœŒć®č·Æé¢é›»č»Šć€Okayama Electric Trackć«ć‚‚ćŸć¾é›»č»ŠćŒē™»å “恗恟[74][75].

2010幓4꜈7ꗄ恫ćÆ态äø”å‚™ćƒ›ćƒ¼ćƒ«ćƒ‡ć‚£ćƒ³ć‚°ć‚¹ć®äø”å‚™č¦³å…‰å¤§é˜Ŗć‚«ćƒ³ćƒ‘ćƒ‹ćƒ¼ļ¼ˆē¾ļ¼šäø”å‚™ćƒć‚¹é–¢č„æć‚«ćƒ³ćƒ‘ćƒ‹ćƒ¼ļ¼‰ć«ć€ćŸć¾é›»č»ŠćØåŒć˜ćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒ³ć‚’ę–½ć—ćŸSightseeing busćƒ»ć€ŒćŸć¾ćƒć‚¹ć€[76]悂ē™»å “ć—ć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚ć“ć®ć»ć‹ć€å’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµć®ē¤¾ē”Øć®ćƒćƒ³ļ¼ˆNissan vannetļ¼‰ć‚‚ā€œćŸć¾ā€ć®ćƒ©ćƒƒćƒ”ćƒ³ć‚°ćŒć•ć‚Œć¦ćŠć‚Šć€ć€ŒTAMA VANļ¼ˆćŸć¾ćƒćƒ³ļ¼‰ć€ćØåć„ć‘ć‚‰ć‚Œć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚

For a limited time from June 2010, 9 to November 11, 2011,Kyushu passenger railway(JR Kyushu)885 seriesć«ć€ŒćŒć‚“ć°ć‚Œå®®å“Žļ¼ć€ćƒ©ćƒƒćƒ”ćƒ³ć‚°ćØć—ć¦ć€ćŸć¾é§…é•·ćŒē™»å “恗恟[77]ć€‚ćć®ć†ć”ć€9꜈11ꗄ恋悉26ę—„ć¾ć§ć®åœŸę—„ē„ę—„恫ćÆ态Nichirin Sea GaiaAs,Hakata Station - Miyazaki Airport Station間悒1ę—„1å¾€å¾©ć™ć‚‹ć€‚ć“ć‚ŒćÆć€ćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒŠćƒ¼ć®ę°“ęˆøå²”ćŒäø”ē¤¾ć®åˆ—č»Šćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒ³ć‚’ę‰‹ćŒć‘ć¦ć„ć‚‹ć“ćØć«ć‚ˆć£ć¦å®Ÿē¾ć—ćŸć‚³ćƒ©ćƒœćƒ¬ćƒ¼ć‚·ćƒ§ćƒ³ć§ć‚ć‚‹ć€‚

2012幓3꜈27ꗄ恫ćÆ态äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ—ć®Okayama Electric Trackof the busTransit Busć«ę–°ćŸć«ę°“ęˆøå²”ćŒćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒ³ć—ćŸć€ŒćŸć¾ćƒć‚¹ć€ćŒ2台ē™»å “ć€‚ć“ć‚Œć¾ć§ć®ćŸć¾é›»č»Šćƒ»ćŸć¾ćƒć‚¹ćØćÆ違恄青悒åŸŗčŖæć«ć—ćŸćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒ³ć§ć€å‰é¢äøŠéƒØć«ć€ŒCat earć€ćŒä»˜ć„ćŸćƒ‡ć‚¶ć‚¤ćƒ³ć«ćŖć£ć¦ć„ć‚‹[78].

2018幓9꜈7ꗄ恫ćÆ态äø”å‚™ćƒ›ćƒ¼ćƒ«ćƒ‡ć‚£ćƒ³ć‚°ć‚¹ć®äø”å‚™ćƒć‚¹ć‚«ćƒ³ćƒ‘ćƒ‹ćƒ¼ć«ć€äø”å‚™ćƒć‚¹é–¢č„æć‚«ćƒ³ćƒ‘ćƒ‹ćƒ¼ć‹ć‚‰č»¢ē”Ø恗恟High-speed busćƒ»ć€ŒćŸć¾ćƒć‚¹ć€[79]But"Okayama Express TsuyamaHas appeared in.

Media appearance

Photo album

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Comic

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DVD

  • ćŸć¾ć®ä»•äŗ‹é¢Øę™ÆćŖć©ć‚’åŽéŒ²ć—ćŸDVDć€ŽćŸć¾ćÆć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•· ć€œć„ć”ć”ć®é¢Øć«ć®ć£ć¦ć€œć€ćŒåˆ¶ä½œć•ć‚Œć€2008幓9꜈26ꗄ恫å…Ø国ē™ŗå£²ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€‚å°å±±å•†åŗ—ćØå’Œę­Œå±±é›»éµć§ćÆ9꜈20ę—„ć«å…ˆč”Œē™ŗå£²ć•ć‚Œć¦ćŠć‚Šć€4꜈20ꗄ恫ē«£å·„ć—ćŸé§…é•·å®¤ć®ę”¹č£…č²»ē”ØćÆ态恓恮DVDćø恮å‡ŗę¼”ę–™ć«ć‚ˆć£ć¦ć¾ć‹ćŖ悏悌恟[81][25]怂ē™ŗ売元ćÆę Ŗ式会ē¤¾ćƒ„ć‚¤ćƒ³ć§ć‚ć‚Šć€č²©å£²å…ƒćÆć‚ø悧惍ć‚Ŗćƒ³ ć‚Øćƒ³ć‚æćƒ†ć‚¤ćƒ³ćƒ”ćƒ³ćƒˆļ¼ˆ2010幓ē¾åœØ惻Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan合同会ē¤¾ļ¼‰ć§ć‚ć‚‹[82][83].
  • 2009幓7꜈24ꗄ恫ćÆ态ē¬¬2å¼¾ćØćŖ悋DVDć®ć€ŽćŸć¾ćØćŸć¾é›»č»Šć€ćŒē™ŗå£²ć•ć‚Œć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚å†…å®¹ćÆęœ€ę–°ć®ä»•äŗ‹é¢Øę™Æ悄态3꜈21ę—„ć«ćƒ‡ćƒ“ćƒ„ćƒ¼ć—ćŸć€ŒćŸć¾é›»č»Šć€ć®č§£čŖ¬ćŒåŽéŒ²ć•ć‚Œć¦ćŠć‚Šć€ę˜ åƒē‰¹å…ø恮Kishigawa Lineå…Øē·šć‚’ćŸć¾é›»č»Šć®é‹č»¢åø­ć‹ć‚‰ę’®å½±ć—ćŸę˜ åƒć‚„ć€ē‰¹å…øć®ćƒć‚¹ćƒˆć‚«ćƒ¼ćƒ‰2Ꞛēµ„ć‚‚ä»˜å±žć™ć‚‹[84]怂ē™ŗå£²å…ƒćŠć‚ˆć³č²©å£²å…ƒćÆē¬¬1å¼¾ć®DVDćØ同äø€ć§ć‚悋怂

movies

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  • ę—„ęœ¬ć®ę˜ ē”»ć§ćÆ态2008å¹“ć«å…¬é–‹ć•ć‚ŒćŸć€ŽNeko ramen generalSpecial appearance in[87].Sonji Kenjić«ć‚ˆć‚‹4ć‚³ćƒžć‚®ćƒ£ć‚°ę¼«ē”»ć‚’å…ƒć«ć—ćŸå®Ÿå†™ę˜ ē”»ć§ć‚ć‚Šć€åŠ‡äø­ć«ćŠć„ć¦ćƒ©ćƒ¼ćƒ”ćƒ³åŗ—ć‚’ēµŒå–¶ć™ć‚‹äø»äŗŗå…¬ć®ēŒ«ćŒć€é£Ÿęć‚’걂悁恦å…Øå›½ć‚’ę—…ć™ć‚‹é€”äø­ć«ć€ćŸć¾ć®å…ƒćøē«‹ć”åÆ„ć‚‹å “é¢ć«ćŠć„ć¦ē™»å “恗恦恄悋怂

TV broadcast

Spot show

  • NHK Wakayama Broadcasting StationćÆ2009å¹“ć€ēœŒå†…å‘ć‘ć«ē‹¬č‡Ŗę”¾é€ć™ć‚‹Analog television broadcastingēµ‚äŗ†å•“ē™ŗć‚¹ćƒćƒƒćƒˆē•Ŗēµ„ć«ćŸć¾ć‚’čµ·ē”Ø恗恟怂2ęœ¬åˆ¶ä½œć•ć‚Œć¦ćŠć‚Šć€ēœŒå¤–å‘ć‘ć«ć‚‚Kinki wide areaå‘ć‘ć‚¹ćƒćƒƒćƒˆē•Ŗēµ„ćØćØ悂恫NHKęœ¬ä½“ćŒć€ŒNHK惇ć‚øć‚æćƒ«ć€ć‚µć‚¤ćƒˆć®äø­ć§å‹•ē”»é…äæ”恕悌恟怂
  • 2010å¹“ć«ćÆå½“ę™‚ć®å±€é•·ćŒēµ”ć‚“ć ę–°ä½œć‚‚ē™»å “ļ¼ˆé§…čˆŽę”¹ēÆ‰å‰ć«åŽéŒ²ļ¼‰ć—ćŸć€‚ć“ć”悉ćÆå’Œę­Œå±±å±€ć‚µć‚¤ćƒˆć§ę—§ä½œćØćØć‚‚ć«å…¬é–‹ć•ć‚Œć¦ć„ć‚‹ć€‚

Entertainment shows

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CM

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  1. ^ ē”Ÿå¹“ęœˆę—„ć®čؘčæ°ćÆć€ŽćŸć¾ć®é§…é•·ć ć‚ˆć‚Šć€ć«ć‚ˆć‚‹ć€‚[Page number required]
  2. ^ å’Œę­Œå±±ēœŒć«ćÆå…ƒć€…ć€åŒēœŒć®ē™ŗå±•ć«č²¢ēŒ®ć—ēœŒę°‘ć‹ć‚‰å°Šę•¬ć‚’é›†ć‚ćŸäŗŗē‰©ć‚’é”•å½°ć™ć‚‹ć€ŒåčŖ‰ēœŒę°‘ć€åˆ¶åŗ¦ćŒå­˜åœØć™ć‚‹ćŒć€ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć®ć‚ˆć†ćŖäŗŗé–“ä»„å¤–ć®ē”Ÿćē‰©ć‚’åÆ¾č±”ćØć™ć‚‹é”•å½°åˆ¶åŗ¦ćÆ存åœØ恗ćŖć‹ć£ćŸ[50]怂恝悓ćŖäø­ć€åŒēœŒć§ćÆć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć‚’ć€Œå’Œę­Œå±±å…Øä½“ć®ę•‘äø–äø»ć®ć‚ˆć†ćŖēŒ«ć€ćØē§°ćˆć€ę­»å¾Œ8ę—„ēµŒć£ćŸ2015幓6꜈30ę—„ć«é–‹ć„ćŸčØ˜č€…ä¼šč¦‹ć®åø­äøŠć§ć€ŒēœŒę°‘ę „čŖ‰č³žć€ć‚’創čØ­ć—ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć«č“ˆć‚‹ć“ćØ悒ꤜčØŽć—ć¦ć„ć‚‹ć“ćØ悒č”Øę˜Žć—ć¦ć„ćŸ[51]ć€‚ć—ć‹ć—ę—¢ć«ę­»ć‚“ć§ć„ć‚‹ć“ćØē­‰ć‚’å‹˜ę”ˆć€ęœ€ēµ‚ēš„恫ćÆ态怌野ēƒę®æå ‚ć€ć«å€£ć†å½¢ć§ć€åÆ¾č±”ć‚’ć€Œå’Œę­Œå±±ć®åå£°ć‚’åŗƒć‚ć€å’Œę­Œå±±ēœŒę°‘恫åøŒęœ›ćØę“»åŠ›ć‚’äøŽćˆć‚‹ē­‰ć€å¤šćć®åŠŸēø¾ć‚’ę®‹ć—ćŸäŗŗē‰©ćØ動ē‰©ć€ćØć—ćŸć€Œå’Œę­Œå±±ę®æå ‚ć€ć‚’å‰µčØ­ć€ćć®ē¬¬1号ćØć—ć¦ć€ŒćŸć¾ć€ć‚’ę®æå ‚å…„ć‚Šć•ć›ć‚‹ć“ćØ恧ę±ŗē€ć—ćŸ[52][53].
  3. ^ Name isKanzaki StationćØćƒŸćƒ¼ć‚³åŠ©å½¹ć«ć”ćŖ悀怂

Source

  1. ^ ā€œå’Œę­Œå±±é›»é‰„ć®ć€ŒćŸć¾é§…é•·ć€ę­»ć¬ā€. 47NEWS. Kyodo News(November 2015, 6). ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫Archived as of October 2015, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150624133801/http://www.47news.jp/FN/201506/FN2015062401001522.html 
  2. ^ č„æę¾å® 2009, p. 37.
  3. ^ a b "ę—„åˆŠć‚²ćƒ³ćƒ€ć‚¤ - ćŸć¾é§…é•·ćŒē«ä»˜ć‘å½¹ ć€Œćƒć‚³ćƒŽćƒŸć‚Æć‚¹ć€ć®ęć‚‹ć¹ćēµŒęøˆåŠ¹ęžœ". Daily Gendai (February 2016, 2). As of February 15, 2016ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫More archives.2019/2/12Browse.
  4. ^ Facebook怎ēŒ«ć®ć„ć‚‹é¢Øę™Æ怏 - ćƒć‚³ć«ē‰¹åŒ–ć—ćŸäŗŗ갗恮SNSć‚µć‚¤ćƒˆ
  5. ^ ā€œćƒć‚³ć®é§…é•·ćŒå®¢ę‹›ćļ¼å’Œę­Œå±±é›»é‰„态ē„”äŗŗ駅恧ā€. Shikoku Shimbun (å››å›½ę–°čžē¤¾). (2007幓1꜈5ę—„). ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫Archived as of October 2019, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20190211221935/http://www.shikoku-np.co.jp/national/life_topic/20070105000279 2019/2/12Browse. 
  6. ^ č„æę¾å® 2009, pp. 26-48.
  7. ^ č„æę¾å® 2009, pp. 50-51.
  8. ^ č„æę¾å® 2009, p. 77.
  9. ^ a b "ćŸć¾é§…é•·ćŒā€œć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ā€ć«ē‰¹åˆ„ę˜‡é€²ā€. äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ— (2008幓1꜈5ę—„). 2015幓9꜈24ꗄꙂē‚¹ć®ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫[Broken link]More archives.2015/8/11Browse.
  10. ^ "Nikkei MJ怏2017幓5꜈1ę—„ęŽ²č¼‰ć®å°å¶‹å…‰äæ”ć‚¤ćƒ³ć‚æćƒ“ćƒ„ćƒ¼
  11. ^ č„æę¾å® 2009, pp. 77-86.
  12. ^ "怌äø‰ęƛēŒ«ā€œćŸć¾ā€ć‚’é§…é•·ć«ć€ā€. äø”å‚™ć‚°ćƒ«ćƒ¼ćƒ— (2007幓1꜈5ę—„). 2015幓9꜈24ꗄꙂē‚¹ć®ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫[Broken link]More archives.2015/8/11Browse.
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References

  • č„æę¾å®ć€ŽēŒ«ć®ćŸć¾é§…é•· ćƒ­ćƒ¼ć‚«ćƒ«ē·šć‚’ę•‘ć£ćŸē”ŗ恮ē‰©čŖžć€ćƒćƒ¼ćƒˆå‡ŗē‰ˆć€2009å¹“ć€‚ISBN 9784892956386.

