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The Japanese government fires a series of stupid measures for IT security measures ... Crisis of destruction due to the establishment of the Digital Agency and the reduction of mobile phone charges
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Such a structure has resulted in the promotion of media blackouts for SNS companies based on Apple and Google standards, and it is also an unfair soil in which mega-ventures cannot be created without their cooperation in the IT field.
On January 1, the opening day of the US Electoral College vote, a mob rushed to the US Capitol.Right wing ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Speech control(Genron Tosei) is political powerNews report-Publication・ Regulations for other speech..There are various targets and methods of regulation.Mass mediaIs often the target, but at meetings,Demonstration march, Even personal conversations may be regulated.
Media blackout is mainly information about internal interests, such as the state.policyCriticism ofSecurity・ Disturb the moralsPrinciplethought,CountryCriticalConfidential,Riot・ Investigation to prevent publication, coverage, and dissemination of domestic turmoil, etc.censorshipAnd manipulate, manage, and prevent this information as needed.Television, newspapers, radio, movies, school education, etc. are used for information control and public opinion manipulation, and it is said that they have been done through the Internet since the spread of the Internet.
Even in a country that is considered to be a democracy, there is or may be a state-based media blackout.Even if the state is not directly involved in speech control, influential politicians of the ruling party may personally take control of many media companies or connect with media managers to exert influence on speech. is there.[Source required]
ドイツThen.HitlerTo praise orNaziVolksverhetzung (People's incitement) when disseminating designs and publicationsGerman criminal lawIt is illegal under Article 130).this is"Democracy fighting"(Democracy that does not allow denial of democracy).
Edo PeriodIn Japan, publication requires notification, and those who commit this are punished.For example in 1855Kanagaki RobunHidetoshi Ichiboshi, the publisher and co-author of "Ansei Kanmon Magazine"Hand chain(However, since Robun was unsigned, he was spared the writing).
In Japan after the Meiji eraPublishing law,Newspaper lawCensorship was carried out by such means.Communism-AnarchismPromotion and agitation,Royal familyCriticism, JapanColony(Korea-TaiwanEtc.) Independence movement,AbortionThe introduction of the method was prohibited.Geographical description of fortress areas and military ports, photographs, etc.Issuance prohibitedWas the target of.Wartime regimeIn Japan belowPublishing law,Newspaper law,National Total Mobilization ActThe media blackout based onInformation Bureau,Special higher police(Involved in the disturbance of peace and order)ProhibitionThe ordering authority is the Minister of Interior).
moviesRelated items that are used for viewing are subject to censorship.1917年(Taisho 6) "Activity photoBoxing Regulations "(PoliceAgency decreeNo. 12),1922年(Taisho 11) July Metropolitan Police Department Ordinance No. 7,1925年(Taisho 14) After the Ministry of Interior Ordinance No. 3 in March, the upper limit of the number of screenings and the screening period were set in addition to the contents.Wartime regimeUnder1939年(ShowaIn 14), the more binding "Movie lawWas enacted, and it was obligatory to create works in line with the intentions of the country (military), the number of films produced, and "skill examination" for all film-related people.scriptCensorship from the production stage is also possible.
After the warThe Constitution of JapanToFreedom of speechAlthough it was clearly stated that it would guaranteePress codeEtc. GHQ (Allied Supreme Commander General Command) Suppressed and controlled speech until the occupation was lifted.
Currently, freedom of speech is guaranteed by the constitution in Japan, but the news mediavoluntary restraintsThere are quite a few contraindications to speech (things that cannot be reported) such as "chrysanthemum taboo" and "crane taboo".Textbook certification,Harmful booksDesignation,Dissemination of obscene materialsThere is also a problem with the argument that it is close to censorship.
Public security police,Public Security Intelligence AgencySome political parties and individuals have called for the abolition of information gathering activities that are unconstitutional or illegal.
recentlyHuman rights protection billIs controversial as it may lead to media blackouts.Also,Child pornography lawRegarding the regulation of non-live-action creations and the punishment of simple possession of child pornography, which were included in the amendment of the law, "may lead to infringement of human rights and atrophy of freedom of expression", "arbitrariness of investigative authorities" There is a risk of inviting a typical investigation. "Japan Communist PartyEtc. said "should be careful"..After that, the law amendment in June 2014 included a ban on simple possession in the Child Pornography Law, but the supplementary provisions leading to the regulation of creative works were deleted from the bill..
