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👍 | Alice Hirose's "Hand Tanpo" attracts fans' voice "I want" a novel item


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Fans pay attention to Alice Hirose's "Hand Tanpo" Voice of "I want" for a novel item

 
If you write the contents roughly
The beauty of Hirose's popping smile has been praised as "cute," "healed," and "warming up here," and emoticons with heart-shaped eyes are flying around.
 

Alice Hirose has released a photo of her hand-made hot water bottle "Tetanpo" with a big smile on her face. Talk about "cute" ... → Continue reading

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Beautiful cute

emoticon

emoticon(Kaomoji) is an expression that expresses the meaning of a facial expression like a pictogram by using a character that looks like a face with a facial expression in the text of a sentence or the like.Face markAlso called[1].. Expressing facial expressions by combining letters and symbols, and a single expression as a picture instead of symbols絵 文字There is. What is expressed in multiple lines by combining letters and symbolsAscii artTreated as distinct from (AA).

computer,E-mail,Internet bulletin board,チ ャ ッ トIn, etc., it is used before and after the sentence. However, it can sometimes be quite misleading depending on how the emoticon receives the emoticon.[Note 1].

In case of emoticons expressed by multiple characters,WesternOr otherLatin lettersOr, in languages ​​that use other characters, the sideways emoticon is in a format like ";-)",Japanese,East AsiaIn the area where the character code is used, it is the mainstream to use the emoticon in the normal position in a format such as "(^_^)".

Pictographs that express facial expressions with a single character are sometimes used, and with the widespread use of mobile phones, they have become popular.

channel 2Then, a large AA imitating cartoons, animations, and photographs of real people is sometimes called "emoticons AA". For more informationEmoticonSee.

History

1857 Year of 4 MonthNational Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide TheMorse codeArticle 73 was used to represent "love and kiss" (later meaning "formal respect"). 1908Dodge's ManualDefined the number 88 as "love & kiss". Gajadhar and GreenTelegram code TheLOLIt was simpler than modern abbreviations like[4][5].

New York TimesDiscovered by Bryan Benilous, published byAbraham LincolnThe "transcription of the speech," written in 1862 by, included ";)". Is this an emoticon?Typographical errorThere is a debate over whether it is a proper punctuation expression.[6]..In addition, the emoticon ";)" was found in 19th century typewriter magazines, which can be traced back to the pre-computer typewriter era.[7].

Typographic emoticons are an American satire magazine of 1881.PuckIt is published in. 1912,Ambrose Beers"Improved punctuation-symbols of ridicule or laughter \___/!", which represents a laughing mouth[8].

Emoticons from the 1940sSF OfFandomHas already appeared in[9].. Of freelance artists in 1963Harvey BallDesigned by and a huge hitSmiley face"Had a potential impact on many later emoticons.

1969 Year of 4 MonthNew York TimesIn an interview withVladimir Nabokov"I often wish I had a smiley typeface – it's like a mark with parentheses pointing down," he said.[10].

Also, although it is a different method from the present,1972By the time,PLATO Emoticons were routinely used in IV programs. On this system, it was possible to display multiple characters overlaid, so various emoticons were used by combining several characters.[11].

As you can see, there are several stages in the origin of emoticons, but it was the inventor of the emoticons ":-)" (laughter) and ":-(" (anger).IBMIt is said to be Scott Fahlman of the company.19829/19At 11:44, Scott's message suggesting the use of emoticons is unearthed from backup tapes of the time.[12].

NowJapanThe orthotopic type, which is the mainstream in, was created independently. The earliest one was at 1986:6 am on June 20, 0, Japan time.PC communicationone ofASCII netAt, the posting of the emoticon (^_^) due to being a sigope (administrator) on the bulletin board for persons with disabilities is currently confirmed.[13].

