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Animal body temperature
AnimalVarious chemical reactions in the body are greatly affected by temperature, which greatly affects the activity of animals.It is also a source of body temperature.Body temperature changes depending on the temperature around the animal and the heat energy produced in the animal's body.When an animal engages in vigorous activity, it produces a large amount of heat energy, which raises its body temperature.If your body temperature is too low, you will not be able to work, and if it is too high, you will not be able to work.
Warm-blooded animals and poikilotherms
By classifying animals based on the mechanism that regulates body temperature, it is possible to maintain an almost constant body temperature regardless of the surrounding environmental conditions.Warm-blooded animalAnd the body temperature changes according to the change in the temperature of the surrounding environmentPoikilothermIt is often divided into two types.But,Warm-blooded animalとPoikilothermThe ability to regulate body temperature is gradual, and the two cannot be strictly distinguished.birds,mammalianMost of them are typical homeothermic animals with very little diurnal temperature fluctuations, and others種AlsoEndocrine systemHas some kind of autonomous body temperature control ability.Excluding thatreptiles,Fishes,昆虫Belong to種Many (never "all")Endocrine systemIs a typical poikilotherm that hardly controls body temperature (it does not mean that it does not control body temperature itself).
For homeothermic animals,foodIn the bodyChemical decompositionThe heat generated by this is the source of body temperature.Occurred like thisheatWarmed bybloodEtc.body fluid Blood vesselOrganisms will have heat by circulating throughout the body through such means.
In the case of a homeothermic animal, if it fluctuates greatly from a constant body temperature, it will be in danger of life.If that condition continues for a long timedeadIt is necessary to maintain the body temperature by some means.Therefore, when the body temperature risesSweatTo lower the body temperature (dogIt does not sweat much like, and the body temperature is regulated by shallow breathing (), On the contrary, when the body temperature drops, the inside of the bodyfatIt tries to raise the body temperature by decomposing and getting heat.
In general, the body temperature of a homeothermic animal takes a slightly different value depending on the body part.The tendency is that the body temperature is higher toward the center of the body and lower toward the surface.
When a homeothermic animal falls below normal body temperatureHypothermiaSymptoms called may occur.In the case of humans, it easily occurs even in wind and rain (receiving the wind while wet with rain), mild hypothermia occurs below 35 ° C, and hallucinations and confusion occur at 30-25 ° C. If it is lower than that, the risk of death increases.
Even for poikilotherms, there is a range of body temperature suitable for performing activities depending on the species.When body temperature deviates from that range, activity becomes extremely slow and death occurs.coldWhen you get a disease such asFeverBy suppressing the growth of pathogensImmunologyFunctions are activated, but if high fever continues, there is a risk of exhausting physical strength and damaging the brain.
As an auxiliary behavior of thermoregulation peculiar to human beingsClothingYou can put on and take off (clothing behavior).In addition to preparing for a decrease in body temperature by improving heat retention by wearing it, it is also possible to resist the increase in body temperature by shielding sunlight and adjusting ventilation.
Average body temperature of major animals
The average body temperature of animals is as shown in the table..
|Animal||Average body temperature|
|Dream Pork||39.0 degrees|
|Human capital||36.0 degrees|
Human body temperature
Human body temperature varies from person to person under normal conditions, but is regulated and maintained within a relatively narrow range of around 35 to 37 degrees Celsius...If the body temperature deviates from a certain range, the thermoregulatory mechanism will not function normally, and if it becomes extreme, it may be life-threatening..
Mortality is 42% or higher when body temperature rises above 80 degrees Celsius, and conversely when body temperature drops above 25-27 degrees Celsius.Ventricular fibrillationMay cause death. However,Artificial hibernation,General anesthesiaIn this state, the reaction to hypothermia is artificially prevented, and it is also applied to hypothermia anesthesia in the medical field..
Type of body temperature
- Axillary temperature (Ekikaon)
- Under the armpitBody temperature measured at (axilla).Generally speaking, human body temperature means axillary temperature...The development of electrical thermometers has made measurement easier..However, if you are very thin and do not have a closed body cavity under your axilla, if you have contraction of cutaneous blood vessels due to peripheral circulatory insufficiency, or if you are cooling your body to deal with fever, the correct axillary temperature is Difficult to measure.
- Oral temperature / sublingual temperature
- Esophageal temperature
- esophagusBody temperature measured at.It is recognized as a central temperature because it is located near the heart and has a correlation with blood temperature and brain temperature...However, there are cases where measurement of esophageal temperature is inappropriate, such as when there is a risk of forming an ulcer in the oral cavity or esophagus. Actually, the difference from rectal temperature is measured in open heart surgery or rectal temperature in rectal amputation. It is used in a limited way, such as when it is measured instead of.
- Rectal temperature
- RectumBody temperature measured at.Rectal temperature is recognized as central temperature along with esophageal temperature..Used when measuring body temperature with a continuous monitor during general anesthesia or in the intensive care unit..However, it is an inappropriate method when the body temperature may be low, such as when the blood flow in the abdominal organs is reduced, and when there is intense body movement or circulatory disorders..
- Eardrum temperature or ear canal temperature
- The eardrum temperatureeardrumThe body temperature measured in is close to the blood temperature and correlates with the brain temperature...However, measuring the eardrum temperature may damage the eardrum, so instead of the eardrum temperatureExternal auditory canalEar canal temperature is often measured with.
Measurement of body temperature
When measuring body temperatureThermometer,ThermographyIs used.The thermometersideUnder and underearIt is a device that measures the outer part of the body such as.Thermography is radiated from the bodyFar infraredIt measures body temperature from, and you can see a wide range of body temperature as a figure.
Human body temperature is usually measured by inserting a probe (thermometer) into the axilla, oral cavity, or rectum, which is easy to measure.The body temperature is called the core temperature (deep body temperature), which is not easily affected by the environmental temperature, and the outer shell temperature (skin temperature, body surface temperature), which is easily affected by the surface layer.
The core temperature is the temperature of the core part of the ecology (the deep part of the body such as the head cavity and thoracoabdominal cavity) whose temperature does not change even if the environment changes, and unlike the outer shell temperature, it is constantly regulated by thermoregulation (37 in homeothermic animals). ℃).Rectal temperature, oral temperature, axillary temperature, and eardrum temperature are measured.Rectal temperature is usually 0.5 ° C higher than axillary temperature.Bladder temperature and pulmonary artery blood temperature can be measured with catheters equipped with a temperature sensor.Infrared eardrum thermometers and deep thermometers that can measure deep temperature from the body surface are also being developed.
The outer shell temperature is the temperature of the outer layer of the ecology and changes depending on the environmental temperature.The closer it is to the surface, the closer it is to the environmental temperature.Generally, the core temperature is around 37 ° C, and the outer shell temperature is around 34 ° C.The range of fluctuation is large depending on the environment.Body surface temperature is measured by thermography or the like.
- ^ Hokuriku Agricultural Administration Bureau / Is the body temperature of animals higher than that of humans?(As of January 2016, 7Archive）
- ^ a b c d Japan Intensive Care Medicine Society "ICU / CCU Nursing Textbook" Medical Book Publishing, 2000, p. 87.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Japan Intensive Care Medicine Society "ICU / CCU Nursing Textbook" Medical Book Publishing, 2000, p. 85.
Masatoshi Iriki "Body Temperature Physiology Textbook"