In addition,Specified secret protection lawThere are voices saying that such things will be a media blackout, but there are pros and cons regarding this, such as "You should protect information that damages national interests" and others say that "the people's right to know is damaged". Is.
People's Republic of ChinaFreedom of speech does not exist in (Mainland China), and anti-government speech is being cracked down.
Due to the oppression of foreign media, in 1964 (Showa 39), "Notes on the exchange of newspaper reporters for both Japan(Also known as the Sino-Japanese Journalist Exchange Agreement) was signed.1968年In (43), the "Three Principles of Sino-Japanese Relations" were confirmed. The "three political principles of Sino-Japanese relations" are "1. Do not hostile to China, 2. Do not stand in the position of two Chinas, 3. Do not prevent the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China." It was a principle to be observed when exchanging[Source required]..I had a resident reporter in Beijing at that timeAsahi Shimbun,Yomiuri Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,NHKEtc. approved this document[Source required].Sankei ShimbunRebelled against this agreement and is under its umbrellaFuji Television Network, IncRaised all correspondents, including[Source required].
After that, the "Memo on the exchange of newspaper reporters between Japan and China" was abolished in 1973 after the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China, and the "Exchange letter on the exchange of newspapers between the governments of Japan and China" signed after that regulated the press. No such clause is included.Therefore, it is not possible to request the media to leave the country using this official statement.
In the first place, the "Memo on the exchange of newspaper reporters between Japan and China" and the subsequent "Official text on the exchange of reporters between the governments of Japan and China" are agreements between nations, and it is not possible for a specific company to conclude an agreement or not. In fact, the Sankei Shimbun mentioned above also revived the General Bureau of China in Beijing in 1998 (Heisei 10) based on the "Exchange Statement on Press Exchange between Japanese and Chinese Governments".By the way (although it has rarely been carried out except for the discovery of clear hostile acts such as intelligence activities), all sovereign states, regardless of whether or not they have an agreement, can revoke the reporter's residence permit and expel them abroad. ..
Cultural RevolutionDuring this period, foreign media were banished from China one after another, and all Japanese news media were banished except for the Asahi Shimbun.Later, other Japanese media outlets were allowed to re-enter China.
In January 2011, the party secretary of the China Press Association pointed out that there have been too many false reports in China recently related to the economy and people's lives..
The Chinese government has formed a cyber army of experts to manipulate public opinion and spread propaganda around the world as it strengthens its surveillance of activities on the Internet.
America TheUnited States Constitution AmendmentArticle 1 stipulates a ban on censorship.this isParliamentAlsoPresidentMust also be observed.However, although not officially recognized,US National Security AgencyBut"EchelonIntercept the contents of telecommunications around the world using "="Eavesdropping) Is said to be. In 2013Edward SnowdenBy exposurePRISM (monitoring program)The existence of was revealed.
There is no censorship from above in AmericaCodeThere is a self-regulation of the press called.In the United States, there is a "guided" method that appeals directly to the public's consciousness rather than a compulsory method.
It has been pointed out that these regulations presuppose specific religious and ethical views (for example, opposition to abortion).There are also circumstances in which major mass media are monopolistic capital and there is always a risk of defamation and other proceedings.
Also, the recipient of the informationMedia literacyThere is also the problem of (ability to evaluate and identify information).
Korean InternetSo traditionallyPro-North Korean・ Writing that may benefit North Korea, such as Pro-North Korean, has been prohibited.Lee Myung-boAfter the administrationPro-dayFor writingOnline censorshipIs being done.It is an institution that reports directly to the presidentKorea Communications CommissionHowever, websites and blogs that make pro-Japanese remarks are forcibly deleted or access is prohibited, and speech is controlled...Furthermore, for users who repeatedly post the same sentence, we take measures to forcibly cancel the use, and we have very strict speech control for users who speak pro-Japanese speech..
