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Lady Gaga's dog Why is she taken away during a walk

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Gaga said, "If you return the dog, I will pay 50 dollars (about 5,300 million yen in Japanese yen)."

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300 million yen

Yen (currency)

Yen(En)JapanOf fiat currencyCurrency unit.Currency symbol The¥(Yen sign), 4217 CERTIFICATEThe currency code for isJPY.Old fontThen.circle,RomajiThen.yenIs often written asJapanese yenAlso called (Japanese). Together with the US dollar and the Euro, it makes up the three largest currencies in the world.

Law on currency units and issuance of money(Showa62/6/1lawNo. 42) stipulates that "the unit of the face value of a currency is yen, and the face value is an integral multiple of one yen." Section).


The Japanese currency unit "yen" isMeiji4May 5(1871May 6) Was establishedNew coin regulations(May 4, 5)ProclamationNo. 267) was defined in.

The notation at that time was "en" in the old font.Monetary law(March 30, 3, Law No. 29) The enforcement of the currency regulations (June 16, 8, promulgated Decree No. 6, revised promulgation of new currency regulations) was abolished, but the yen as a currency unit Inherited and currentLaw on currency units and issuance of money(Law No. 62 dated June 6, 1).

Forex market,Exchange rateIn fields that are closely related to currencies other than Japan, the notation or designation "Japanese yen" is often used,International currency,Special withdrawal rightIs one of the.

Country of use

Areas distributed in the past

  • Zimbabwe flag Zimbabwe -It was added to the fiat currency along with eight other foreign currencies. Distribution status is unknown.

For a long time it was considered legal currency only in Japan,2014Since April2019Until June it was added to one of Zimbabwe's fiat currencies[2]During this period, there were two countries where the Japanese yen was the legal currency. In Zimbabwe, in addition to Japanese Yen,U.S. dollar,Euro,GBP,South African Rand,Botswana Pla,Chinese yuan,Indian rupee,Australian dollarWas also introduced as legal tender[3].. Provisional currency in June 2019RTGS dollarWas designated as the only fiat currency, and these foreign currencies were prohibited from becoming fiat currencies.[4].

Currency unit

"YenThe unit name "" comes from China. In China, silver isn't castWeighing currencyWas treated as (Silver tablet),18st centuryFrom aroundスペインAnd above thatColonyMetメキシコThe silver coins flowed in from (Western silver). Because of their shape, these areSilverWas called.It is from this trend that the Hong Kong Mint in the United Kingdom later issued a dollar silver coin stamped with "Hong Kong Ichien". "Ginen" flowed into Japan along with its name, and Japan imitated this and changed the currency unit to "yen (圓)".1870,Japan is,Hong Kong dollarSilver coins of the same grade and quantity as silver coinsStandard currencyToSilver standardIt was decided to adoptIto HirobumiHurriedly considering the international situation at the timeGold standardProposed to change to[5].. The theory that the Meiji government named "yen" from the shape of money is a popular theory.[5].

The current Roman alphabet is "en" instead of "yenThe decisive factor that came to be written isBakumatsuIt is thought that the British and Americans spelled "yen" from the Meiji era to the Meiji era, and it was internationalized. The history of the words leading up to it is rather complicated.Historical pseudonymIs "wen", but in Japan around the 16th century, there is no distinction in pronunciation between "e" and "ゑ" / je / Was pronounced. In the Christian literature of this era, both "e" and "e" are spelled as ye (for details, seeJapanesePhonological history of, or "ゑSection).

British missionaryWH MedhurstHad never visited Japan or met any Japanese,Jakarta(Batavia), and wrote "English-Japanese/Japanese English Vocabulary" (1830) based on the Japanese orchid dictionary and information of people who have visited Japan. This vocabulary contains a mixture of "e" and "ye". For example, when you look at the list of kana at the beginning, "e" and "ye" are both applied to "e" and "e"). American missionary who came to Japan in the latter half of the 19th century JC HepbonIs the first full-scale book in history, referring to the preceding dictionaries and vocabulary.English and Japanese-Japanese-English dictionaryIsJapanese-English forest collection』(First edition 1867). This dictionary follows Medhurst's notation, and in addition to "yen", all words beginning with "e" and "e" are spelled as "ye". However, except for some areas, in this era / je / The sound is /is/ In order to bring the spelling closer to the actual sound, Hebon made it to the 3rd edition (1886. In this edition, the Hebonian Roman alphabet was established), except for "yen" and the case particle "he", "E" and "E" are all represented by "e"[6].. The reason why we didn't change the spelling of "yen" is probably because it was already established. In addition, it is pointed out that it is convenient not to be confused with other words (such as French preposition en). Spelled out in foreign languages, "Yen"/ jɛn /Say "y".