Related books

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  • 坂ē”°ę™ŗ꘭ļ¼ˆå†™ēœŸļ¼‰ć€ŽćŸć¾ć®ć‚¹ćƒ¼ćƒ‘ćƒ¼é§…é•·ć ć‚ˆć‚Š ć€œå¤¢åˆ—č»Šć«ę„›ć‚’ć®ć›ć¦ć€œć€ćƒ›ćƒ¼ćƒ ē¤¾ļ¼ˆē™ŗč”Œļ¼‰ćƒ»é›†č‹±ē¤¾ļ¼ˆē™ŗ売ļ¼‰ć€2008å¹“ć€‚ISBN 9784834251487.
  • 坂ē”°ę™ŗ꘭ļ¼ˆå†™ēœŸļ¼‰ć€Žé§…é•·ćŸć¾ 怜äø‰ęƛēŒ«ćŸć¾ć€é›»č»Šć«ćŖć‚‹ć€œć€ćƒ›ćƒ¼ćƒ ē¤¾ļ¼ˆē™ŗč”Œļ¼‰ćƒ»é›†č‹±ē¤¾ļ¼ˆē™ŗ売ļ¼‰ć€2009å¹“ć€‚ISBN 9784834251609.
  • Mitsunobu Kojimać€Žę—„ęœ¬äø€ć®ćƒ­ćƒ¼ć‚«ćƒ«ē·šć‚’ć¤ćć‚‹: ćŸć¾é§…é•·ć«å­¦ć¶å…¬å…±äŗ¤é€šå†ē”Ÿć€å­¦čŠøå‡ŗē‰ˆē¤¾ć€2012å¹“ć€‚ISBN 9784761512996.
  • 小嶋光äæ”ć€Žć­ć“ć®é§…é•·ćŸć¾ ć³ć‚“ć¼ć†é›»č»Šć‚’ć™ćć£ćŸć­ć“ć€Kadokawa Tsubasa Library, 2016.ISBN 9784046315984.

Related item

外éƒØ ćƒŖćƒ³ć‚Æ

Officer (company)

Board MemberWhat is (Yakuin)?CompanyBusiness executiondirected byI doExecutiveIt refers to the staff.So-calledManagement惻 Higher rankManagement.

Japanese company executive

JapaneseEmployer
(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau, FY2019Labor force surveyļ¼‰[1]
Employment statusTen thousand people
Board Member335
Labor contract with no fixed term3,728
Over a yearFixed-term contract451
Fixed-term contracts for one month to less than one year (temporary employment)763
Fixed-term contract less than 1 month (Day laborļ¼‰15
I don't know the period239
  • Below, when only the article name is described,Company lawRefers to the text of (Act No. 17 of July 7, 26).

Legal definition

JapaneseCompany law"Executive" inDirector-Treasurer-Statutory AuditorPoint to(329 article).
In the Companies Act Enforcement Regulations, in addition to officersExecutive officer-Director-AuditorsEtc. are included.Generally wider than thatCorporate OfficerOften interpreted including up to, but these areCompany lawof"Not an officerIt should be noted.
In addition, in the Companies Act, "Officers, etc."(With" etc. "), In addition to directors, accounting advisors, and corporate auditors, executive officersAccounting auditorincluding(423 article).

Officers are managers, not employees.Therefore, when an employee is promoted to an officer, he / she temporarily leaves the company.Companies with severance pay will receive severance pay.That is, the status as an employee is completely lost.It's misleading if you don't fully understand this and simply think it's an extension of your employees.

The misleading roots are job titles and names.For example, chairman and vice president, managing director and managing director, executive officer and executive officer.Even in these positions, if they are not "directors," "accounting advisors," or "auditors," they are not officers, but employees and others.To distinguish whether you are an officer or not, you must attend the board of directors and have voting rights.Voting rights are one vote per person.

The following explanation only describes the situations where the word "executive" is used. Judging by "manager" or "employee", the interpretation from the Companies Act would be appropriate in view of various past precedents.

JapaneseAntitrust lawWhat is an officer inDirector, Director, Executive Officer,Employees who execute business,AuditorsOr Audit & Supervisory Board Members or persons equivalent to these,ManagerOrHead officeOrę”Æåŗ—Refers to the chief of the business of (Article 2, Paragraph 3 of the Antimonopoly Act). Business combinationAccording to the operational guidelines of the Antimonopoly Act on Examination, the "chief of the business of the head office or branch office" of the Antimonopoly Act is a company that is considered to have the same authority as the manager under the Companies Act.Servant(For example, general manager of head office, branch manager, general manager of sales division), etc.In addition, "persons equivalent to these" do not correspond to directors, corporate auditors, etc.Advisor, advisor, A counselor, etc., who actually participates in the management of the company, such as attending a board meeting.In addition, it should be notedManager,Manager,Chief,ChiefEtc.onlyThe person who has the above is an employee and not an officer.

Officers = institutions

Often misunderstood,These officers, etc. under the Companies Act are the "institutions" of the company, not their positions.In other words, originally "General meeting of shareholders"Or"board of directorsIt is positioned in the same way as "" and is different from "positions" such as chairman, president, and managing director.Therefore, it can be said that setting the order of "Senior Managing Director" and "Senior Managing Director" among the directors is an incorrect usage from the definition of the law.

It's a confusing explanation, but for exampleCompany with Board of DirectorsIn, the board of directors plays an important role of "deciding the execution of business of the company" and "supervising the execution of duties of directors", but the resolution of this board of directors is the majority of the attending directors (or the ratio specified in the articles of incorporation). ), And the voting rights of each director are not superior or inferior, and even the representative directors are in the same voting rights.However, in many companies, it is practically difficult to express intentions against the will of senior executives because there is a strict hierarchy among the directors, and for this reason as well, it is necessary to establish a hierarchy among the directors. It can be seen that has a considerable adverse effect on the company's important decision-making and supervisory functions.

This is the reason why it is said that "management and execution are not separated" in Japan, and for the purpose of solving this problem, "Corporate OfficerMany companies have introduced the system, but unless they are named "directors" before executive officers, they simply add a new hierarchy between the director class and the general manager class.In Japan, the composition of the pre-modern "Gemainde" (village community, so-called "mura society") was followed by companies as it was.For this reason-which is also the source of the strength of Japanese companies-but it continues to this day without some essential understanding of the Western-style governance system.For this reason, the state of the organization is fundamentally different from that of Western companies, which are functional groups, and in the first place, "separation of management and execution" is not considered to be so important in many Japanese companies.

Relationship with legal employees

Officers are the actual owners of the companyEmployee(Shareholder) Does not always match.In principle, the Companies Act states that the shareholders who are the owners of a joint-stock company and the managers of the company are different.Separation of ownership and management".This is widelycapitalIn order to collect, we require shareholders to have limited liability only for the amount of investment, and management is to those who have management ability.DelegationThis is to be able to do it.In this sense, officers refer to only three members: directors, accounting advisors, and corporate auditors.

In particularstockCan be freely transferredPublic companyIn a corporation that isDirectorQualificationArticles of IncorporationCannot be limited to shareholders (331 articleItem 2).However,stockCannot be freely transferredPrivate companyIn this case, or even in a public company, it does not prevent the owner and the manager from eventually matching, and at present, in most corporations, the owner and the manager are the same in most cases.

The legal "employee" refers to a shareholder.Do not point to employeesI want to note that.

Legal relationship with the company

With the companyAgreementThe relationship is that the employee is the companyemploymentWhereas the officers conclude a contract with the companyDelegation-Semi-delegationConclude an appointment contract with the nature of a contract.

Officers are generallyLabor Standards ActupperWorkerDoes not apply to.In contrast to Article 9 of the law, "used" refers to labor under the direction and supervision of a company or superior (source).[2]), As listed below, none of the duties of officers are under the supervision of their superiors.

Therefore, the officersWork injury insuranceNot subject toemployment insurance Not even an insured person.

However, even if it is a director, a person who does not have the right to execute business or the right to represent, also serves as a factory manager, a department manager, etc., and engages in labor under the command (such as the president), and as compensation for labor. If you receive wages, you will be a worker under the Labor Standards Act (No. 23.3.17 of the 461).In such cases, workers' accident compensation insurance will be applied to the positions of factory manager, department manager, etc.

In addition, if the amount of wages in the position of employer exceeds the amount of remuneration in the position of officers and the application of work rules, etc. is applied in the same way as general workers, they will be insured by employment insurance. (Source[3]).

Corporate tax lawIn the case of officers under the Corporation Tax Law (including deemed officers. Officers who cannot serve concurrently as employees are excluded from concurrent officers), fixed salaries, etc. (regular equal salary, pre-established notification salary, etc.) There is a provision that executive compensation other than performance-linked salary, retirement salary, and employee salary for concurrent officers is not deductible (Article 34 of the Corporation Tax Law).[4]

Relationship with positions not in the law

Under the Companies Act, officersDirector,Statutory Auditor,TreasurerLimited to three.Often misunderstoodExecutive officerIs defined as an officer, etc. (with "etc.") and is distinguished from an officer.

On the other hand, commonly used positions such as president, managing director, and managing director are not stipulated by law and are not defined by law (#Internal system not stipulated in the Companies ActSee).However, the term president, managing director, etc. generally refers to being a full-time officer.The person who calls him the presidentRepresentativeSince it is presumed that there is a right (representative), and the names such as managing director and managing director make people aware of the order, those who do not have the right of representation are called the president, and the order of managing director and managing director is changed. It can be said that swapping and naming is an act that should be avoided in terms of company control.It should be noted that in small and medium-sized enterprises, the chairman often refers to the founder or former president who has retired from the line, and may not have the right of representation.

"#Internal system not stipulated in the Companies ActSee also section.

Officers, officers, etc. stipulated in the Companies Act

As a major premise, the old commercial lawContinental lawThe revised Commercial Code, which was established on the basis ofCompany law Anglo-American lawThe scope and responsibilities of officers have changed significantly due to the close proximity to the concept.

Director

Since the authority differs depending on how the company is organized, it is under the Companies Act.DirectorA unique definition is difficult.

It is a principle form of the Companies ActCompany without Board of DirectorsIn the case of directors, the directors carry out internal business execution in the company and externally manage the company.RepresentativeIt is a necessary permanent institution (348 article-349 article).In this case, there may be one or more directors.

On the contrary,Company with Board of DirectorsIn, the directorboard of directorsIs a member of.In this case, there must be at least three directors (331 article4).

Although not stipulated by the Companies Act, directors who have internal positions such as the president and managing director may be called directors with roles, and directors who do not have such a system may be called flat directors.

CEO

CEOIn a company with a board of directors and a company without a board of directors that has voluntarily decided to appoint a representative director, while executing internal business, the company is externally established.RepresentativeInstitution to do (349 article-363 article).

In a company with a board of directors, it is a necessary permanent organization that is obliged to establish it.On the other hand, in a company without a board of directors, in principle, each director has the right to represent the company (Article 349, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Companies Act), so the representative director isArticles of IncorporationIt can be installed arbitrarily by stipulating in (Company Law Article 349, Paragraph 3).Also,Company with CommitteeIn, directors do not have the right to execute business (415 article), Since the representative executive officer has the right of representation, a representative director cannot be established.

The number of representative directors is sometimes misunderstood as one, but there is no legal limit to the number of representative directors, and if two or more are selected, each representative director will represent the company.

Outside director

Outside directorIs a director of a joint-stock company, and is an executive director / executive officer of the joint-stock company or its subsidiary.ManagerOtherServantIt is not a person who has never been an executive director, executive officer, manager or other employee of the stock company or subsidiary in the past (Company Law Article 2 No. 15).

The purpose is to maintain the appropriateness of business execution of the company by having a person outside the company become a member of the board of directors.However, if this definition is met, they are outside directors, so if they do not execute business, they will be outside directors many years after taking office, and officers of the parent company can also be outside directors of subsidiaries.

Company with CommitteeIn, there must be an outside director, and the majority of each committee must be an outside director (400 article3).

Executive officer

Under the Companies Act, officers, etc. (with "etc.") are officers, and persons who are not "directors" are not officers of the Companies Act.Executive officerIs an organization that executes the business of a company with committees (418 article).Different from executive officer.

Company with CommitteeIn, business decision-making and execution are separated.The former is in charge of the board of directors, and the latter is in charge of executive officers.In this case, the director does not have the authority to execute business, but it is possible to concurrently serve as a director and an executive officer.

Representative Executive Officer

It is a type of executive officer, and is an officer, etc. (with "etc.") under the Companies Act, and a person who is not a "director" is not an officer under the Companies Act.Representative Executive OfficerIs a company with committeesRepresentativeAn executive officer who has the authority to420 article).It corresponds to a representative director of a company with a board of directors other than a company with a committee, except that it is not a member of the board of directors. There may be one person, but not necessarily one person.

Statutory Auditor

Statutory AuditorIs an institution of a company that audits the business execution of directors (381 article).Companies with a board of directors, excluding companies with committees, and companies without a board of directors that have an accounting auditor are obliged to establish one (327 article).Among the companies that have corporate auditors, those that have been granted business audit rights to corporate auditorsCompany with Audit & Supervisory Board Members(Even if there are corporate auditors who can only perform accounting audits, it is not a company with corporate auditors under the Companies Act).It is also possible to establish a board of corporate auditors consisting of corporate auditors.Company with board of auditorsThen, there must be three or more corporate auditors, and more than half of them must be outside corporate auditors (335 article3).

Outside Audit & Supervisory Board Member

Outside Audit & Supervisory Board MemberA corporate auditor of a joint-stock company is a person who has never been a director, accounting advisor, manager or other employee of the joint-stock company or its subsidiary (2 articleNo. 16).Mandated by companies with a board of corporate auditors.

Treasurer

TreasurerIn collaboration with directors or executive officersFinancial documentsEtc. is a voluntary institution of the company that creates (374 article).Certified public accountant,Audit corporation,Tax accountant,Tax accountant corporationOtherwise, you cannot become an accounting advisor (333 articleItem 1).This is the first new system established under the Companies Act.

Internal office system not stipulated in the Companies Act

Names not stipulated by law are freely given by the company, so there is not necessarily a unique definition.It is used differently depending on the company.In the following, we will explain how to use it relatively often.In addition to the following positions, it has recently been used by Western companies.Name of Chief OfficerMany companies are using.