Graphic emoticon

1997 CEO of Smiley, Inc.Nicolas Ruffani[14] Noticed an increasing use of in mobile technology. Therefore, in order to enhance it so that it can be used more interactively in a digital environment, it was animated with the intention of creating colorful icons corresponding to existing ASCII Emoticons.Smiley faceI started the experiment. With this, Ruffrani compiles an online emoticon dictionary. Classify emoticons into classics, mood expressions, flags, celebrations, fun, sports, weather, animals, foods, countries, occupations, planets, zodiac signs, babies, and these designs were registered with the US Copyright Office in 1997. The icon was published on the Web in 1998 as a .gif file. This is the first graphic emoticon used in technology[15].

The emoticon directory created by Lufrani in 2000 will be compiled with 1000 smiley graphic emoticons and their ASCII versions. smileydictionary.com You can now download via the Internet to your mobile phone. The same as this directory was published by Maraboo in 2002 as "Dico Smileys"[16].

In 2001, Smiley licensed the right to use Ruffrani's Graphic Emoticons for mobile downloads on a variety of mobile phones from various carriers, including Nokia, Motorola, Samsung, SFR (Vodafone) and Sky Telemedia. did.

the purpose

SCOTT suggested emoticons because some people seriously accepted what one wrote as a joke. After that, various emoticons were born to express emotions that cannot be conveyed by sentences alone.[Source required].. For those that have the same purpose as emoticons(Lol)"" (crying) "" (angry) ""(LOL)There are expressions such as.

Japanese emoticon

Example.of.SJIS.art.rendering.svgIn this itemAscii artI am dealing with. Depending on the browsing environment, it may not be displayed correctly.

In addition to ASCII characters in JapanHalf-width kanaCould also be used. Also,Full widthIncluding the symbolDouble-byte characterBecause it is possible to express using, there are a lot of variations of emoticons. However, it may not be visible depending on the environment.

Typical example

emoticon感情
(^ _ ^) (* ´ω ` *) (* ´ ▽ ` *) (≧ ▽ ≦) (๑˃́ꇴ˂̀๑)Laugh
(smile)
(^○^) (*゚ー゚)
(^-^) (・ ∀ ・)
(^_-)-☆ (∈^▽゜) Kira☆
(^-^) (^ω^) (*゜∀゜)
(*_*) Σ(´∀`;)驚 き
Σ(°Д°;)ヾ(゚Д゚) ノunn pancotta kita━━━━(゚∀゚)━━━━!!
(; _ ;) (ノ д `)Crying
('; Ω; `)
(T_T) (No дT)
(/_T). ・゜・(tsu Д`)・゜・. ゜(゚∩´﹏`∩゚)゚
(ˇ・Ω・ˇ) (᷄・‸・᷅)confused
(@_@) (゚∀. )└( ՞ةڼ◔)」混乱
('・Ω・`) (`・ω・´)I'm sorry
(ヽ'Ω`)Quietly
(No'∀`*) MatariRelaxed (matari)
(#゚Д゚) 罧ァ!! (#`Д´) ٩(๑`^´๑)۶ m9(^Д^)〽ㅬ!!Anger, provocation, insult
┐ (´ ~ `;) ┌ ʅ (´◔౪◔) ʃFreaking out
f (^_^;)Wry smile
(;´Д`) Hahaha (^q^;)Excitement, huh
(´ー`)y─┛ (,,゜Д゜)y─┛ (-.-)y-゜゜゜た ば こ
m (_ _) m (´> people <`)Probation (request), Dogeza (apology), plea
(',_ゝ`) Pup (゚c_, ゚) Pup (´_tsu`) HorusMockery, empty reply
(Tsu ^_^) tsu (tsu ゜⊿゜)tsu (tsu'◕ω◕)tsuHold
(˘ω˘) ヤァ (¦3 [▓▓]sleep
_ (: 3 "∠) _ _ (┐" ε :) _Perfect
\(^o^)/Ota絶望
ヾ ('▽ `*) ゞHey