Auxiliary unitas,

  • Money -100/1 of yen (1 yen = 100 yen)
  • 厘 -One thousandth of yen and one tenth of sen (1,000 yen = 1 厘, 10 sen = 1 厘)

However, all coins and bills in units of money and units (less than one yen) (Auxiliary currency-Temporary supplementary currency・Small amountBank of Japan notes-Small amount government bill) Is1953The end of theLaw on Arranging Small Currency and Fractional Calculation of PaymentsThe use and distribution prohibition measures were taken when the small currency was sorted out by (Act No. 28 of 60). Current,"Money"Or"厘The unit of ""Unit of calculation for amounts less than XNUMX yen"(Act 2 of the Act on Currency Units and Issuance of Money, etc.)"exchange,stockFor the sake of transactions and unit price estimation of low-value goods, the unit of money is merely used for convenience. However,Electronic money,prepaid cardLimited to some transactionsDecimal pointTransactions in units of 2 yen (0.01 sen) are allowed up to the second place.

There are several types of circles,Second World WarUntil the end of the warInlandIs a foreign currency in addition to the Japanese yen distributed inTaiwan Yen(TaiwanDistribution)Korean Yen(Koreaas well as the KantoDistribution) also existed (Nanyo archipelagoIs exceptionally distributed in Japanese yen). Also,ManchuriaThe currency ofcircle",1935(Kotoku2 years) Since September, it has been equivalent to the Japanese yen.

People's Republic of ChinaIs the currency unit ofyuanThe official name ofcircle(= Yen/Yen)”. For the reason that "the number of strokes in "en" is once large, instead of that, the "yuan" of the same yuan is applied, and it continues to this day. South Korea-north koreaof"ウ ォ ン"Of "en (= yen)"KoreanIt is a reading (however, there is currently no official kanji notation for won,Hangulas well as the KatakanaOnly written with).Hong Kong SAR OfHong Kong dollar,Republic of China OfNew Taiwan dollarHowever, the names in the ward and in Japan are either "original" or "en". In other words, it can be said that these East Asian currencies essentially share the name "en".

As wellCurrency symbol“¥” is also Japanese yen and ChineseCNYShared in.

Still moreChineseThen, the usage of the Japanese currency such as "Japanese Yen", "Japanese yuan", "US dollar", "Biyuan", and "European yuan" was derived.

Circulation coins and banknotes

The ones that are still being issued todaycoinThere are 6 types and 4 types of banknotes. For old banknotes and coins that are not currently issuedBank of Japan notes,Japanese coinchecking ...


Coins currently in circulation[7]
imageamountデータDescriptionIssuance year
直径thickness重 さcompositionedge表面裏面
1JPY.JPG1 Yen20 mm1.2 mm1 g100% aluminumPlainYoung tree, country name, amount of moneyAmount, casting year1955 year (Showa 30 year)
5JPY.JPG5 Yen22 mm1.5 mm3.75 gbrass
60 - 70% copper
30 - 40% zinc
PlainEar of riceとwater surfaceAround the holegear,Amount of moneyCountry name, casting year, Futaba1959 year (Showa 34 year)
10JPY.JPG10 Yen23.5 mm1.5 mm4.5 g青銅
95% copper
3 - 4% zinc
1 - 2% Tin
GizaByodo-in Phoenix Hall, Country, amountTokiwagi, Amount, casting year1951 year (Showa 26 year)
(Rarely distributed)
Plain1959 year (Showa 34 year)
50JPY.JPG50 Yen21 mm1.7 mm4 gWhite copper
75% copper
25% nickel
Gizachrysanthemum, Country, amountAmount, casting year1967 year (Showa 42 year)
100JPY.JPG100 Yen22.6 mm1.7 mm4.8 gWhite copper
75% copper
25% nickel
GizaCherry Blossoms, Country, amountAmount, casting year1967 year (Showa 42 year)
500JPY.JPG500 Yen26.5 mm2 mm7 gNickel brass
72% copper
20% zinc
Diagonal serrationPaulownia, Country, amountBamboo grass,Orange, Amount, casting year2000 year (Heisei 12 year)