President

Even with this title and name, a person who is not an "auditor" or "director" is not an officer of the Companies Act.PresidentIs generally a higher position than the president in Japanese companies, and is used as the title of the former president who retired from the president.In many cases, the chairman is used to indicate that he is the head of the entire group that has multiple companies under its umbrella.In this case, he may also serve as the representative director of a holding company, which is the holding company of each group company.
In some cases, the chairman directs the strategy of the entire company (CEO), and the president directs the daily business execution (COO). In that case, the chairman is the de facto chief operating officer.

However, the position of "Chairman" is not specifically defined in the Companies Act, and the ups and downs of the position, the weight of authority and responsibility, etc. are arbitrary for each company.This applies to all titles listed below, such as managing directors, managing directors, and executive officers, whose definitions are not specified in the Companies Act.It is also voluntary to serve concurrently as a director, not to serve as a director, to be a representative director, or not. (The CEO / COO mentioned above may also be the president / vice president instead of the chairman / president)

It may be positioned as a consultant, or it may be used for convenience to establish a so-called "cloister rule".On the other hand, there are cases where the actual authority is taken up and the honorary position is formally raised with the title of chairman, and its position varies depending on the individual company.
In the case of large companies, even if they retire from the front line, they are often treated with great influence and respect, but on the other hand, it is a title that is often used by small and medium-sized companies in the city. (Former president who retired at the owner company, etc.)

In addition, "Chairman"board of directorsThere are some statements that he is the chairman of the company, but this is incorrect.The board of directors has a "chairman" but no "chairman".The resolution of the board of directors is determined by the majority of the attending directors (or the ratio specified in the articles of incorporation), and in terms of voting rights, each director is in the same line and there is no legal superiority.

ToyotaIn some companies, a post called "Vice Chairman" is placed under the Chairman, and the Vice Chairman is also the representative director.[5].

Chair

board of directors OfChairIs generally done by the president or chairman[6],Konica MinoltaIn addition to the president and chairman, a "board of directors chairman" is appointed to separate supervision and execution.[7],Hitachi, Ltd.,ToshibaLike,Outside directorIn some cases, he is trying to reform the board of directors by giving the right to proceed with the proceedings of the board of directors as the "chairman of the board of directors".[8].

The president

A person who is not a "director" even with this title or name is not an officer of the Companies Act.The presidentIs literally the head of the company.bankThen,HeadThere are many places to call it.The president is usuallyRepresentativeA director (representative director) or executive officer (representative executive officer) who has the right.However, since it is a name inside the company, it is not legally necessary to be a director (representative director) or an executive officer (representative executive officer).Moreover, even directors and executive officers do not necessarily have the right of representation (representative director, representative executive officer).However, even if you do not have the right of representationRepresentative Director(354 article), Or Omote Representative Executive Officer (421 article), The liability of the company may be held by the trading partner.In addition, the business execution of a company with a board of directors is changed to the president who is neither a director nor an executive officer.DelegationIf you do, the company is importantServant(Article 362), The board of directors appoints and dismisses the president.However, the board of directors of a company with committees may delegate the appointment and dismissal to executive officers by its resolution (Article 416).

To the president who is neither a director nor an executive officerLive doorCompanyKozo HiramatsuThere is an example of the executive officer and president (at that time).this is,Live door caseAs a result of the resignation of the main director who was involved in the company, the person who is the president has disappeared from the director, so on January 2006, 1, he was appointed as the president as an executive officer.This is only a provisional measure, and was held on June 24, the same year.General meeting of shareholdersHas been appointed as a director.

Also in-houseThe presidentThere is no problem even if the company does not have a president who does not claim to be the head of the company, but in order to establish a de facto leader, the representative director or other officersThe presidentIs generally appointed.

Vice president

A person who is not a "director" even with this title or name is not an officer of the Companies Act.A position similar to the president. It is not limited to one person, and while large companies may have two or more people, small companies often do not.The vice president is usually a director (representative director) or an executive officer (representative executive officer).However, since it is a name inside the company, it is not legally necessary to be a director (representative director) or an executive officer (representative executive officer).Also, even if you are a director or executive officerRepresentativeIt does not necessarily have the right (representative director, representative executive officer).However, even if you do not have the right of representationRepresentative Director(354 article), Or Omote Representative Executive Officer (421 article), The liability of the company may be held by the trading partner.In addition, the business execution of a company with a board of directors will be vice president who is neither a director nor an executive officer.DelegationIf you do, the company is importantServant(Article 362), The Board of Directors appoints and dismisses the vice president.Provided, however, that the board of directors of a company with committees may delegate the appointment and dismissal to executive officers by its resolution. (Article 416) In addition, American styleVice PresidentIs literally a vice president, but in many cases it is considerably lower than the Japanese vice president.

Managing Director, Managing Director, Executive Officer, Executive Officer

Even with these positions and names, those who are not "directors" are not officers of the Companies Act.An officer who is in charge of overall management of the company's business and assists the president.RepresentativeIt does not necessarily have the right (representative director, representative executive officer).Even if you do not have the right of representation under the old Commercial Code before the enforcement of the Companies ActRepresentative DirectorAs (former Commercial Code Article 262), there were cases where the liability of the company was blamed by the business partner, but the word "senior managing director" was removed from the clear text in the Companies Act (354 article), It can be said that the responsibility of the company is no longer held even if the name of a managing director is given to a director who does not have the right of representation.In addition, the business execution of a company with a board of directors is changed to a managing executive officer who is neither a director nor an executive officerDelegationIf you do, the company is importantServant(Article 362), The Board of Directors appoints and dismisses Senior Managing Executive Officers.Provided, however, that the board of directors of a company with committees may delegate the appointment and dismissal to executive officers by its resolution. (Article 416) The relationship with the managing director is essentially just a difference in the duties in charge, but in general, the managing director is often treated as a higher rank than the managing director.

Corporate Officer

A person who is not a "director" even if he / she has this title or name is not an officer of the Companies Act.Perform business execution of the companyimportantServantJob title.Of the Companies ActDifferent from executive officerSo be careful.It may also be attached to a person who is a director (eg, representative director and president).Executive officers who are not directors (including managing executive officers and managing executive officers) are not officers under the Companies Act.In recent years, which was often seen at the beginning of the system, there are an increasing number of cases in which not only executive officers as quasi-executive senior managers but also some directors such as managing executive officers and managing executive officers are ranked higher.

Business execution of a company with a board of directors to an executive officer who is neither a director nor an executive officerDelegationIf you do, the company is importantServant(Article 362), The Board of Directors appoints and dismisses executive officers.However, the board of directors of a company with committees may delegate the appointment and dismissal to executive officers by its resolution (Article 416).

In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduce the number of directors in order to speed up board decisions and avoid excessive responsibility of directors.Therefore, this position is given to executive employees who are not directors but are treated as officers.in JapanSonyIntroduced the executive officer system for the first time.Appointment as a directorGeneral meeting of shareholdersHowever, the appointment of executive officers does not require the approval of the general meeting of shareholders.Following Sony's move, many companies have introduced an executive officer system, but some say it has not been an essential reform.[9]. Also,PanasonicIn such cases, the term "executive" is used in addition to the directors, and senior positions such as managing officers and managing officers are also provided, which correspond to executive officers of other companies.This is also not an officer under the Companies Act.

20052And working as an executive officerDeath from overworkAbout the man who didTokyo District Court The20115To, "substantiallyWorker"It corresponds to"Labor accidentDecided to cancel the disqualification of[10].

Advisor / Advisor

Persons who are not "auditors" or "directors" even with these positions and names are not officers of the Companies Act.With a consultantAdviserIs the position that advises the company.Advisors may be legal officers or non-executives, and advisors are usually not officers, but the previous management center is "PoliticsIn some cases, it cannot be judged without looking at the internal situation and actual situation of each company.

The counselor isThe president,PresidentEtc. take up after retiring from the front line of managementHonorary positionIn many cases, so-called "advice from high places" is requested, but if necessary, bold advice is requested on serious management or corporate management problems, or the company If there is a crack, it will be arbitrated.
The legal status of advisors differs depending on the individual company, and while there are director advisors and representative director advisors who also serve as legal officers, there are cases where advisors are not directors.

In addition to the case where an advisor is entrusted to an outside expert to conclude an advisor contract, a person who is invited from outside and will be appointed as a director in the near future will be the next advisor.General meeting of shareholdersIn some cases, the position may be temporary or convenient, and the new company may be a former managing director of the old company, which has been locked out of management practice due to the merger of large companies. In some cases, it is a semi-permanent position to be treated as a "permanent advisor" who also serves as a director of a company.In either case, the adviser is often required to provide practical and routine advice based on his or her own expertise and in-house experience.

In addition, the founder and special presidents and chairmen who have made great achievements in the development of the company may be treated as "supervisors" who also serve as directors for a while after retiring from the front line of management. is there.However, no matter how "best" it is, it is still an "adviser", and it is rare for the chief adviser to squeeze or add to the corporate management of the new management team.The appointment of a chief adviser is often a relatively unknown new owner who has taken over the legendary old owner.ShareholderAnd keep it for the time being so as not to give unnecessary anxiety to business partnersMikoshiSide is strong.This is why it is common for the chief adviser, who has expired his term, to skid as a consultant this time.

Since advisors and directors have different legal responsibilities and authority, advisors are generally not directors, but there are cases where directors are given the title of advisor and "representative director advisors". ..If the adviser is not a director, the adviser has no legal responsibility or authority regarding the management of the company, but if the adviser is a director, the legal obligations and responsibilities as a director are imposed.

The relationship between a non-director advisor or advisor and a company is not limited to the case of concluding an advisory contract, the case where an employment relationship exists with the company and is legally an "employee" of the company, and the case where the advisor is the company. In some cases, the advisor is simply a name if he / she does not receive compensation from.Such an ambiguous systemcomplianceThere are often cases that lead to violations.This is because the direction of the company may be affected by the instructions from the alumni and the big names who should not be involved in the decision making from the original rules.

Toshiba The2015For many years discovered inFinancial resultsConsidering abolishing the advisor system in response to the indication of fraudulent accounting problems such as.As a result, he is also the former president and chairman of the company.Taizo NishimuroAlso2016I will retire within.In addition to the two advisors at that time, Toshiba had two special advisors, two permanent advisors, and 2 advisors.ScandalReceived social criticism of the management system in connection with[11].

In 2017, listed companiesGeneral meeting of shareholdersIn addition to the shareholder proposal requesting the abolition of advisors and advisors, some companies voluntarily started considering the abolition of posts.In addition, the Government of Japan is considering requiring disclosure of business details when advisors and advisors take office by the beginning of 2018.[12].

Executives at Chinese companies

Chugoku,Hong Kong,Macau,Taiwan,SingaporeEstablished inCompanyList the job titles used in.

Officers of companies in mainland China

People's Republic of China OfCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) Then,CompanyAs an officer of the company (Company)ofDirector (directorļ¼‰,Auditor(Supervisorļ¼‰,Operating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰There are provisions such as appointment and dismissal, duties and authority, qualifications and obligations, and legal responsibilities.

Hong Kong company executive

Hong KongLegal system historicallyč‹±å›½Is influenced by the legislation ofCompany(English:company, Chinese:Company) And its officers ()English : Companies Ordinance,Chinese : Company ordinance) Is in the UKCompany law(Companies Act) Is referred to.Of a company under the British Companies ActBoard Member (officer)Similarly, in Article 2 of the Hong Kong Company Ordinance, in the Company OrdinanceBoard Member(English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnel) IsCorporate organization(English:body corporate, Chinese:Corporate 團體)about,Director (English:Director, Chinese:directorļ¼‰,Manager (English:manager, Chinese:Managerļ¼‰andSecretary (English:secretary, Chinese:secretaryļ¼‰(From the supplement of Article 1974, No. 80, 2).In addition, in Article 351 (2) of the Company Ordinance, the officers of the company who are responsible for fines or penalties (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnel), And the disclaimer officer (English:officer who is in default, Chinese:Disclaimer luxury personnel) Is a company officer (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnel) Or of the companyShadow Director (English:shadow director, Chinese:Kageko Chairmanļ¼‰Therefore, it is defined as a person who knowingly refuses or violates the provisions stipulated by the company ordinance and intentionally approves or permits it (from the revision of Article 2003 of No. 28, 114).

director

Chairman of the BoardChinese: director).CorporationExecution of business and corporationRepresentativeThe person in charge of doing.Generally corporateDirectorEquivalent to a corporationCompany(Company)In the case ofDirectorCorresponds to.Or of a corporationBoard of directors(If the corporation is a companyboard of directors)Board of Directors,Board of DirectorsOrBoard of DirectorsIn the corporation that establishesBoard of Directors,Board of DirectorsOrBoard of DirectorsAttend this as a member of and participate in the resolution.In addition, the company (Company) In corporations other than the legal entitydirectorAs a practical title ofDirectorMay be used.

Chairman of the Board of the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China OfCompany(Company)ofdirectorIt is,Company with Board of Directors OfDirectorCorresponds to.Of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) Is the director of the company (director) Is stipulated.

Hong Kong company chairman

Hong Kong OfCompany(English : company,Chinese : Company) Chairman (English:Director, Chinese:director) Isč‹±å›½ OfCompany law(Companies Act) Of the companyDirector (director)Corresponds to.Hong Kong Company Ordinance (English:Companies Ordinance, Chinese:Company ordinance), In Article 2, Director (English:Director, Chinese:director) IsCorporate organization(English:body corporate, Chinese:Corporate 團體)ofOfficer (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnelļ¼‰It is stipulated to be included in.In addition, regardless of the official name, the director (English:Director, Chinese:director) Is included.Company'sboard of directors(English:board of directors, Chinese:Board of Directors) Attend this as a member and participate in the resolution.Private company (English:private company, Chinese:Private company) Directors of companies other than (English:Director, Chinese:director) Is mainly stipulated in Article 153 of the Company Ordinance, and companies that are not private companies have a minimum of two directors (English:Director, Chinese:director) Needs to be placed.Private company (English:private company, Chinese:Private company) Director (English:Director, Chinese:director) Is mainly stipulated in Article 153A of the Company Ordinance, and a private company has a minimum of one director (English:Director, Chinese:director) Needs to be placed.In addition, in Article 159 of the company ordinance,Limited liability company(English:limited company, Chinese:Limited) And basicArticles of Incorporation(English:memorandum, Chinese:Chapter outline), If specified, the director (English:Director, Chinese:director) Stipulates unlimited liability.

Chairman

Chairman of the Board (Toujicho, Simplified characters: Chairman; ē¹ä½“å­—: Chairman).Corporation OfdirectorSelected from, execute the business of the corporation, and make the corporationRepresentativeThe person in charge of doing.CorporateRepresentative DirectorOr equivalent to the chairman, the corporationCompany(Company)In the case ofCEOCorresponds to.Or of a corporationBoard of directors(If the corporation is a companyboard of directors)Board of DirectorsOrBoard of DirectorsIn corporations that set upBoard of DirectorsOrBoard of Directors OfPresidentPreside over this as.In addition, the company (Company) In corporations other than the legal entitydirectorAs a practical title ofDirectorMay be used. Hong KongIn the company ofChairman of the Board of Directors(English:chairman of the board of directors, Chinese:Chairman of the Board of Directors) Is equivalent to.