Application example

emoticonWhat it represents
= ^. ^ =Cat
(= ^ ^ ^)
(= ^ .. ^ =)
Mi^..^彡
(=°ω°=)
(ФωФ)
(= ^ ・ Ω ・ ^ =)
u・u・udog
U ^ q ^ U
U^~^U
(U^ω^)
(^ω^U)
(U'・e・)
(・E・U)
੯ੁૂ‧̀͡u\
(・(E)・)bear
('・( ))`)
('(E)`)
ʕ•ᴥ•ʔ
(◕ ㉨ ◕`)
⊂(^(Engineering)^)⊃
⌒ (ё) ⌒(I.e.
F (ё) F
(゚ ∈ ゚)
(・Θ・)
<+))> <Fish
<+)))> <
<*))> =
> ゜)) 彡
> ゜))) 彡
(゜))) <
(゜) #)) <
<゜))) 彡
<゜) #))) 彡
~> ゜) ー ー ーsnake
 ̄ (= ∵ =)  ̄rabbit
_l ̄l○, OTL,barleyDisappointed, despair
Pu.Bowling,Cowgirl
LumpHideki Matsui
(≡ ・ x ・ ≡)Miffy
Cuco: 彡squid
/ ^ O ^ \Mount Fuji
/ ^ o ^\
(0 ○ 0)Series 0 Shinkansen
(・ ○ ・)
(- ○ -)Series 100 Shinkansen
<丶 ` ∀´>Korean
(`ha')Chinese people

Western emoticon

Western emoticonsEmoticon (emoticon) orSmiley Called (smiley). Emoticon is emotion (感情) And icon (icon) WithBaggage.. The emoticon is generally 90 degrees counterclockwise, that is, the left is up and the right is down. The part corresponding to the nose may be omitted. Note that these may be automatically converted into images by clients such as messenger and software of web forums.

In addition, "🙁 Is a US companyTrademark registrationdoing[17].

Typical example

emoticon感情
: )Smile
(Smiley)
: )
=)
🙁Frown
Sadness, sympathy
) -:
🙁
:/Dissatisfaction, discomfort
:|Seriously
😀Smile
😀
😛tongueIs issuing
joke,Irony
😛
😉Wink (irony)
(-;
😉
B-)Sunglasses
Feel cool
😎
: A驚 き
😮
XDLaugh
:\/Large amount

*Depending on environment and font,\"(backslash, \¥,May be displayed as.

Difference between Japanese and American emoticons

JapanAmericaOne of the differences between emoticons is that Japanese emoticons mainly express emotions in the form of eyes, whereas American emoticons mainly express emotions in the form of mouth.Hokkaido University Of社会 心理学Who areJapaneseAmericanIt is pointed out that there is a possibility that it corresponds to the difference in the actual facial expression expression rules and the corresponding difference in the expression perception rules. Experiments conducted in Japan and the United States have demonstrated that when judging the emotions of others from facial expressions, the main clues are the Japanese eye shape and the American mouth shape.[18].

Since the late 2000s, Japanese-style emoticons have become popular even in English-speaking countries because of their "various expressions" and "the meaning can be understood without tilting the face sideways."[19].

Chinese emoticon

There are Chinese-style emoticons that resemble Japanese, Western-style, and peculiar to China.

Typical example

emoticon感情Note
* ^ _ ^ *smileJapanese style element
T_Tcry
= _ =Unavoidable, bad atmosphere
o_0Unexpectedly, ask
:)smileWestern type element
: (Sadness, sympathy
: PJoke sticking out tongue
OopsSagging, discouragedChinese-specific elements
╔ 囧 ╗ ╔ 囧 ╝ ╚ 囧 ╝ ╚ 囧 ╗ ╔ 囧 ╗Net gymnastics
ConvexMiddle finger, contempt
╭∩╮
囧 rzSagging, discouragedJapan-China element combination
-_- bSweat
Convex-_-convexMiddle finger, contempt
╭∩╮ (-_-) ╭∩╮
<{= ...Crow, the atmosphere is cold and quietComplex element
( ̄ (work) ̄)Bear