E series (2004)[8]
imageAmount of money大 き さColorDescriptiondate of issue
1000 yen banknote 2004.jpg1000 Yen from Back.jpg1000 Yen150 x 76 mmtagHideyo NoguchiMount Fuji,Lake Motosu,Cherry Blossoms2004 (Heisei 16)/11/1
5000 Yenes (2004) (Anverso) .jpg5000 Yenes (2004) (Reverso) .jpg5000 Yen156 x 76 mmpurpleKazuha HiguchiOgata KorinSwallow flower illustration
10000 Yenes (Anverso) .jpg10000 Yenes (Reverso) .jpg10000 Yen160 x 76 mmteaFukuzawa YukichiByodo-in Temple OfPhoeniximage
D series (2000)[9]
imageAmount of money大 き さColorDescriptiondate of issue
Series D 2K Yen Bank of Japan note-front.jpgSeries D 2K Yen Bank of Japan note-back.jpg2000 Yen154 x 76 mm绿ShureimonMurasaki Shikibu,Genji Monogatari picture scroll(Light source,Reisen)2000 (Heisei 12)/7/19


Background to the establishment of the "yen"

Meiji RestorationByEdo ShogunateAlthough the Meiji government was born after the collapse, the monetary system still inherited that of the Edo Shogunate, and the economic turmoil was caused by the turmoil during the Meiji Restoration. The monetary system is also complicated,East JapanGold (Counting currency)WhenWest JapanSilver(Weighing currency) Is not even unified, andGold and silver priceA large amount of money was leaked overseas at the end of the Edo period due to the difference of (Currency problems at the end of the Edo period), there was an urgent need to establish a modern monetary system.

1871(Meiji 4th year)New coin regulationsEstablishedcurrencyTo the basic unit ofYenDecided to use. At this time, in the currencyDecimal systemAs an auxiliary unitMoneyand厘It is decided to usepure gold1,500mgIs 1 yen (that is, the gold average price is 1,500 mg)Gold standardWas introduced, and the first 20 yen, 10 yen, 5 yen, 2 yen, 1 yen in JapanWestern standard gold coinsWas cast and issued. This quantity is米 国VisitingIto HirobumiAs a proposal to establish the international monetary system at that time.US House of RepresentativesWas proposing to 1DollarGold coinIs almost equal to[10].

Also, the Meiji government that was cast and distributed by the Meiji government at that timeHalving(Quantity 3g Gold net 22.3%) 2 sheets (=1Both) Is also close to the real value of the total of pure gold and pure silver contents, and the old and new prices were consolidated as 1 car = 1 yen, and it was adopted as there is little difficulty in shifting the price system (it should be noted thatEdo ShogunateIt is the last halvingMannobuPure gold content of the two-division format and the Meiji two-division format is almost the same).

Gold and silver standard

But imports increase,Southwest War,Sino-Japanese warBy etc.Fiat money・Actually due to banknotes crash, money outflow, etc.Gold standardStops working, effectivelySilver standardIt remained as it was. This was issued at that timeBank of Japan notesBut,Standard gold coinDespite the existence of, there is no excuse for the fact that it was a convertible silver note.

after that,Sino-Japanese warThe money received as compensation for the1897ToMonetary lawWas established, the second gold standard system was established, and finallybillThe conversion of money was realized.

However, the gold parity of 1 yen set at this time was halved to 750 mg, and英国It was operated in the form of foreign currency that was left in. As a result, the first standard gold coins issued from 1871 had double the nominal value from that time. On the other hand, the standard gold coins under the new money law were only 2, 20, and 10 yen, and 5 yen gold coins were not issued. These standard gold coinsSecond World WarEven after theAbolishedNot on April 1988, 4Law on currency units and issuance of moneyIt was nominally the current currency until it came into force.

This cash convert1917Was continued until,World War IWhen broke out, each nation banned gold exports, and Japan stopped the gold standard in a way that followed, which banned gold exports and suspended convertibles.

After the end of World War I, the United States, which lifted the ban on gold exports, began to ban gold exports from major countries one after another. Japan is the only country that hasn't. For this reason,1930Measures to liberalize gold exports in January and restore the gold standard system (Gold ban) Was taken, but at that time1929Wall Street stock price crash on October 10 (Dark thursday) Caused the world economy to be in turmoil, and the ban on gold also caused turmoil in the Japanese economy. For this reason, it has not been more than two years since the ban was lifted.1931Gold exports and convertibles were banned again in December, and Japan's gold standard collapsed.Management currency systemMoved to. After World War II, inflation progressed due to reasons such as destruction of production facilities and provision for compensation, loosening of economic control, crop failure, payment of occupation expenses in yen, etc.New yen switchLeading to.