Chairman of the Company of the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China OfCompany(Company) Chairman of the Board (Chairman) IsCompany with Board of Directors OfChairperson of the BoardEquivalent to.

Of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) Is the chairman of the board of the company (Chairman) Is stipulated.Articles of Incorporation (Bylaws) Is statutoryRepresentativeCan be a person.In addition, the general meeting of shareholders and the board of directors (Board of Directors) Is presided over.

Chairman of the Board of Directors

Chairman of the Board of Directors (Toujikyokushuseki,Chinese: Chairman of the Board of Directors).In generalCorporation OfdirectorSelected from, corporateBoard of directors(CorporateCompanyIn the case ofboard of directors)Board of Directors OfChairThis will be convened and held.CorporateDirectorIf the corporation is a companyChairperson of the BoardEquivalent to.č‹±å›½CompanyChairperson of the Board (chairman of the board of directors)Equivalent to.

Hong KongCompany (English : company,Chinese : Company) Chairman of the Board (English:chairman of the board of directors, Chinese:Chairman of the Board of Directors) Is not a private companyLtd.Management rules (English:Regulations for management of a company limited by shares, not being a private company, Chinese:Privately held company management regulations) In Article 57, the chairman of the board of directors (English:chairman of the board of directors, Chinese:Chairman of the Board of Directors) If you put the companyEmployeeGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholders(English:general meeting, Chinese:Daikai) In the chair (English:chairman, Chinese:Chairman) Is stipulated.

Deputy Chairman

Deputy Chairman of the Board (Fukutoujicho, Simplified characters: Vice chairman; ē¹ä½“å­—: Deputy Chairman).In generalCorporation OfdirectorSelected fromChairmanWhen you cannot exercise your authority due to absence or accidentChairmanTheproxyTo do.CorporateVice ChairmanEquivalent to a corporationCompany(Company), Deputy DirectorPresidentCorresponds to.In addition, the company (Company) In corporations other than the legal entitydirectorAs a practical title ofVice ChairmanMay be used.

Deputy Chairman of the Company of the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China OfCompany(Company) Deputy Chairman ()Vice chairman) IsCompany with Board of DirectorsDeputy Director ofPresidentEquivalent to.

Of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) Is the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of the company (Vice chairman) Is stipulated.Vice Chairman of the Board (Vice chairman) If you putexecutive chairman(Chairmanļ¼‰To assist the chairman of the board (Chairman) Is unable to perform its duties, or if it fails to perform its duties, the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors (Vice chairman) Performs duties.

Managing Director

Managing Director (Jomutoji, Simplified characters: Executive Director; ē¹ä½“å­—: Managing Director).In generalCorporation OfdirectorIt is selected from the above and executes the daily business of the corporation.In addition, the company (Company) In corporations other than the legal entitydirectorAs a practical title ofManaging DirectorMay be used.

Managing Director of a Hong Kong company

Hong Kong OfCompany(English : company,Chinese : Company) Managing Director (English:managing director, Chinese:Managing Director) Is not a private companyLtd.Management rules (English:Regulations for management of a company limited by shares, not being a private company, Chinese:Privately held company management regulations), Articles 109 to 111.

Executive Director

Executive Director (Shikotouji, Simplified characters: executive director; ē¹ä½“å­—: Executive Director).Company(Company) Business executiondirectorIs.Execute businessDirectorEquivalent to.

People's Republic of ChinaIn a small limited liability companyboard of directors(Board of Directors) Is not placed, and one executive director (executive director)Articles of Incorporation(Bylaws), Executive director (executive director) Is alone on the board of directorsBoard of Directors) Can perform duties.Executive Director (executive director) IsManager (managerļ¼‰Can also serve concurrently.In addition, it is statutory according to the articles of incorporation.RepresentativeCan be a person.

Non-executive director

Non-executive director (Hishikotouji, Simplified characters: Non-executive director; ē¹ä½“å­—: Non-executive director).Company(Company) Do not execute businessdirector.Executive DirectorOther thanDirectorEquivalent to.

Chairman of the Board

Chairman of the Board (Binintoji,Chinese: Chairman of the Board).Company(Company)ofDirector (directorļ¼‰When is missing, a substitute director (replacement director (director).

Hong KongCompany (English : company,Chinese : Company)'S vacant director (English:reserve director, Chinese:Chairman of the Board) Is the company ordinance (English:Companies Ordinance, Chinese:Company ordinance) In Article 2 of a private company (English:private company, Chinese:Private company)'S vacant director (English:reserve director, Chinese:Chairman of the Board) Is defined as (from the supplement of Article 2003, No. 28, 2).In addition, in Article 153A (6), a private companyEmployee(English:member, Chinese:member) And its employees (English:member, Chinese:member) Is the only director of the company (English:sole director, Chinese:The only chairman), The company's normalArticles of Incorporation(English:items, Chinese:Bylaws) Regardless of any provisions, the company is an employeeGeneral meeting(English:general meeting, Chinese:Daikai), The only director (English:sole director, Chinese:The only chairman) Is missing due to death, a person over 18 years old ()Corporate organization(English:body corporate, Chinese:Corporate 團體)) One person is a substitute director of the company (English:reserve director, Chinese:Chairman of the Board) (From Article 2003, No. 28, 56).

Kageko Chairman

Chairman of the Board (Eishitouji,Chinese: Kageko Chairman).Company(Company) Is actually managed by the shadow director (director).č‹±å›½ OfCompany law (Companies Act) Of the company inShadow director (shadow director)Equivalent to.

Hong KongCompany Ordinance (English : Companies Ordinance,Chinese : Company ordinance), In Article 2, the director of the shadow (English:shadow director, Chinese:Kageko Chairman) Is a company (English:company, Chinese:Company), On a regular basisDirector (English:Director, Chinese:directorļ¼‰Or a majority of directors (English:Director, Chinese:director) Is instructed or ordered (from the supplement of Article 2003, No. 28, 2).

Accountant

Accountant (Keirinin,Chinese: Researcher).businessman(Trade name) OrCompany(Company) To manage the affairssignature(Signature)I do.Orč£åˆ¤ ꉀBy the order ofDelegationBeing a companypropertyManage.

Hong Kong company property accountant

Hong Kong OfCompany(English : company,Chinese : Company)ofpropertyAccountant (English:manager, Chinese:Researcher) Is the company ordinance (English:Companies Ordinance, Chinese:Company ordinance),Dissolution(English:winding-up, Chinese:Liquidation) At the company in processč£åˆ¤ ꉀTo manage the company's property by order ofDelegationThe person who was done.Corresponds to the manager of the property of the company.The following is the manager of the company's property (English:manager, Chinese:Researcher) Is not included.

  1. Company'sLiquidator(English:liquidator, Chinese:Liquidator) Or
  2. Of company propertyTrustee(English:receiver, Chinese:Piper) Or
  3. Special manager of company property or business (English:special manager, Chinese:Special manager).

Senior management personnel

Senior management personnel (Koukyukanrijinin,Chinese: Senior management). People's Republic of China OfCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China), In Article 217, senior management personnel (Senior management) IsCompany(Company)ofManager (managerļ¼‰,Deputy manager (Deputy Economicsļ¼‰,Chief Financial OfficerTreasuryļ¼‰, Listed company (Listed company)ofBoard Secretary (Board secretaryļ¼‰And companyArticles of Incorporation(company policy) Other persons (personnel) Is defined.board of directors(Board of Directors) Is an officer appointed by a Japanese companyCorporate OfficerAndē±³ 国 OfCorporation (corporation) OfBoard Member (officer)Is similar to. Republic of ChinaCompanyOperating officer(Researcherļ¼‰,Hong KongCompanyManager (English:manager, Chinese:Managerļ¼‰orSecretary (English:secretary, Chinese:secretaryļ¼‰Equivalent to.

accounting

Accounting (Keiri, Simplified characters: manager; ē¹ä½“å­—: Manager).Company(Company),board of directors(Board of DirectorsorBoard of Directors) Is a person who performs the duties of an administrator under the direct authority of.č‹±å›½Companies Act (Companies Act) Of the companyManager (manager)Equivalent to.

Accounting for companies in the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of ChinaCompany manager (manager) Is of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) In Article 217Operating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰It is said to be included in.board of directors(Board of Directors) Is invited and appointed.board of directors(Board of Directors) Have the right to attendArticles of Incorporation(Bylaws) Is statutoryRepresentativeCan be a person.board of directors(Board of Directors), And has the authority and legal responsibility to run the company as required by law.Company'sExecutive officerCorresponds to.Legal manager (manager) Is the practical nameGeneral Manager(General manager) Often.

Hong Kong company accounting

Hong KongCompany (English : company,Chinese : Company) Manager (English:manager, Chinese:Manager) Is the company ordinance (English:Companies Ordinance, Chinese:Company ordinance) In Article 2Corporate organization(English:body corporate, Chinese:Corporate 團體)ofOfficer (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnelļ¼‰It is stipulated to be included in.Also,board of directors(English:board of directors, Chinese:Board of Directors) Is defined as a person who performs the duties of an administrator under the direct authority of.However, the following is the manager (English:manager, Chinese:Manager) Is not included.

  1. Company'sproperty OfTrustee(English:receiver, Chinese:Piper) OrCaretaker (English:manager, Chinese:Researcherļ¼‰, Or
  2. Special manager of company property or business (English:special manager, Chinese:Special manager). (From the supplement of Article 2003, No. 28, 2)

Responsible as an officer of the company, the scope of its duties and authorityArticles of Incorporation,AgreementBecause it is determined by, depending on the scope of duties and authority of the companyExecutive officer,Manager, OrCorporate OfficerEquivalent to. Republic of ChinaCompanyOperating officer(Researcherļ¼‰,People's Republic of ChinaCompanyOperating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰Corresponds to.In addition, in Article 159 of the company ordinance,Limited liability company(English:limited company, Chinese:Limited), And the basic articles of incorporation (English:memorandum, Chinese:Chapter outline), The manager (English:manager, Chinese:Manager) Stipulates unlimited liability.

Deputy accounting

Deputy Accounting (Fukukei,Chinese: Deputy Economics).Company(Company),board of directors(Board of Directors) According to the resolution,Manager (managerļ¼‰Assist and execute the business of the company.With the deputy managerJapanese translationIt may be done.

People's Republic of ChinaDeputy manager of the company (Deputy Economics) Is of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) In Article 217Operating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰It is said to be included in.Manager (manager) By the suggestionboard of directors(Board of Directors) Will be appointed.Take legal responsibility as an officer of the company.Depending on the scope of duties and authority of the companyExecutive officer,Manager, OrCorporate OfficerCorresponds to.Deputy manager of the law (Deputy Economics) Is the practical nameDeputy General Manager(Deputy General Manager) Often.

Treasury responsible person

Financial Responsible Person (Zaimu Fusekinin,Chinese: Treasury).In general,CompanyAn officer who performs the duties of Chief Financial Officer.ē±³ 国InCorporation (corporation) OfTreasurer (treasurer),Chief Financial Officer (CFO)Equivalent to.

People's Republic of ChinaCompany (Company) Chief Financial Officer (Treasury) Is of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) In Article 217Operating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰It is said to be included in.Manager (managerļ¼‰By the suggestion ofboard of directors(Board of Directors) Will be appointed.Legal financial officer (Treasury) Is the practical name of the Controller-General of Finance ()financial director) Often.

secretary

Secretary (Hisho, Simplified characters: secretary; ē¹ä½“å­—: secretary).In general,Corporation OfSecretaryIt is an officer who performs the duties of.So-calledsecretaryThere is also a meaning ofCompany(Company),EmployeeGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholdersandboard of directors(Board of DirectorsorBoard of Directors) Responsible for recording the procedure in the minutesdecreeThe company is obliged to keep itdocumentsCreation, maintenance and maintenance of documents and other recordsAuthenticationIn charge of doingč‹±å›½,ē±³ 国Of the company inSecretary (secretary),Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)Equivalent to.

Secretary of the Board of Directors of a listed company in the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of ChinaListed company (Listed company) Board Secretary (Board secretary) Is of the People's Republic of ChinaCompany law(Justice of the People's Republic of China) In Article 217Operating officer(Senior managementļ¼‰It is said to be included in.

Hong Kong company secretary

Hong KongThen, the company regulations (English:Companies Ordinance, Chinese:Company ordinance), The secretary of the company (English:secretary, Chinese:secretary) IsCorporate organization(English:body corporate, Chinese:Corporate 團體)ofOfficer (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnelļ¼‰It is stipulated to be included in.Also, the secretary of the company (English:secretary, Chinese:secretary) Is required to have one person in Article 154 of the Company Ordinance (from the amendment of Article 1 of No. 2003, 28), but a private company (English:private company, Chinese:Private company) Is a director (English:Director, Chinese:director) And one person, the clerk (English:secretary, Chinese:secretary) Is not required.Also, as a clerk (English:secretary, Chinese:secretary)ButIndividualIf it is, it is necessary to have an address in Hong Kong, and if it is a corporate body, it is necessary to set up a sales office in Hong Kong.

Chairman of the Board

Chairman of the Board (Touji Sokei, Simplified characters: General Manager; ē¹ä½“å­—: General Manager).board of directors(Board of Directors,Board of DirectorsOrBoard of Directors) By resolution, etc.Company(Company) To govern and manage the affairs of the companyDirector (directorļ¼‰.

Chairman of the Board of a Hong Kong company

Hong KongChairman of the Board (English : managing director,Chinese : General Manager) IsCompany(English:company, Chinese:Company)ofboard of directors(English:board of directors, Chinese:Board of Directors) To administer the duties of the manager of the company under the direct authority ofDirector (English:Director, Chinese:directorļ¼‰so,č‹±å›½CompanyManaging Director (managing director) Corresponds to.The legal status is the execution of the business of the companyDelegationDirector (English:Director, Chinese:director).According to Article 159 of the Hong Kong Company Ordinance,Limited liability company(English:limited company, Chinese:Limited) And basicArticles of Incorporation(English:memorandum, Chinese:Chapter outline), The Chairman of the Board (English:managing director, Chinese:General Manager) Stipulates unlimited liability.

General Manager

General Manager (Sokei, Simplified characters: General manager; ē¹ä½“å­—: General Manager).board of directors(Board of Directors,Board of DirectorsOrBoard of Directors) By resolution, etc.Company(Company) Is responsible for governing and managing the affairs of the company under the decision and supervision of.FrenchDirect to General (Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)) Equivalent to.Executive officer,General managerEquivalent to.

General Manager of Hong Kong Company

Hong KongGeneral Manager inEnglish : general manager,Chinese : General Manager) IsCompany(English:company, Chinese:Company) It is an internal job system and the companyboard of directors(English:board of directors, Chinese:Board of Directors) Is the person responsible for managing the duties of the manager of the company under the direct authority of.The legal status of the companyManager (English:manager, Chinese:Managerļ¼‰.