Major nations with bills that lead to media blackouts
- Japan #in Japan's caseSee
- South Korea(National security law,Pro-Japanese lawBased on communism andPro-dayLimited to)
- DPR Korea(Freedom of the press is the worst in the world)
- People's Republic of China(As a censorship system that is not limited to national criticism and its applicable actsGreat firewallThere is.However, Hong Kong and Macau are excluded)
- インドネシア (Internet newspaper JanJan) Reform Indonesia Suharto defamation
- Kingdom of Thailand(Blasphemy(Limited to applicable acts)
- トルクメニスタン(Press freedom comparable to North Korea)
- (I.e.(Limited to anti-state religion)
- Saudi Arabia(BlasphemyAnd anti-state religion)
- アラブ 首長 国 連邦(Limited to political party formation)
- AustraliaThen, from 2010, it became necessary to declare possession of pornography at the time of entry..
- Australia-ニュージーランドAbout Internet CensorshipBasic Bill for Youth Harmful Social and Environmental Measures #Australia / New ZealandSee.
- ドイツ(Based on the constitutionNaziOnly affirmative)
- France(Sect(Limited to) (Since 1998, all expressions expressing minors have been banned as child pornography ((September 2007, 9 Court of Cassation Criminal Division Judgment (excerpt)) French court recognizes adult animation as child pornography)
- ベ ラ ル ー シ
- ジンバブエ(Surveillance by secret police and violence against dissidents)
- (I.e. (NPO Human Rights Watch) Libya: Repression continues, but human rights situation advances a little
- スーダン (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Overview of Sudan
- エジプト(Limited to religious party activities)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- アメリカ合衆国(US Patriot ActThere is an opinion that invisible control is being carried out based on. )
- カナダ --Since then, books containing sexual expressions are prohibited, even for academic books and reports that raise issues. (Radical Feminism #Canada(See)
- キ ュ ー バ
- Freedom of speech
- Broadcasting prohibited
- Online censorship
- Information manipulation
- Political Correctness,Word hunt,Self-censorship
- Radical feminism - feminismIn, the school that generally supports expression regulation.
- Liberal feminism --A school that opposes expression regulation in feminism.
- Newspaper reporter (movie)
Other media blackouts
- Press agreement
- Censorship in Japan
- Taboo in the press
- Chrysanthemum taboo
- Censorship in China
- Chinese net censorship
- Blocking access to Wikipedia in mainland China
- Korean internet censorship
- Great firewall
- Abolition of speech
- Comfort women
- Presidential Committee for the Inspection of Anti-National Acts
- US Patriot Act
- ^ a b Item of "Media Blackout" in Shogakukan "Encyclopedia Nipponica"
- ^ "2009 Judicial Police" of "Japanese Communist Party 25 General Election Policy""3, Police Reform" "(4) Stop the espionage activity of the security and public security police and abolish the secret police"
- ^ "Answer to an open letter regarding the revision of the law concerning child prostitution, punishment for acts related to child pornography, and protection of children", Japanese Communist Party Policy Committee
- ^ "Child pornography prohibition law to be revised Manga and animation are not applicable”. Huffington Post (May 2014, 6). 2016/11/28Browse.
- ^ 
- ^ "China has too many false reports," a senior member of the China Press Association complains-SP Chinese newspaper
- ^ "Chinese government hires millions to manipulate public opinion-news”(Japanese). Bitter Winter (Japanese) (September 2018, 12). 2019/1/29Browse.
- ^ 방통 심의 위 "친일 찬양 사이트 제제 한다" Public Relations Committee "Sanctions on Japanophilia Site" August 2012, 8
- ^ "독도 는 일본땅" 인터넷 친일 게시글 삭제 Dokdo is a Japanese territory "Internet pro-Japanese bulletin board deleted Maeil business 2012/8/31
- Item of "Media Blackout" in Shogakukan "Encyclopedia Nipponica"
- Amnesty International Japan
- Ministry of Interior "Overview of Publishing Police in 5"There is a censorship standard on page 26 (sheet number 19).