Gold exchange standard

After World War IIIMFSystem (so-calledBretton Woods regime) Below,U.S. dollarDue to the gold exchange standard system, the gold parity of 1 yen was 2.4685mg. This price is 1/1 of the gold parity of 35 dollarTroy ounceIs calculated by dividing the yen's exchange rate against the dollar at that time by 1 yen per dollar.[11].. The system based on the US dollar is commonly called the "dollar standard system" as opposed to the gold standard system up to now. This vs dollarFixed exchange rate systemAlthough the gold-exchange standard system based on the plan brought about the stability of the global economy, this system itself was during the period during the Second World War when the weight of the US economy was extremely high, and Europe and Japan were expected to recover. Along with this, the balance of currencies fluctuated, and after the 1960s, the outflow of dollars from the United States continued, and the decline of the position of the dollar became serious.

This Bretton Woods regime19718 month 15 dayNixon shock(Dollar shock), it collapsed because the United States stopped the conversion of dollars. After that, an attempt was made to return to the fixed exchange rate system, and on December 12, the same year.Smithsonian Agreement IMFGroup of 10 countries (G10) Was tied between. In this agreement, Japan reflected economic growth, and decided to raise the dollar to 1 yen, which is a sharp increase (360%) from the previous dollar of 16.88 yen. However, the dollar continued to decline,The United KingdomAnd other countries, one after another, withdrew from the Smithsonian system and moved to a floating exchange rate system, and Japan could not maintain this1973In 2 monthFloating exchange rateMoved to.

Floating exchange rate

After the move to the floating exchange rate system, the yen exchange rate, which continued to rise and fall, rapidly advanced to the yen's appreciation at the end of the 1970s due to the disappointment of US inflation measures (dollar crisis).Paul VolckerFRBWhen the chairman adopted the new monetary adjustment method, the interest rate of the dollar rose rapidly, and the yen exchange rate was heading toward the yen depreciation. In 1985, aiming for stable correction of the dollar price that is too highPlaza agreement, The yen's exchange rate doubled in a year. After a temporary depreciation of the yen during the bubble economy, the yen continued to strengthen until 1 until the dollar reached the latter half of the 2 yen range. In the latter half of the 1995s, the yen weakened due to the "strong dollar policy" and the Japanese financial crisis. After that, the yen gradually strengthened.

CurrentlyHard currencyOne of the three major currencies in the world alongside the US dollar and the euro[12](In Japan, this is the G3 currency.British poundTogether with the world's four major currencies) it is internationally recognized and trusted. The characteristics of the yen include Japan's current account surplus, low inflation, and low interest rates. of marketボ ラ テ ィ リ テ ィIs low, there is a movement to borrow yen with low interest rates and invest in other currencies (so-calledYen carry trading) Is revitalized, and the yen is gradually depreciating. On the other hand, when volatility rises, factors such as the current account surplus and low inflation rate are recognizable in addition to the unwinding of investment, so the yen's appreciation tends to progress rapidly. The risk reversal, which is an indicator of whether the yen's appreciation or depreciation risk is greater, suggests that the appreciation of the yen is consistently higher over the past 10 years.

Under the global low volatility environment of the mid 2000s, the low interest rate yen continued to depreciate. The reality of the international purchasing power of currencies, including the US dollar and major currencies other than the US dollarEffective exchange rateIn 2007, the yen returned to the pre-Plaza depreciation level (blue line in the upper right graph), and it was also said that the yen was no longer the local currency.[13][14].. This kind of evaluation of the yen has contributed to the sense of depreciation of the yen and has been mentioned above.Yen carry tradingAccelerated. However, over the course of 2008, as the financial crisis worsened, the appreciation of the yen advanced, suggesting that the expectations of an excessive depreciation of the yen were distorted.

Yen circulation

As of September 2015, the yen's circulation was ¥9 billion on a cash basis.Bank of JapanThe banknotes issued by (Bank of Japan notes) are 91 billion yen,Ministry of FinanceThe coins issued by the company are 4 billion yen.[15].. What is the currency circulation of the yen?cashIt can also be regarded as the total amount of. BanknotesNational Printing BureauIs printed and manufactured, and the products themselves are stored in the Bank of Japan's safe as well as in the banknotes in the market, and are issued as needed. Financial institutions hold in the Bank of Japan to raise banknotes for payment to individuals and companiesCurrent accountThe Bank of Japan notes are issued by withdrawing funds from the bank and receiving the banknotes at the Bank of Japan counter. Including BOJ current accountMonetary baseThe total amount of money (currency provided by the Bank of Japan) is 332 billion yen[15].

In addition to cash, the yen used as funds for economic activities includes funds that can be used to settle daily transactions like cash, such as checking and savings accounts held by individuals and companies in banks. In Japan, private-sector companies other than financial institutions, individuals and local governments have added cash (current deposits, savings accounts, time deposits, etc.) to their cash, and M2+CD with CD (negotiable deposit). Often used as an indicator of the circulation of yen funds in the city (see detailsMoney supplySee).