Deputy General Manager

Deputy General Manager (Fukuso Keiri, Simplified characters: Deputy General Manager; ē¹ä½“å­—: Deputy General Manager).board of directors(Board of Directors,Board of DirectorsOrBoard of Directors) By resolution, etc.Company(Company) Under the decision and supervisionGeneral Manager(General Manager)DelegationManage the office work of the company.Vice President,Corporate OfficerEquivalent to.

Deputy General Manager of Hong Kong Company

Hong KongDeputy General Manager inEnglish : deputy general manager,Chinese : Deputy General Manager) IsCompany(English:company, Chinese:Company) It is an internal job system and the companyboard of directors(English:board of directors, Chinese:Board of Directors) Under direct authorityGeneral Manager(English:general manager, Chinese:General Manager)DelegationPerform the duties of the manager of the company regarding the matters that have been done.The legal status of the companyManager (English:manager, Chinese:Managerļ¼‰.

Officers stipulated in the British and American Companies Act

Officer

Officer (English: officer).Japanese translationIs an officer.

č‹±å›½ OfCompanyOfficer (officer) Is in the UKCompany law (Companies Act) In Article 1173 (1) of the Companies Act, "Board Member '( "officer") It is,Corporate organization (body corporate)about,Director (director),Manager (manager)OrSecretary (secretary)It is stipulated to say.Depending on the text, the companyLiquidator (liquidator) ,Shadow director (shadow director)Is an officer (officer) Is stipulated to be considered.CommonwealthCompanies Act of each countryHong KongIn the company regulations ofOfficer (English:officer, Chinese:High-class personnelļ¼‰Has a similar provision.

on the other hand,ē±³ 国 OfCorporation (corporation)Officer (officer) Is a non-profit corporation but also a commercial corporation (Ltd.) ButDirector / Director (director)It is a different institution and an officer (officer) TheBoard of directors/board of directors (board of directors)Under the command ofAgent (agent) As a senior who executes corporate business asEmployee (employee) Is said to be.However, director / director (director) And officers (officer) Can also serve concurrently.Generally by a resolution of the board / board of directors (officer) Appointed, the board / board of directors is always an officer (officer) Can be dismissed.StateDepending on the officer (officer) How to appointArticles of IncorporationAnd the resolution of the board of directors / board of directors, so according to the articles of incorporationEmployeeGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholdersOfficer at (officer) Appointed or officer (officer) Is a junior officer (officer) Can also be appointed.Traditional executives of US corporations (officer) IsChairman / President (president),Vice Chairman / Vice President (vice-president),Secretary (secretary),Treasurer (treasurer)Etc. are included.Officers of a company under English law (officer) Of the manager (manager) Or clerk (secretary) But an officer of a US corporation (officer) Hits.

Director

Director(English: Director).In general,Board of directorsTo installCorporation OfDirectorCorresponds to.The corporationCompanyIn the case of,Company with Board of Directors OfDirectorEquivalent to.FoundationIn the case of non-profit corporations such as (trustee) There is a case.

č‹±å›½Company director (director) Is in the UKCompany law (Companies Act) In Article 250 of the Companies Act, "Director"(ā€œDirectorā€) Is a director, whatever the name (director) It is stipulated that those who occupy the position of are included.Also, in Article 1173 (1) of the Companies Act of the United Kingdom,Corporate organization (body corporate) OfBoard Member (officer)It is stipulated to be included in.CommonwealthCompanies Act of each countryHong KongIn the company regulations ofDirector (English:Director, Chinese:directorļ¼‰Has a similar provision. UK companyThen my company (private company) In the case of at least one director (director) Must be placed.In addition, the company's normalArticles of Incorporation (articles of association) The minimum number of directors required can be increased by the provisions of.The company is an officer of another company (officer) Can be, but at least one director (director) TheIndividualMust be 16 years of age or older. Public company (public company)In the case of, a minimum of two directors (director) Must be placed.Director (director) One of them is an individual and must be at least 1 years old.

ē±³ 国Corporate director Director Is generallyboard of directors (board of directors)As a member of, decides the management policy of the corporation and directs and supervises the business execution.However,StateDepending on the situation, one person may be sufficient.U.S. company Director There are two types of usage, meaning a member of the board of directors, that is, a director, and a role similar to that of a business division manager or general manager in Japan.Vice President (vice-president)Under manager Of the role of commandingJapanese translationSayManager,ManagerBecause it has the meaning of Director It may be confused when saying.To clarify that you are a director member of the board of directors It may be written as.In a Japanese company, the directorEnglish translationOf course, it is often used as it is as an English translation for department managers and section chiefs in Japan. Director Is often used, but if it is limited to the discussion of the subject "executive", it is interpreted as a translation of a director).

Shadow director

Shadow Director (English: shadow director).VirtuallyCompanyShadow director who manages. č‹±å›½ OfCompany law (Companies Act) In Article 251 of the "Shadow Director" in the Companies Act(ā€œShadow directorā€) Is customary about the companyDirector (director)A person who gives instructions or orders to.It should be noted that just giving advice to the directors from a professional standpoint is a shadow director. (shadow director) Is not considered.Also, a director (director) General duties,Employee (member) Minutes that require approval, or the only employee (sole member) Concurrent director (director) WithAgreementHabitually forsubsidiary (subsidiary companies) Director of (director) Just by instructing or orderingCorporate organization (body corporate)Is a shadow director (shadow director) Is not considered. CommonwealthCompanies Act of each countryHong KongSimilarly to the company regulations ofShadow Director (English:shadow director, Chinese:Kageko Chairmanļ¼‰There is a stipulation.This provision allows employees and other substantive company owners to be nominal.Board Member (officer)Use to prevent escaping liability.

manager

manager(English: manager).Japanese translationIs the manager.Under the current Japanese company law, managers are not included in company officers, but in JapanLtd.When the system began to be introducedNational Bank OrdinanceThere is a description in "Manager, Accounting Officer, Secretary, Other Officers", and in the past, the manager was considered to be an officer of the company even in Japan. č‹±å›½ OfCompany"Manager" (ā€œManagerā€) Is in the UKCompany law (Companies Act) In Article 1173 (1) ofCorporate organization (body corporate) OfBoard Member (officer)It is stipulated to be included in.CommonwealthCompanies Act of each countryHong KongIn the company regulations ofManager (English:manager, Chinese:Managerļ¼‰Has a similar provision.Executive Officers, depending on the provisions of the UK Companies Act (managing officer) Is also written.ē±³ 国CompanyBoard Member (officer)Corresponds to.Japanese companyManagerUnlike, he is responsible as an officer of the company, and the scope of his duties and authority isArticles of Incorporation,AgreementBecause it is determined by, depending on the scope of duties and authority of the companyExecutive officer,Manager, OrCorporate OfficerEquivalent to.

chairman

chairman(English: chairman,chairperson or chair).In general,Corporation OfBoard of directors OfChairMeans.The corporationCompanyIn the case of,board of directors (board of directors) OfPresidentOr it means the chairman.Board / At the BoardDirector / Director (director)Is selected from.EmployeeGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholdersBut he often chairs.California OfCompany lawThen,Articles of IncorporationUnless otherwise specified inThe president (president)If you do not place the chairman of the board (chairman of the board of directors) Is a corporationGeneral manager (general manager) andChief executive officer (chief executive officer)It is stipulated thatč‹±å›½ OfCompanySo, to separate execution and supervision,Executive Director (managing director)Etc.Chief Executive (chief executive)Is regulated to concurrently serve as chairman of the board.Hong KongCompanyChairman of the Board (English:chairman of the board of directors, Chinese:Chairman of the Board of Directorsļ¼‰It is also written in English.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) AtCorporation (corporation)Chairman of the Board (the chairman of the board of directors) TheSenior Executive Officer (Senior Executive)It is classified into.

Governor

Governor (English: governor).Japanese translation ThePresident.Bank of England,Hudson bay companylikeCharter company-Special company-Special corporationInRepresentativeIs a person.International Monetary FundSuch asInternational organizationIn the case of, it is a representative of each member country translated into Japanese and a member of the general affairs committee.

President

President(English: president).In general,CorporationTheRepresentativeIt is an officer who does.Corporation (corporation)If is a non-profit corporationPresidentćØJapanese translationBeing a commercial corporation (Ltd.)In the case ofThe presidentTranslated into Japanese.ē±³ 国Chairman / President of the corporation (president) Is traditionallySecretary (secretary),Treasurer (treasurer)And so onBoard Member (officer)Is said to be.If state law provides,Board of directors/board of directors (board of directors)Is one chairman / president (president) Must be appointed.Articles of IncorporationUnless otherwise specified inDirector / Director (director)It does not have to be.Generally as a clerk (secretary), Treasurer (treasurer), Other officers (officer) Can also serve asStateChairman / President depending on (president) And secretary (secretary) May be prohibited from concurrently serving.Chairman / President in many states of the United States (president) Since the state law does not clearly stipulate the role and authority of the corporation, the corporation is annexed to the articles of incorporation. (by-laws) The outline of the authority is specified in.Generally, it controls the business execution of a corporation and is a legal person's legal document. (instruments) andStock certificate (stock certificates) ,AgreementIn the booksignatureHave the authority to do.Case lawThen chairman / president (president) Even if the authority is not explicitly granted to, it is said that it has the authority to bind the corporation to a third party in all transactions related to normal business. California OfCompany lawThen, unless otherwise specified in the articles of incorporation, the president (president) General manager (general manager) andChief executive officer (chief executive officer)It is stipulated thatCEO andChief Operating Officer (COO)In many corporations, they also serve as either, but in some states they are officers. (officer) Because the name of is not specified, the president (president) In some cases, the CEO or COO may be placed without the.Also,In-house company systemIt may also refer to the head of an independent internal organization.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) In, the president of the corporation (president) TheSenior Executive Officer (Senior Executive)It is classified into.Used by US corporations,CommonwealthIncluding countriesEurope,West Asia,South Asia,Southeast AsiaIn companies in countriesManaging Director (MD)Is equivalent to the president, so it is not often used as the meaning of the president.Also,Countries and regions strongly influenced by French lawThen.France OfPresident (prĆ©sident),ćƒ”ć‚­ć‚·ć‚³Presidente (presidente) likeChairperson of the BoardMay mean.

Vice President

Vice President (Vice PresidentEnglish: vice president, Abbreviation: VP).In general,CorporationTheRepresentativeToPresident (president)To assist orproxyIt is an officer who does.

Secretary

Secretary (English: secretary).In general,Corporation OfSecretaryIt is an officer who performs the duties of.Since there is no fixed translation, depending on the authority, the type of corporation, the size of the organization, etc., the secretary, clerk, etc.secretary, Secretary,Secretary, Secretary, general affairs, general affairs, secretary, etc.Japanese translationWill be done.The current situation in JapanCompany lawThen.CompanyThere is no provision regarding the secretary role, but in JapanLtd.When the system began to be introducedNational Bank OrdinanceIn Japan, there is a description that "manager, accounting officer, clerk, and other officers are fixed", and in Japan, "secretary" was once regarded as an officer of the company.

In Britain and the United States, it also means a so-called secretary, but it is a secretary of a corporation (company). (secretary) Is a corporationBoard Member (officer)And,EmployeeGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholdersandBoard of directors/board of directorsResponsible for recording the procedure in the minutesdecreeIt is obligatory for corporations to keep itdocumentsCreation, maintenance and maintenance of documents and other recordsAuthentication (certification) I do.č‹±å›½Then the secretary of the legal company (secretary) In practice, the secretary of the company (secretary of the company, Or company's secretary), Company secretary (company secretary) And so on.In addition, it should be notedē±³ 国Then, in the same sense, corporate clerk (corporate secretary) However, in the UK, a corporate clerk (corporate secretary) Is the secretary of the company (secretary) It means a corporation that accepts the duties of.Chief Administrative Officer (CAO),Chief Financial Officer (CFO)Often serves concurrently, but the country andStateSome officers (officer) Because it does not specify the name of (secretary) In some cases, a chief administrative officer (CAO) is appointed without the stipulation.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) AtCorporation (corporation)Secretary (secretary) TheSenior Executive Officer (Senior Executive)It is classified into.

British company secretary

č‹±å›½ OfCompany"Secretary"(ā€œSecretaryā€) Is in the UKCompany law (Companies Act) In Article 1173 (1) ofCorporate organization (body corporate)Officer (officer) It is stipulated to be included in.CommonwealthCompanies Act of each countryHong KongSimilarly to the company regulations ofSecretary (English:secretary, Chinese:secretaryļ¼‰There is a stipulation. UK companyThen my company (private company) In the case of the companyArticles of Incorporation (articles of association) Unless otherwise specified in (secretary) You do not have to put. Public company (public company)In the case of, at least one secretary (secretary) Must be placed.

Public company clerk (secretary) Requires one of the following qualifications:

  • Secretary of a public company for more than 5 years in the last 3 years (secretary) Was in the position of
  • In the United Kingdom (any region of the United Kingdom)Barrister(Barrister Or advocate) OrSolicitor(Solicitor) Or have been certified for these qualifications, or
  • Secretary based on past achievements or membership of other organizations (secretary) To have the ability to perform the duties ofDirector (directors)Seen or
  • You are a member of any of the following organizations:

Company clerk (secretary) Can be an individual, a group, or a corporation, so an individual clerk (secretary) , Joint secretary by two or more people (joint secretaries) Or corporate clerk (corporate secretary) Can be appointed.

Legally, the secretary of the company (secretary) Performs the following duties.

  • Registration required by law (statutory registers) Maintenance,
  • Guarantee that the company promptly submits the information required by law,
  • Employee (member) as well as the Director (director)Meeting for (meetings) Convocation notice,
  • Employee (member) Written proposals to the Auditor (auditor) Issuance of a resolution to
  • Registry of transcripts of resolutions and agreements (Companies House) Send to,
  • All employees of the company (member), AllCorporate bondRight holder (debenture holder) And employeesGeneral meeting/General meeting of shareholders (general meeting) For everyone who should be notified of the convocationFinancial documentsIssuance of a copy of
  • All employees (member) (Past employee general meeting / shareholder general meeting (general meeting) A copy of the resolution, and all procedures and general meetings of employees / shareholders (general meeting) Storage of minutes or arrangement for storage,
  • Guarantee that anyone who has the right to audit company records can audit it,
  • CompanyPrint (company seal) If there is, store and use it,
  • Formal by the companydocumentsFor creatingCo-signPeople (co-signator) To be, and
  • Registry office (Companies House) Documents to be submitted toAuthentication (authenticate) To do (company annual financial statements as company clerk) (company secretary) Cannot authenticate).

Secretary (secretary) Is a company officer (officer) And of the companydecreeMay be criminally liable for violations.Company clerk (secretary) The rights that the company and the secretary have (secretary) OfAgreementby.