Taiwanese emoticons

Examples of frequently used emoticons
XDLaughing face, laughter
<3Heart, use when you say something you like
OAQcry. It feels more cute than T_T
T mouth Tcry
OwO /I'm going now. “/” means hand.
=3=Dissatisfied, not admitted
OWKiller (wink)
ˋ3ˊPunpun
OUOLaugh
o-turtle. “Xing” means shell and foot.
ˋ Plate ˊ Benefit怒 り

Registering emoticons in Unicode

This item includes some computers andBrowsing softwareContains characters that cannot be displayed(Details.

Originally three types of emoticonsOther symbolsIt was included in the block, but in 2010 Unicode version 6.0emoticon(Emoticon) Block is newly established. Also added in Unicode version 8.0(English editionThe block contains additional emoticons.

symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
U+2639-&#x2639;
&#9785;
WHITE FROWNING FACE
U+263A-&#x263A;
&#9786;
WHITE SMILING FACE
(EZweb emoji-SoftBank emoji
U+263B-&#x263B;
&#9787;
BLACK SMILING FACE
😀U+1F600-&#x1F600;
&#128512;
GRINNING FACE
😁U+1F601-&#x1F601;
&#128513;
GRINNING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
(i-mode emoji・EZweb Emoji・SoftBank Emoji)
????U+1F602-&#x1F602;
&#128514;
FACE WITH TEARS OF JOY
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😃U+1F603-&#x1F603;
&#128515;
SMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😄U+1F604-&#x1F604;
&#128516;
SMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND SMILING EYES
(SoftBank pictogram)
😅U+1F605-&#x1F605;
&#128517;
SMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND COLD SWEAT
(I-mode emoji)
😆U+1F606-&#x1F606;
&#128518;
SMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND TIGHTLY-CLOSED EYES
(I-mode emoji)
😇U+1F607-&#x1F607;
&#128519;
SMILING FACE WITH HALO
😈U+1F608-&#x1F608;
&#128520;
SMILING FACE WITH HORNS
😉U+1F609-&#x1F609;
&#128521;
WINKING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😊U+1F60A-&#x1F60A;
&#128522;
SMILING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😋U+1F60B-&#x1F60B;
&#128523;
FACE SAVOURING DELICIOUS FOOD
(I-mode emoji)
😌U+1F60C-&#x1F60C;
&#128524;
RELIEVED FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😍U+1F60D-&#x1F60D;
&#128525;
SMILING FACE WITH HEART-SHAPED EYES
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😎U+1F60E-&#x1F60E;
&#128526;
SMILING FACE WITH SUNGLASSES
😏U+1F60F-&#x1F60F;
&#128527;
SMIRKING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
????U+1F610-&#x1F610;
&#128528;
NEUTRAL FACE
😑U+1F611-&#x1F611;
&#128529;
EXPRESSIONLESS FACE
😒U+1F612-&#x1F612;
&#128530;
UNAMUSED FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😓U+1F613-&#x1F613;
&#128531;
FACE WITH COLD SWEAT
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
????U+1F614-&#x1F614;
&#128532;
PENSIVE FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😕U+1F615-&#x1F615;
&#128533;
CONFUSED FACE
????U+1F616-&#x1F616;
&#128534;
CONFOUNDED FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😗U+1F617-&#x1F617;
&#128535;
KISSING FACE
????U+1F618-&#x1F618;
&#128536;
FACE THROWING A KISS
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😙U+1F619-&#x1F619;
&#128537;
KISSING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
😚U+1F61A-&#x1F61A;
&#128538;
KISSING FACE WITH CLOSED EYES
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😛U+1F61B-&#x1F61B;
&#128539;
FACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE
😜U+1F61C-&#x1F61C;
&#128540;
FACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE AND WINKING EYE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😝U+1F61D-&#x1F61D;
&#128541;
FACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE AND TIGHTLY-CLOSED EYES
(SoftBank pictogram)
😞U+1F61E-&#x1F61E;
&#128542;
DISAPPOINTED FACE
(I-mode pictograms/SoftBank pictograms)
????U+1F61F-&#x1F61F;
&#128543;
WORRIED FACE