Secretary of US corporation

ē±³ 国InCorporation (corporation)Secretary (secretary) Is a non-profit corporation but also a commercial corporation (Ltd.) But traditionallyChairman / President (president),Treasurer (treasurer)And so onBoard Member (officer)Is said to be.If state law provides,Board of directors/board of directors (board of directors)Is one secretary (secretary) Must be appointed.Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporationDirector / Director (director)It does not have to be.Generally chairman / president (president), Treasurer (treasurer), Other officers (officer) Can also serve asStateChairman / President depending on (president) And secretary (secretary) May be prohibited from concurrently serving.Officers in the United States (officer)In many states, including those that do not specify the name of the company, it is stipulated that by some means an officer responsible for recording the procedures of the general meeting of employees / shareholders' meeting and the board of directors / board of directors must be appointed. There is.Generally, in addition to taking minutesdecreeIt is obligatory for corporations to keep itdocumentsAnd maintenance of documents and other recordsAuthentication (certification) And corporatePrint (seal) Keep it, if any, and legal entity legal documents (instruments) andStock certificate (stock certificates) TocountersignatureI do.bankWhen dealing with a corporationRepresentativePerson ofsignatureAnd secretary (secretary) Because it requires a countersign, a corporate accountant (treasurer) Also serves as secretary and accountant (secretary-treasurer) May be.

With a US corporationState governmentIn relation to the corporate secretary (corporate secretary) Corresponding to the state governmentOfficial office, So-called counterpart (counterpart) TheSecretary of State (Secretary of state) So, the secretary of the corporation (secretary) Shareholder listManagement, management of general meetings of shareholders, certification of corporate documents, corporate seal (seal) Secretary of State, while keeping (Secretary of state) TheElectoral listManagement andelectionOffice work, certification of state official documents,State seal (Great Seal)To store.In addition, when a corporation submits a notification or application to the state government, the Secretary of State is the main submission destination.

Trejara

Trejara (English: treasurer).In general,Corporation (corporation) OfAccountingmanagement,č³‡é‡‘TreasurerFinanceIt is an officer who performs the duties of the person in charge of.Since there is no fixed translation, there are various types such as accounting, accounting officer, cashier, finance, finance officer, treasury, etc., depending on authority, type of corporation, size of organization, etc.Japanese translationWill be done.Also, the corporationU.S. local governmentMunicipality such as (municipal corporation) In the case of,Income earner,Cashier, Treasury, etc.U.S. state governmentIn the case ofState TreasurerIs called.The current situation in JapanCompany lawThere is no provision regarding the accounting officer of the company, but in JapanLtd.When the system began to be introducedNational Bank OrdinanceIn Japan, there is a description that "manager, accounting officer, secretary, and other officers are fixed", and in Japan, "accounting officer" was once regarded as an officer of the company.

ē±³ 国Corporate accountant in (treasurer) Is traditionally a non-profit corporation or a commercial corporation (Co., Ltd.)Chairman / President (president),Secretary (secretary)And so onBoard Member (officer)Is said to be.If state law provides,Board of directors/board of directors (board of directors)Is one accountant (treasurer) Must be appointed.Articles of IncorporationUnless otherwise specified inDirector / Director (director)It does not have to be.Generally chairman / president (president) , Secretary (secretary), Other officers (officer) Can also serve concurrently.Many in the United StatesStateThen, the accounting officer (treasurer) Since the state law does not clearly stipulate the role and authority of the corporation, the corporation is annexed to the articles of incorporation. (by-laws) The outline of the authority is specified in.In general, it is officially responsible for receiving and spending funds in the name of a legal entity.Case lawThen the accounting officer (treasurer) Usually bound to a legal entity if it is not explicitly authorized toAgreementTo concludepropertyCannot be disposed of,moneyIt is said that it has the authority to receive, store and spend. bankWhen dealing with a corporationRepresentativePerson ofsignatureAnd secretary (secretary) OfcountersignatureBecause it requires a corporate secretary (secretary) Also serves as secretary and accountant (secretary-treasurer) May be. Chief Financial Officer (CFO) In many cases, he also serves asCaliforniaLike, the basic articles of incorporation (articles) Or the by-laws (bylaws) Chief Financial Officer, unless otherwise specified in (chief financial officer) If you do not put (treasurer) Is Chief Financial Officer (chief financial officer) Some states stipulate that.On the other hand, officers in some states (officer) Because the name of is not specified, the accounting officer (treasurer) In some cases, the CFO is placed without the.Also, under the supervision of the CFO, an accounting officer (treasurer) And accountingManager(controller Or comptroller) And the accountant (treasurer) May oversee the duties of the Treasury Department.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) In, corporate accounting officer (treasurer) TheSenior Executive Officer (Senior Executive)It is classified into.

Internal positions of other British and American companies

Managing Director

Managing Director(English: managing director, Abbreviation: MD).The literal translation is an executive director.CommonwealthNationalCompanyThen.board of directors恧Director (director)Responsible for overseeing the business execution of the company selected from.JapaneseDirectorThe president,ē±³ 国Company'sCEO) OrThe president (president)Equivalent to.č‹±å›½In the company, to separate execution and supervision,Chairperson of the Board (chairman of the board of directors)It is regulated to serve concurrently.Not often used in US companies.Hong KongThen.Chairman of the Board(English : managing director,Chinese : General Manager) Is written in English.In Japanese companiesManaging director OfEnglish translationOften used as,World Bank,International Monetary FundSuch asInternational organizationIn the case ofmanaging directorćØJapanese translationIs done.French translation TheDirect to General (Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)) Often

Deputy Managing Director

Deputy Managing Director (English: deputy managing director, Abbreviation: DMD).CommonwealthNationalCompanyso,Managing Director (MD)Assist and execute business.Generally, there is one or more Deputy Managing Directors (DMDs), but in some cases there is no.JapaneseSenior Managing DirectororManaging DirectorEquivalent to.ē±³ 国It is not often used in the company.International Monetary FundSuch asInternational organizationIn the case ofJapanese translationIs done.French translation TheDirect to General Ajowan (Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral adjoint (DGA)) .

First Deputy Managing Director

First Deputy Managing Director (English: first deputy managing director, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ 1st deputy managing director, Abbreviations:1st DMD).CommonwealthNationalCompanyso,Managing Director (MD)Assist and execute business. 2 or moreDeputy Managing Director (DMD)It is the name given to the company that has the highest Deputy Managing Director (DMD).It may not be placed.JapaneseDirectorVice presidentorSenior Managing DirectorEquivalent to.ē±³ 国It is not often used in the company.International Monetary FundSuch asInternational organizationIn the case of, with the first deputy managing directorJapanese translationIs done.French translationIs Premier Direct to General Ajowan (Premier directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral ad joint, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ 1er directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral ad joint).

ć‚Ø 悰 ć‚¼ ć‚Æ 惆 ć‚£ 惖

Executive (English: executive).The literal translation is the executor.In practiceboard of directorsOften refers to the members of.In addition, it should be notedē±³ 国 OfCompanyIn "top executive" Usually when you say "president", "chairman", "CEO", "COO" Refers to the person in charge of company management.

Principal Senior Executive

Principal Senior Executive (English: principal senior executives).With major senior executive officers, etc.Japanese translationWill be done.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) AtCorporation (corporation) OfCEO),Chief Operating Officer (COO),Chief Financial Officer (CFO),Chief Legal Officer (CLO), OrChief Accountant (CAO)To say. In "Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations"Public companyBusiness management is conducted by major senior executive officers or under the supervision of major senior executive officers.board of directorsOr other senior executive officers who have delegated executive rightsBoard Member (officer)OtherEmployee (employee) It is recommended that it should be done by.

Senior Executive

Senior Executive (English: senior executives).With senior executive officers, etc.Japanese translationWill be done.American Law Association (American Law Institute, ALI)by"Corporate governancePrinciples: Analysis and Recommendations "(Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations) AtCorporation (corporation) OfMajor Senior Executive Officer (Principal Senior Executives)OrChairperson of the Board (the chairman of the board of directors)(However, the chairman of the boardDirector (director)Unless he / she does not perform any duties to determine management policy other than as a director and receives a large amount of remuneration other than the remuneration as a director),The president (president),Treasurer (treasurer)andSecretary (secretary), And major divisions (business unit), Department (division) Or job (function)(Sale,General affairs,FinanceEtc.), or perform duties to determine important corporate management policiesVice president (vice-president)(SVP,EVP,Senior EVPEtc.) or Vice Chairman (vice-chairman) To say. In "Principles of Corporate Governance: Analysis and Recommendations", senior executive officers are officers.Fidelity obligationIt is recommended that you should bear.

Senior Vice President (SVP)

Senior Vice President (English: senior vice-president, Abbreviation: SVP).ē±³ 国Etc.Corporation (corporation)AtPresident (president)To assistBoard Member (officer)IsVice President (VP)Among them, it is the name of the senior vice president (VP).

Executive Vice President (EVP)

Executive Vice President (English: executive vice-president, Abbreviation: EVP).The literal translation isCorporation (corporation)If is a non-profit corporationPresident, Commercial corporation (Ltd.) Then executeVice president.ē±³ 国In corporations such asChairman / President (president)To assistBoard Member (officer)IsVice President (VP)Out ofSenior Vice President (SVP)It is the name of the senior vice president (VP).In the case of a joint-stock company, it is often translated as Senior Vice President, but it is often used as a translation of SVP.seatSometimes translated as vice president, it is easy to confuse with SVP.JapaneseCompanyInManaging directororVice president OfEnglish translationOften used as.

Senior Executive Vice President

Senior Executive Vice President (English: senior executive vice president, Abbreviations:Senior EVP).The literal translation isCorporation (corporation)If is a non-profit corporation, senior executive deputyPresident, Commercial corporation (Ltd.) Then senior executionVice president.ē±³ 国In corporations such asChairman / President (president)To assistBoard Member (officer)IsVice President (VP)Out ofSenior Vice President (SVP),Executive Vice President (EVP)It is the name of the senior vice president (VP).France OfCompanyInDirect to General Dereghe (Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral dĆ©lĆ©guĆ© (DGD)) OfEnglish translationOften used as.In Japanese companiesVice presidentOften used as an English translation of.

Founder

Founder (English: founder).The meaning of the founder.An honorary title given to the founder.This title is sometimes used in Japanese companies, and onceSony OfWell deepćØAkio Morita,Daiei OfNakauchiUsed that job title.CurrentlyHoripro OfTakeo Hori,UUUM OfHIKAKINThey use the job title.

Company executive system in continental Europe

Overview of the executive system of companies in continental Europe

Continental lawContinental European countries that adoptAnglo-American lawSince the legal system is different from that of the United Kingdom and the United States, which adopts the above, there is also a difference in the executive system of the company.For example, a German company with a distinctive two-tiered board of directors,Civil lawHas international influence in the fieldFrench lawExplain the executive system of the company based on.

Germany

Officer of (AG) Co., Ltd.

Germany'sInc. (AG)Then the board of directors (Verwaltungsrat) The role ofAudit & Supervisory Board (Aufsichtsrat)ćØExecutive Board (Vorstand)Divided into two institutions, human beingsMembers of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Aufsichtsratsmitglied)ćØMembers of the Executive Board (Vorstands mitglied)A two-tiered board of directors has been adopted in which the former supervises the latter, forbidden to serve concurrently.

The role of the Board of Corporate Auditors is to audit the business execution of the company, advise the Board of Corporate Auditors on general operations, and appoint and dismiss members of the Board of Corporate Auditors.Members of the Board of Corporate AuditorsGeneral meeting of shareholdersIs appointed by.However, in general, one-third of companies with more than 500 employees and half of companies with more than 3 employees are elected by direct election of employees.The Board of Corporate Auditors is the chairman of the Board of Corporate Auditors among the members of the Board of Corporate AuditorsGerman: Aufsichtsratsvorsitzender) One and one or more Vice Presidents (German: Deputy Chairman) Must be selected.The chairmanShareholderRepresentativeIn large companies, the vice chairman is often selected from the members of the corporate auditors' board of employee representatives.Unless otherwise specified, a resolution requires a majority of votes.If the number is the same, the vote can be re-voted, but in this case as well, the chairman of the Board of Corporate Auditors has the right to decide if the number is the same.The Vice Chairman of the Board of Corporate Auditors does not have such decision-making power (Article 29 of the Co-determination Law).

The Executive Board executes its business at its own risk and represents the company in and out of court.Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors are appointed by the Board of Corporate Auditors.If the Executive Board consists of several members, all members of the Executive Board will only jointly represent the company unless otherwise specified (Japan).Former Joint Representative Director SystemClose to).Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors are appointed by the Board of Corporate Auditors, but members of the Board of Corporate Auditors cannot concurrently serve as members of the Board of Corporate Auditors.Chairman of the Executive Board (German: Vorsitzender des Vorstandes, In the case of banks Sprecher des Vorstandes), That is, Executive Chairman (German: CEO, In the case of banks Vorstandssprecher) Is selected and dismissed by the Board of Corporate Auditors.The Chairman of the Executive Officer represents the Executive Board, and has the authority to convene meetings, manage proceedings as chairman, prepare and propose agenda items, report performance at general meetings of shareholders, and conduct audits through contact with the Chairman of the Board of Auditors. Communicate and exchange information between the Board of Directors and the Executive Board.

MoreGerman boardSee.

Officers of Partnership Limited by Shares (KGaA)

Germany'sStock joint stock company (KGaA) is unlimited liabilityEmployee(German: KomplementƤr)WhenShareholder(German: shareholder), Which is a special form of the corporation (AG), and for unlimited liability employees.Joint stock company The provisions regarding (KG) apply mutatis mutandis.Unlimited liability employeesRepresentativeIt has the right and the right to execute business, and does not have a board of directors or a board of executive officers.As a general rule, other mattersInc. (AG)The provisions regarding the above apply mutatis mutandis and are similar to those of the corporation (AG).Audit & Supervisory Board (Aufsichtsrat)Set up.Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Aufsichtsratsmitglied)The system to include employee representatives in is the same as that of a corporation (AG).

Officer of a limited company (GmbH)

Germany'sCo., Ltd. (GmbH)(Limited liability companies (including UG (haftungsbeschrƤnkt)))Indirect limited liabilityBearEmployee(German: shareholder) Is a company and employeesGeneral meeting(German: Shareholders' meeting) Makes company decisions and directors (German: Managing director) Is appointed and dismissed, and the business execution of directors is supervised.The directors execute the business of the company according to the instructions of the employees, and the company is sent to a third party.RepresentativeTo do.The number of directors is one or more.No board of directors or executive board will be established. Audit & Supervisory Board (Aufsichtsrat)Is not a mandatory institution,Articles of IncorporationA board of corporate auditors may be established in accordance with the provisions of.However, in a limited company (GmbH) with more than 500 employees,Inc. (AG)alikeMembers of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Aufsichtsratsmitglied)Since the system to include employee representatives is applied to, a board of corporate auditors must be established.

General Partnership (OHG) Officer

Germany'sPartnership company (OHG) has unlimited liabilityEmployee(German: shareholder), And each employeeRepresentativeHas the right and the right to execute business.No directors or other organizations will be established.

Officer of Joint Stock Company (KG)

Germany'sJoint stock company (KG) is unlimited liabilityEmployee(German: persƶnlich haftender Gesellschafter(French),KomplementƤr(Daily language))Limited liabilityEmployee(German: Limited partner), Which is a variant of a partnership company, and only unlimited liability employees of the companyRepresentativeHas the right and the right to execute business.No directors or other organizations will be established.

France

Officer of (SA) Co., Ltd.

In France Co., Ltd. (SA)General meeting of shareholdersWith a resolution of more than two-thirds, one can choose between a traditional single-layer board and a German two-layer board.

MoreFrench boardSee

A company that establishes a board of directors

traditionalboard of directors (Conseil d'administration (CA))In the case of a company that establishes a company, the board of directors (CA), as the institution that manages the company,Chairman of the Board (PCA),andExecutive Officer (President, DG)Etc.In addition, as an organization that conducts accounting audits and business auditsComptroller (CAC) Put.

Board of Directors (CA)Director (Administrator)Consists of.The Board of Directors (CA) sets the direction of the company's operations and manages its implementation.Explicitly within the scope of the company's purpose and by lawGeneral meeting of shareholdersIn accordance with the authority granted to the Board of Directors (CA), the Board of Directors (CA) handles all matters affecting the management of the company and makes decisions in consultation.The resolution of the Board of Directors (CA) is the directors present orDelegationDepending on the conditionproxyIt is decided by a majority vote of the directors.If the number is the sameArticles of IncorporationUnless otherwise specified, the Chairman of the Board (PCA) has the right to make decisions.The Board of Directors (CA) selects and dismisses the Chairman of the Board (PCA), appoints and dismisses Executive Officers (DG), and manages the company.RepresentativeHas the authority to decide whether to grant the right to the Chairman of the Board (PCA) or the Executive Officer (DG).In addition, the Board of Directors (CA)Vice-president (Vice-prƩsident),Deputy Executive Officer (Vice President, DGD)Etc. can be appointed.

MoreFrench traditional boardSee.

A company that establishes a board of auditors and a board of executive officers

1966Introduced by the revision of the French Commercial Code in GermanyTwo-tier boardIn the case of a company that establishes, as an organization that supervises the management of the companyAudit & Supervisory Board (Conseil de surveillance), As an institution that manages the companyExecutive Board (Directoire)Put.In addition, as an organization that conducts accounting audits and business auditsComptroller (CAC) Put.Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Membre du Conseil de surveillance)ćØMembers of the Executive Board (Membre du Directoire)Cannot be held concurrently.The members of the Board of Corporate Auditors and the Comptroller of Accounting (CAC) are separate officers.

The Board of Corporate Auditors is composed of members of the Board of Corporate Auditors.General meeting of shareholdersIs appointed and dismissed by.Most of the provisions related to the Board of Corporate AuditorsBoard of Directors (CA) It is similar to the one applied to, except that the Board of Corporate Auditors simply supervises the Board of Executive Officers, whereas the Board of Directors (CA) has a management function.

The Executive Board consists of members of the Executive Board and is appointed by the Board of Corporate Auditors.The powers of the Executive Board are broad and are limited only by the purpose of the company and the decisions legally reserved at the General Meeting of Shareholders and the Board of Auditors.The Executive Board is a collegial management body.The board of corporate auditors makes the company to a third partyRepresentativeOne member of the Executive Board must be selected as the person to do so.Those selected in this wayExecutive Officer Chairman (PrƩsident du directoire)Has the title of.Executive Officer Chairman is designated by the Board of Corporate AuditorsExecutive officer(Directeurs GƩnƩraux:Plural form)Assisted by.Members of the Executive Board are ordinary general meetings of shareholders andArticles of IncorporationWill be dismissed by the Board of Corporate Auditors in the cases specified in.

MoreFrench Audit & Supervisory Board and Executive BoardSee.

Officers of Partnership Limited by Shares (SCA)

FrenchStock joint stock company (SCA)Board of Directors (CA) Without installingShareholder(French: Sponsors) Infinite liability selected fromEmployee(French: CommanditƩs)ButbusinessmanQualificationBusiness practiceHas a position to do so, and is appointed by unlimited liability employees and with the consent of shareholders.Director (GƩrant) Executes business and consists of 5 or more shareholdersAudit & Supervisory Board (Conseil de surveillance)Audits the business.

Executives of partnerships (SNC), partnerships (SCS), and limited liability companies (Sarl)

FrenchPartnership company (SNC),Joint stock company (SCS),Limited company (Sarl) Then,EmployeeUnder decision making and supervision byDirector (GĆ©rant) Executes business.

Officer of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS)

France's Simple Co., Ltd. (SAS) has a high degree of freedom in institutional design, and the indispensable institution isGeneral meeting of shareholdersćØRepresentative (Chairman,Co-founder & CEOļ¼‰Only.Articles of IncorporationAn organization similar to that of a joint-stock company (SA) can be set up arbitrarily according to the provisions of. Representative(Chairman) to assistExecutive Officer (President, DG),Deputy Executive Officer (Vice President, DGD)Can be placed.In addition, Executive Officers (DG) and Deputy Executive Officers (DGD) have comprehensive authority of representatives.Delegation (dĆ©lĆ©gation gĆ©nĆ©rale) It is also possible to grant the same representation right as the representative.

If Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS) is a subsidiary of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SA), the parent company shall be the representative (chairman) of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS).Natural personCan be specified, butCorporationIt is also possible to appoint a parent company that is a representative.If the representative of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS) is the parent company, the duties of the representative are of the parent company.Board of Directors (CA) Etc. will be carried out in the name of the parent company, so that the parent company and the subsidiary can carry out integrated management.In addition, even if an organization such as a board of directors (CA) is not established in Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS), the board of directors (CA) of the parent company plays its role, and the business of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS) is appropriate. It is possible to simplify the organizational structure while maintaining the system for ensuring the above.

Officers stipulated by French law

Gellan

Gellan (French: Manager: Male type), Gelant (French: Manager: Female type).board of directorsOf the company that does not installDirectorCorresponds to.FrenchPartnership company (SNC),Joint stock company (SCS),Stock joint stock company (SCA),Limited company (SARL) so,EmployeeDecision andGeneral meeting of shareholdersExecute the business of the company according to the resolution of.In addition, the directors of a limited company (SARL) make the company to a third party.RepresentativeTo do.Employee 惻ShareholderIt does not have to be.The number of members is one or moreNatural personMust.Appointed or dismissed by a majority of the voting rights of employees or a resolution of a majority at a general meeting of shareholders.However, if the director is dismissed without just cause, the company will pay damages.If the director is not an employee or if the employee has a small number of shares, if certain requirements (duties that are separate from the duties as a company officer, subordination) are metemploymentAgreementCan also serve concurrently.In addition, Gellan (GƩrant) TheManagerIt may also be used to mean.

Admin Stratu

AdminstratouFrench: Administrator: Male type), Administraturis (French: administrator: Female type).Company with Board of Directors OfDirectorCorresponds to.The directors of France Co., Ltd. (SA)board of directors(Conseil d'administration (CA)ļ¼‰It is a member of, and the number of members is 3 or more and 18 or less.However, in the case of an absorption-type or new merger, the number of directors can be increased to a maximum of 3 within three years of the merger.DirectorsCorporationHowever, in the case of a corporation, it is permanent.RepresentativeAs a personNatural personMust be specified.2009May 1Since then, the directors must hold a certain number of shares in the company.Articles of IncorporationOnly when there is a stipulation in.The term of office of directors is up to 6 years (for private companies, 3 years if appointed in the articles of incorporation at the time of establishment).General meeting of shareholdersWill be appointed and dismissed at.The general meeting of shareholders may dismiss a director without giving a reason and is not subject to compensation for damages.Directors shall receive all information necessary to carry out their duties and may obtain documents that they find useful.Normally, business is not executed.If the Articles of Incorporation stipulate, a director representing an employee may be appointed by direct election of an employee, in addition to the director appointed at a general meeting of shareholders.The number of directors of employee representatives is not included in the number of directors.The number of directors who also serve as employees does not exceed one-third and is up to five.

Commissaire o Conte

Commissaire o Conte (French: Commissaire aux comptes, Abbreviation: CAC).With Accounting AuditorJapanese translationBeing a Japanese companyStatutory AuditorćØAccounting auditorIt is an officer who seems to be a combination of both. Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Membre du Conseil de surveillance)Is another officer. 1966The legal name before the revision of the French Commercial Code was Audit & Supervisory Board Member (Commissaire,French: Commissaire), But the investment inspector (French: Commissaire aux apports), It has been changed to the current name to match the practical name.

MoreAudit & Supervisory Board Member # French Accounting AuditorSee.

President

Presidan (French: Co-founder & CEO: Male type), President (French: Founder and CEO: Female type).Japanese translation ThePresident..In France, simply Le Presidan (French: President)President of the RepublicTherefore, when used to mean an officer of a company, the name combined with the institution name is used.The Chairman of the Board of Directors (CA) PrƩsident du conseil d'administration (PCA) Is.Similarly, the chairman of the board of corporate auditors PrƩs ident du conseil de surveillance, The chairman of the executive board PrƩs ident du directoire Is.French Simple Co., Ltd. (SAS)RepresentativePerson (Co-founder & CEO), Since it is a representative of the company, it is written in combination with the company name.

Board of Directors (CA) President

Chairman of the Board of a French companyFrench: PrƩsident du conseil d'administration, Abbreviation: PCA)Board of Directors (CA) One person selected by mutual election inNatural personIs.Term of officeDirector (Administrator)Does not exceed the term of office.In addition, the board of directors (CA) will be dismissed by a majority resolution.The Chairman of the Board (PCA) chairs the Board of Directors (CA) and is responsible for coordinating and directing the duties of the Board of Directors (CA).It also ensures the proper operation of the company organization and ensures that the directors can carry out their duties.If the number is the same in the resolution of the Board of Directors (CA)Articles of IncorporationUnless otherwise specified, the Chairman of the Board (PCA) has the right to make decisions.If the Chairman of the Board (PCA) meets certain requirements (duties that are separate from the duties of a company officer, subordination)employmentAgreementCan also serve concurrently.

2001In principle, the Chairman of the Board (PCA) is required to separate supervision and execution even in companies that have a traditional board of directors (CA) under the NRE Law (New Economic Regulation Law).Executive Officer (President, DG)Of the companyRepresentativeRights will be granted to Executive Officers (DGs).However, the Board of Directors (CA) decides whether to grant the representative right to the Chairman of the Board (PCA) or the Executive Officer (DG).In addition, under the conditions stipulated in the Articles of Incorporation, the Board of Directors (CA) concurrently serves as Chairman of the Board (PCA) and Executive Officer (DG).President Direct to General (PDG)) Can also be resolved.If the Board of Directors (CA) decides to continue to represent the company to the Chairman of the Board (PCA), the Chairman of the Board (PCA) has full authority to run the company, for the purposes of the company and by law.General meeting of shareholdersAnd limited only by the powers granted to the Board of Directors (CA).It also represents the company in relation to third parties and is responsible for its management.The restrictions imposed by the Articles of Incorporation or the Board of Directors (CA) on the representation of the Chairman of the Board (PCA) are binding within the company but cannot be countered by third parties.Whether or not the Chairman of the Board (PCA) has the right of representation must be clearly stated in the company's register.Management Committee (a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company)Conseil de direction, Board of directors, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ ComitĆ© executif) Etc. are often members.As a general rule, if representative rights are granted to executive officers (DGs), the chairman of the board (PCA) does not have representative rights in Japan.Chairperson of the BoardCorresponds to.On the other hand, if the representative right is granted to the Chairman of the Board (PCA), the Chairman of the Board (PCA) will be in Japan.CEOCorresponds to the chairman.In this case, in English Chairman of the board of directors and CEO It is often written as.

Audit & Supervisory Board President

Audit & Supervisory Board (Conseil de surveillance)ćØExecutive Board (Directoire)In a French company that establishesFrench: PrĆ©s ident du conseil de surveillance) Most of the provisions related toChairman of the Board (PCA) Similar to the one that applies to, but to the Chairman of the AuditorRepresentativeNot grantedMembers of the Executive Board (Membre du Directoire)It differs from the Chairman of the Board (PCA) in that it cannot serve concurrently.

Executive Board President

Audit & Supervisory Board (Conseil de surveillance)ćØExecutive Board (Directoire)In a French company that establishes, Executive Chairman (French: PrĆ©s ident du directoire) Is by the Board of Corporate AuditorsMembers of the Executive Board (Membre du Directoire)Selected and dismissed from among.However, even if the Chairman of the Executive Officer is dismissed, the status of a member of the Executive Board will not be lost.Executive Chairman makes the company to a third partyRepresentativeHowever, the management rights of the company are held by the Executive Board as a collegial body, and the Executive Officer Chairman does not have the management rights alone.Board of Directors (CA) Of the company that installsChairman of the Board (PCA) ,Executive Officer (DG)Is the difference with.Executive Officer Chairman is designated by the Board of Corporate AuditorsExecutive officer(Directeurs GĆ©nĆ©raux:Plural form)Assisted by.Executive Chairman is JapanRepresentative Executive OfficerThe presidentCorresponds to.in English CEO Is often written as.

President of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS)

In France's Simple Co., Ltd. (SAS)Representative(Chairman,Co-founder & CEO) IsGeneral meeting of shareholdersIn addition, it is the only institution that is obliged to establish and has the right to represent the company.ShareholderNot necessarilyCorporationIt is said that it may be.The company can also set up a collegial body chaired by a representative.Transfer the authority of the representative to a third partyDelegationCan be done, but a comprehensive delegation of the powers of the representative (dƩlƩgation gƩnƩrale) It is possible to have the same representation right as the representative (chairman)Executive Officer (President, DG)orDeputy Executive Officer (Vice President, DGD)Limited to.If Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS) is a subsidiary of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SA) and a parent company is appointed as the representative of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS), the duties of the representative will be that of the parent company.Board of Directors (CA) Etc. will be carried out in the name of the parent company.In this case, the board of directors (CA) of the parent company appoints executive officers (DG) and deputy executive officers (DGD) as representatives of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS), grants them the right to represent the company, and executes their business. Can be supervised.

Vis President

Vis Presidentan (French: Vice-president: Male type), Vis President (French: Vice President: Female type).Japanese translationIs the vice chairman.The Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors (CA) at a French company Vice-prƩs ident du conseil d'administration, The Vice Chairman of the Board of Corporate Auditors Vice-prƩs ident du conseil de surveillance, The Vice Chairman of the Executive Board Vice-prƩs ident du directoire .

Vis President of the Board of Directors (CA)

French companyBoard of Directors (CA) One or more vice presidents, if desired (Vice-prƩsident) Can be placed.Board of Directors (CA) Vice ChairmanDirector (Administrator)To determine the term of office that does not exceed the term of office as a director.The Vice President or the Most Senior Vice PresidentChairman of the Board (PCA) Perform the duties when there is a problem.