😠U+1F620-&#x1F620;
&#128544;
ANGRY FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😡U+1F621-&#x1F621;
&#128545;
POUTING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😢U+1F622-&#x1F622;
&#128546;
CRYING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
????U+1F623-&#x1F623;
&#128547;
PERSEVERING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😤U+1F624-&#x1F624;
&#128548;
FACE WITH LOOK OF TRIUMPH
(EZweb pictogram)
😥U+1F625-&#x1F625;
&#128549;
DISAPPOINTED BUT RELIEVED FACE
(SoftBank pictogram)
NU+1F626-&#x1F626;
&#128550;
FROWNING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
????U+1F627-&#x1F627;
&#128551;
ANGUISHED FACE
😨U+1F628-&#x1F628;
&#128552;
FEARFUL FACE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😩U+1F629-&#x1F629;
&#128553;
WEARY FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
😪U+1F62A-&#x1F62A;
&#128554;
SLEEPY FACE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😫U+1F62B-&#x1F62B;
&#128555;
TIRED FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
😬U+1F62C-&#x1F62C;
&#128556;
GRIMACING FACE
😭U+1F62D-&#x1F62D;
&#128557;
LOUDLY CRYING FACE
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😮U+1F62E-&#x1F62E;
&#128558;
FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
😯U+1F62F-&#x1F62F;
&#128559;
HUSHED FACE
????U+1F630-&#x1F630;
&#128560;
FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND COLD SWEAT
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😱U+1F631-&#x1F631;
&#128561;
FACE SCREAMING IN FEAR
(I-mode emoji, EZweb emoji, SoftBank emoji)
😲U+1F632-&#x1F632;
&#128562;
ASTONISHED FACE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😳U+1F633-&#x1F633;
&#128563;
FLUSHED FACE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😴U+1F634-&#x1F634;
&#128564;
SLEEPING FACE
????U+1F635-&#x1F635;
&#128565;
DIZZY FACE
(I-mode pictograms/EZweb pictograms)
😶U+1F636-&#x1F636;
&#128566;
FACE WITHOUT MOUTH
😷U+1F637-&#x1F637;
&#128567;
FACE WITH MEDICAL MASK
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
😸U+1F638-&#x1F638;
&#128568;
GRINNING CAT FACE WITH SMILING EYES
(EZweb pictogram)
😹U+1F639-&#x1F639;
&#128569;
CAT FACE WITH TEARS OF JOY
(EZweb pictogram)
????U+1F63A-&#x1F63A;
&#128570;
SMILING CAT FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
(EZweb pictogram)
😻U+1F63B-&#x1F63B;
&#128571;
SMILING CAT FACE WITH HEART-SHAPED EYES
(EZweb pictogram)
😼U+1F63C-&#x1F63C;
&#128572;
CAT FACE WITH WRY SMILE
(EZweb pictogram)
😽U+1F63D-&#x1F63D;
&#128573;
KISSING CAT FACE WITH CLOSED EYES
(EZweb pictogram)
????U+1F63E-&#x1F63E;
&#128574;
POUTING CAT FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
😿U+1F63F-&#x1F63F;
&#128575;
CRYING CAT FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
🙀U+1F640-&#x1F640;
&#128576;
WEARY CAT FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
🙅U+1F645-&#x1F645;
&#128581;
FACE WITH NO GOOD GESTURE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
🙆U+1F646-&#x1F646;
&#128582;
FACE WITH OK GESTURE
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
🙇U+1F647-&#x1F647;
&#128583;
PERSON BOWING DEEPLY
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
🙈U+1F648-&#x1F648;
&#128584;
SEE-NO-EVIL MONKEY
(EZweb pictogram)
(I.e.U+1F649-&#x1F649;
&#128585;
HEAR-NO-EVIL MONKEY
(EZweb pictogram)
🙊U+1F64A-&#x1F64A;
&#128586;
SPEAK-NO-EVIL MONKEY
(EZweb pictogram)
🙋U+1F64B-&#x1F64B;
&#128587;
HAPPY PERSON RAISING ONE HAND
(EZweb pictogram)
????U+1F64C-&#x1F64C;
&#128588;
PERSON RAISING BOTH HANDS IN CELEBRATION
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)
🙍U+1F64D-&#x1F64D;
&#128589;
PERSON FROWNING
(EZweb pictogram)
🙎U+1F64E-&#x1F64E;
&#128590;
PERSON WITH POUTING FACE
(EZweb pictogram)
🙏U+1F64F-&#x1F64F;
&#128591;
PERSON WITH FOLDED HANDS
(EZweb Emoji/SoftBank Emoji)