When two or more vice-chairmen are appointed, the name of the senior vice-chairman is Premier Vis President (French: Premier vice-prĆ©sident, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ1er vice-president: Male type), Premiere Vis President (French: PremiĆØre vice-prĆ©sidente,1ages vice president, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ1re vice president: Female type) with the first vice chairmanJapanese translationIs done.

Direction General

Direct Tour General (French: CEO: Male type), Directory General (French: Executive Director: Female type), Abbreviation: DG.Executive officerorRepresentative Executive OfficerEquivalent to.

Direct-to-general of the company that establishes the board of directors (CA)

FrenchBoard of Directors (CA) The company that establishes the board of directors (CA)RepresentativeRightChairman of the Board (PCA) If not granted to, Executive Officer (President,Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)) Is appointed and the term of office is determined.Director (Administrator)The term of office of an executive officer (DG) does not exceed the term of office as a director.Executive Officer (DG)Natural personMust be,ShareholderIt does not have to be, and it does not have to be a member of the Board of Directors (CA).Executive Officers (DGs) have full authority to run the company and have the purpose and legal nature of the company.General meeting of shareholdersAnd limited only by the powers granted to the Board of Directors (CA).Executive Officers (DGs) represent the company in relation to third parties and in court.Articles of IncorporationAlternatively, the restrictions imposed by the Board of Directors (CA) on the authority of Executive Officers (DGs) are binding within the company but cannot be countered by third parties.Whether or not the executive officer (DG) has the right of representation must be clearly stated in the company's register.Management Committee (a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company)Conseil de direction, Board of directors, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ ComitĆ© executif), Etc. are often members.Executive officers (DGs) who have been granted representative rights by the Board of Directors (CA) are from Japan.Representative Executive OfficerThe presidentCorresponds to.in English CEO It is often written as.

2001In principle, the Chairman of the Board (PCA) also serves as Executive Officer (DG) in order to enable the separation of supervision and execution even in companies that have a traditional board of directors (CA) under the NRE Law (New Economic Regulation Law). Instead, the representative right of the company was granted to the executive officer (DG).However, the Board of Directors (CA) decides whether to grant the representative right to the Chairman of the Board (PCA) or the Executive Officer (DG).The Board of Directors (CA) may also resolve to serve concurrently as Chairman of the Board (PCA) and Executive Officer (DG) under the conditions stipulated in the Articles of Incorporation.

Prior to the enforcement of the NRE Act, the Board of Directors (CA) could have one or more and no more than five Executive Officers (DGs).1940恋悉1943Since the revision of the law stipulated that the Chairman of the Board (PCA) shall have the right of representation and concurrently serve as the Executive Officer (DG), the Chairman of the Board (PCA) and Executive Officer (DG) (President Direct to General (PDG)) Is the current executive officer (DG) who assists PDG and executes business.Deputy Executive Officer (DGD)It was the same role as. Executive Officers (DGs) other than PDG are JapaneseExecutive officerVice presidentCorresponds to.in English COO It is often written as.

Direct-to-general of a company that establishes a board of auditors and a board of executive officers

Audit & Supervisory Board (Conseil de surveillance)ćØExecutive Board (Directoire)In a French company that establishes an executive officer (Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)) Is appointed by the Board of Corporate Auditors as a member of the Board of Corporate Auditors.The number of members isExecutive Officer Chairman (PrĆ©sident du directoire)1 to 5 people (7 people or less in the case of a listed company) includingNatural person.Members of the Board of Corporate Auditors (Membre du Conseil de surveillance)Can not serve concurrently.There may be one corporation (SA) with capital less than 150,000 euros.In this case, the member is a single executive officer (French: Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral unique).The term of office of members of the Executive BoardArticles of IncorporationIf there is no stipulation, it is 4 years, and if there is a stipulation, it is a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 6 years.Members of the Executive Board are usuallyGeneral meeting of shareholdersAnd if it is stipulated in the articles of incorporation, it will be dismissed by the Board of Corporate Auditors.Executive Officers (DGs) participate in the management of the company as members of the Executive Board, which is a collegial body that has the management rights of the company.Executive officers (DGs) other than the executive officer and chairman assist the executive officer and chairman and execute the business of the company as the person in charge of the department in charge.Of the department in chargeManager (Directeur) In some cases, it also serves as.JapaneseRepresentativeWithout rightsExecutive officerCorresponds to.In English, he is the chief of the department in chargechief officerOften written as.

Direct to General of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS)

Executive Officer (President, President) of France's Simple Co., Ltd. (SAS)Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)) Is optional, and if it is installedArticles of IncorporationIt is necessary to specify in.Executive Officer (DG)Natural personMust.Representative (Chairman,Co-founder & CEOļ¼‰ OfRepresentativeComprehensive rightsDelegation (dĆ©lĆ©gation gĆ©nĆ©rale) As a result, the executive officer (DG) can have the same authority as the representative right of the representative.The restrictions added to the authority of Executive Officers (DGs) are binding within the company but cannot be countered by third parties.If an Executive Officer (DG) who does not grant representation rights is to be appointed, it must be clearly stated in the articles of incorporation.Executive Officer (DG) is second only to representatives in JapanExecutive officerVice president,Representative Executive OfficerIt can be said that it corresponds to the vice president, but the representativeCorporationIn such cases, when the executive officer (DG) is comprehensively delegated the right of representation and the representative exclusively supervises the execution of business, the executive officer (DG) is practically the representative executive officer.The presidentEquivalent to.

Direct to General Dereghe

Direct to General Dereghe (French: Chief Operating Officer: Male type), Directuris General Dereghe (French: Directrice gƩnƩrale dƩlƩguƩe: Female type), Abbreviation: DGD.Japanese translationIs acting executive officer.Executive officerorRepresentative Executive OfficerEquivalent to.

Direct to General Deleghe, a company that establishes a board of directors (CA)

FrenchBoard of Directors (CA) Deputy Executive Officer of the company that establishes (Directeur gƩnƩral dƩlƩguƩ (DGD)) It is,2001In principle, according to the NRE Law (New Economic Regulation Law)Chairman of the Board (PCA) TheExecutive Officer (DG)Of the companyRepresentativeWith the rights granted to Executive Officers (DGs), the traditional Chairman of the Board (PCA) and Executive Officers (DGs) (President Direct to General (PDG)) Was introduced as an officer with the same role and authority as an executive officer (DG).

The Board of Directors (CA) may have one or more and five deputy executive officers (Vice President, DGD).The Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) is appointed by the Board of Directors (CA) at the suggestion of the Executive Officer (DG).However, if the representative right is granted to the Chairman of the Board (PCA), it is proposed by the Chairman of the Board (PCA).The Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) will be dismissed by the Board of Directors (CA).Deputy Executive Officer (DGD)Natural personMust be,ShareholderIt does not have to be, and it does not have to be a member of the Board of Directors (CA).The scope of authority for the Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) to assist the Executive Officer (DG) is determined by the Board of Directors (CA) in consultation with the Executive Officer (DG).Representative rights equivalent to those of Executive Officers (DG) can also be granted to Deputy Executive Officers (DGD).The restrictions added to the powers of the Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) are binding within the company but cannot be countered by third parties.The presence or absence of representation of the Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) must be clearly stated in the company's register.Management Committee (a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company)Conseil de direction, Board of directors, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ ComitĆ© executif), Etc. are often members.Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) is from JapanExecutive officerVice presidentorRepresentative Executive OfficerCorresponds to the vice president.in English,Senior Executive Vice President (Senior Executive Vice-President), ć¾ 恟 ćÆ COO It is often written as.

Direct to General Delege of Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS)

Deputy Executive Officer (Vice President, Vice President, Shizuoka Airport Service (SAS), FranceDirecteur gĆ©nĆ©ral dĆ©lĆ©guĆ© (DGD)) Is optional, and if it is installedArticles of IncorporationIt is necessary to set a rule in.Deputy Executive Officer (DGD)Natural personMust.Executive Officer (President, DG)Although I am in a position to assistRepresentative (Chairman,Co-founder & CEOļ¼‰ OfRepresentativeComprehensive rightsDelegation (dĆ©lĆ©gation gĆ©nĆ©rale) As a result, the Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) can also have the same authority as the representative right of the representative.The restrictions added to the powers of the Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) are binding within the company but cannot be countered by third parties.If a Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) is to be established without granting representation rights, it must be clearly stated in the articles of incorporation.Deputy Executive Officer (DGD) is second only to Representative (Chairman) and Executive Officer (President, DG) in Japan.Executive officerVice presidentorRepresentative Executive OfficerCorresponds to the vice president.

French company's internal position and practical title

Adminstrato Dereghe

Adminstrato Dereghe (French: Administrateur dĆ©lĆ©guĆ©: Male type), Administraturis Dereghe (French: Administratrice dĆ©lĆ©guĆ©e: Female type).At France Co., Ltd. (SA)Board of Directors (CA) Executive Officer (DG)Temporarily execute business until appointingDirector (Administrator)It is a practical title of.In addition, it should be noted1940恋悉1943With the revision of the lawChairman of the Board (PCA)Until you focus your authority onAgreementFrom the companyCEOIt was the practical title of a director who was given the authority equivalent to.

Commissaire o Comte Ajowan

Commissaire o Comte Ajowan (French: Commissaire aux comptes adjoint: Male form), Commissaire o Comte Ajowanto (French: Commissaire aux comptes adjointe: Feminine).Comptroller (CAC) To carry out accounting audits and business audits.It is a system established by the company, not a legal institution.

President Direct to General

President Direct to General (French: PrĆ©s ident-directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral: Male type), President Directuris General (French: PrĆ©sidente-directrice gĆ©nĆ©rale: Female type), Abbreviation: PDG.Chairperson of the BoardandRepresentative Executive OfficerThe presidentCorresponds to.France andQuebec(ć‚«ćƒŠćƒ€) In the companyChairperson of the Board (PrĆ©sident du conseil d'administration (PCA))ćØRepresentative Executive Officer (President,Directeur gĆ©nĆ©ral (DG)ļ¼‰It is a practical title of an officer who also serves as.Board of Directors (CA) President (President) And the company president (President) However, it is said that he is the chairman and president of the board.Its tremendous authority is in US companiesCEO)Is said to surpass.Management Committee (a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company)Conseil de direction, Board of directors, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ ComitĆ© executif), Etc. are often members.

1930 eraUntil then, as an officer of a corporation (SA) in French Commercial CodeDirector (Administrator)ćØStatutory Auditor (Commissaire)However, the regulations regarding authority are insufficient, and the board of directors is also a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company.decreeThere was no provision in.Regarding the execution of business of the company,CEO (Administrateur dĆ©lĆ©guĆ©)To execute the business of the company by giving the title of Executive Officer (DG) to those other than directors.DelegationHowever, the authority of the representative director and executive officer (DG) isAgreementIt was determined by the relationship, and the location of authority was unclear.In addition, the director is with the companyemploymentInadequacy in the system was recognized, such as fraudulent acts such as signing a contract and receiving a large amount of compensation as an employee.for that reason,1940恋悉1943As a countermeasure for these problems with the revision of the lawBoard of Directors (CA) As a statutory body, the authority is concentrated on the Chairman of the Board (PCA), and the Chairman of the Board (PCA)RepresentativeIt has been stipulated that he has the right and concurrently serves as an executive officer (DG).Since the amendment of the law, the chairman of the board (PCA) and executive officer (DG), that is, the President Direct to General (PDG), has become established in French companies.

2001In principle, the chairman of the board (PCA) also serves as an executive officer (DG) in order to enable the separation of supervision and execution even in companies that have a traditional board of directors (CA) under the NRE Law (New Economic Regulation Law). Instead, the representative right of the company was granted to the executive officer (DG),Articles of IncorporationThe Board of Directors (CA) may resolve to serve concurrently as Chairman of the Board (PCA) and Executive Officer (DG) under the conditions set forth in. After the enforcement of the NRE Act, some listed companies separate the Chairman of the Board (PCA) and the Executive Officer (DG), but the Presidential Direct to General (PDG) system is firmly supported by French companies.

Direct to General Ajowan

Direct to General Ajowan (French: Deputy General Director: Male type), Directuris General Ajowanto (French: Deputy Director: Female type), Abbreviation: DGA.Japanese translationIs an assistant executive officer.It is a system established by the company, not a legal institution.Corporate OfficerCorresponds to.In France Co., Ltd. (SA) and Simplified Co., Ltd. (SAS),Executive Officer (DG) andDeputy Executive Officer (DGD) And execute the business of the company as the person in charge of the department in charge.Management Committee (a meeting body voluntarily set up by the company)Conseil de direction, Board of directors, ć¾ 恟 ćÆ ComitĆ© executif), Etc. are often members.Of the department in chargeManager (Directeur) Or companyGeneral Affairs DepartmentOf the head or corporate groupSecretary-General (SecrĆ©taire gĆ©nĆ©ral) In some cases, it also serves as.Assistant Executive Officer (DGA) is from JapanSenior Managing Executive OfficerorManaging Executive OfficerCorresponds to.In English, he is the chief of the department in chargechief officerOften written as.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

ę³Ø 釈

Source

  1. ^ Labor Force Survey (Basic tabulation) National Annual 2019 (Report). Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau(2019-01-31). Basic tabulation Table II-10. https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00200531&tstat=000000110001&cycle=7&year=20190&month=0&tclass1=000001040276&tclass2=000001040283&tclass3=000001040284&result_back=1. 
  2. ^ Report of the 1st Subcommittee of the Labor Standards Law Study Group (Labor Contracts) "Criteria for Judgment of" Workers "in the Labor Standards Law" (December 60, 12) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  3. ^ Applicable list of corporate officers Ehime Labor Bureau
  4. ^ National Tax Agency | Salary for officersAs of 2018 year 4 month 1 day.
  5. ^ Board Member(Toyota Motor)
  6. ^ TSE Listed Company Corporate Governance White Paper 2021(Tokyo Stock Exchange) According to P84-85, 82.7% of TSE-listed companies have the president and 14.7% have the chairman as the chairman of the board of directors.
  7. ^ How to make the board function as chair(Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu LLCļ¼‰
  8. ^ Increasing number of corporate board chairpersons and external appointments Supported by the Financial Services Agency, governing reforms incorporating external perspectives(Sankei Digital怀June 2018, 7 Read June 13, 2021)
  9. ^ Jiro Makino (August 2006, 8). ā€œCorporate Law (Supplementary Course 2) Executive Officerā€. Makino Sogo Law Office Lawyer Corporation (Internet Archive). As of June 2010, 6ć‚Ŗ ćƒŖ ć‚ø 惊 惫More archives.2014/2/15Browse.
  10. ^ Executive officer cancels worker, uncertified disposition Yomiuri Shimbun May 2011, 5[Broken link]
  11. ^ Toshiba considers abolishing advisor Nishimuro will retire by the end of the year
  12. ^ Banks also review advisors and advisors = dispel concerns about "cloister rule" Current affairs dot com news (July 2017, 7) Viewed July 8, 2017[Broken link]

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