literature

  • "Smiley Dictionary" (1993) Toppan (withdrew from the publishing business in 2000,Letterpress printingPublishing Business Department)
  • "PC Communication Facemark Guide" (1993) Village center

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ For example,\ (^ O ^) /Emoticon is used to represent the success of "Hurray"[2]In some cases, it is used for the purpose of expressing a failure of "Owata (finished)". Therefore, there is an example in which the emoticon is misjudged in a wrong sense when the emoticon is seen.Nippon TV45th House of Representatives general electionOf the ballot breaking news programData broadcastingThere is an example such as was done in[3]

Source

  1. ^ Let's convey delicate feelings using emoticons,Nikkei Entertainment!] From the June 1998 issue. (Internet archiveCache)
  2. ^ About the history of face marks
  3. ^ [Trevian] Why did this happen? Nippon Television's general election broadcast has changed to XNUMX channels!
  4. ^ Joan Gajadhar and John Green (17 July 2003) (PDF). An Analysis of Nonverbal Communication in an Online Chat Group. The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20100513154846/http://www.openpolytechnic.ac.nz/static/pdf/research/res_wp203gajadharj1.pdf. 
  5. ^ Joan Gajadhar and John Green (2005). “The Importance of Nonverbal Elements in Online Chat”. EDUCAUSE Quarterly 24 (4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20070102194123/http://www.educause.edu/apps/eq/eqm05/eqm05411.asp?bhcp=1. 
  6. ^ “Is That an Emoticon in 1862?”. The New York Times(July 2009, 1). http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/19/hfo-emoticon/ 
  7. ^ An Emoticon in Typewriter Era
  8. ^ Ambrose Bierce (1909–1912). “For Brevity and Clarity”. Collected Works (NY and Washington). 
  9. ^ Gregory Benford, A Scientist's Notebook: net@fandom.com, The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, Vol. 90, No. 6 (June 1996), p. 90
  10. ^ Vladimir Nabokov (March 1990). Strong Opinions. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72609-8. http://lib.ru/NABOKOW/Inter11.txt 2009/3/24Browse. 
  11. ^ PLATO emoticons
  12. ^ Scott's message
  13. ^ Origin of emoticons,vector Author: Yasushi Wakabayashi
  14. ^ en: Emoticon # cite_note-Le_Figaro-19
  15. ^ en: Emoticon # cite_note-22
  16. ^ en: Emoticon # cite_note-23
  17. ^ US Patent and Trademark Office
  18. ^ CULTURE AND RECOGNIZING EMOTIONS (PDF)
  19. ^ Emoticons & Net Slang circumstances around the world(As of January 2012, 4Archive

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