Exchange rate

US Dollar-Yen (Tokyo foreign exchange market(Tokyo Interbank market price), dollar/yenSpot rate,Japan Standard Time(17:XNUMX, monthly average)[16][17]

1949From (Showa 24)
1971Until (46)
360 (fixed market price)
1972(47)308 (1971 (Showa 46)12Rounded up)
1989(Showa 64/Heisei XNUMX)127.24127.77130.35132.01138.40143.92140.63141.20145.06141.99143.55143.62
2019(31/First year of Reiwa)108.97110.36111.22111.63109.76108.07108.23106.34107.40108.12108.88109.18
2020(2nd year of Reiwa)109.38109.96
Current JPY exchange rate

Foreign currency reserve

The Japanese yen is used as a foreign currency reserve in countries around the world and is the third largest currency in 2018.

Foreign currency reserveOf major currencies in Japan (1965-2018)

Transaction share

Currency distribution of trading volume in the forex market[18][19]
Rankingcurrency 4217 CERTIFICATE Codes
(Currency symbol)
Share per day (%)
(October 2019)
 United States dollar
USD ($)
EUR (€)
 Japanese yen
JPY (Â¥)
 British pound
GBP (£)
 Australian dollar
AUD ($)
 Canadian Dollar
CAD ($)
 Swiss franc
CHF (Fr)
CNY (Â¥)
 Hong Kong dollar
HKD ($)
 New Zealand dollar
NZD ($)
 Swedish Krona
SEK (kr)
South Korean won
KRW (₩)
 Singapore dollar
SGD ($)
Norwegian Krone
NOK (kr)
 Mexican peso
MXN ($)
Indian rupee
INR (₹)
 Russian ruble
RUB (₽)
South African Rand
 Turkish lira
TRY (₺)
BRL (R $)
Other currencies8.0%
Grand total200%


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈


  1. ^ Aung, Htin Lynn (January 2019, 1). “CBM permits border trades in yen and yuan denominations”. . https://www.mmtimes.com/news/cbm-permits-border-trades-yen-and-yuan-denominations.html 
  2. ^ Zimbabwe Basic Data, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, October 2014, 10
  3. ^ Ide Kato (March 2014, 3). “Zimbabwe adopts Japanese Yen difficult central bank credit recovery”. Diamond Company. http://diamond.jp/articles/-/49266 2014/3/6Browse. 
  4. ^ “Zimbabwe establishes RTGS as the only legal currency, policy interest rate of 50%”. Reuters(July 2019, 6). https://jp.reuters.com/article/zimbabwe-economy-currency-idJPKCN1TQ06O 2019/7/23Browse. 
  5. ^ a b "Circle" section "World Encyclopedia 26" 平凡 社,Year 2009
  6. ^ Romaji comparison table for each edition
  7. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2009, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010/7/20Browse.
  8. ^ "Bank of Japan Notes and Coins Currently Issued”. Bank of Japan. 2015/12/10Browse.
  9. ^ "Bank of Japan Notes and Coins Currently Issued”. Bank of Japan. 2015/12/10Browse.
  10. ^ "Economic history traced in yen" p17 Nobuyoshi Araki Maruzen Library Published October 3, 10
  11. ^ There is a theory that it originates from the fact that the angle of the circle is 360 degrees, but this is a myth that is incorrect. It is calculated considering the price situation.
  12. ^ US dollar (US dollar)-World's key currency, Tokyo Star Bank, September 2012, 9
  13. ^ "YEN drifting I see this" Nihon Keizai Shimbun,2008May 1.
  14. ^ Amagi Naoto "Former financial bureaucrat who claimed that the yen is now a local currency"Amahi Naoto's Blog"2008May 1
  15. ^ a b Bank of Japan homepageMain time series statistical data table (monthly)Refer to “Average monetary base balance/of which bank bank issuance amount” and “Average monetary base balance/of which money circulation amount”.
  16. ^ The Bank of Japan homepage until 1979 (Showa 54)"Data in chronological order”. As of May 2005, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/10/14Browse."Forex exchange rate / text" in.
  17. ^ The Bank of Japan website after January 1980Time series statistical data search siteMain time series statistical data tableMonthly".
  18. ^ "World's Most Traded Currencies By Value 2012”. Investopedia.com. 2013/6/10Browse.
  19. ^ "Global foreign exchange market turnover in 2019 (PDF)". Triennial Central Bank Survey. Basel, スイス:. P. 10 (April 2019). 2019/9/16Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク

reason:Meiji Restoration
Japanese flag JapanCurrency of
1870 -
Next generation:
Zimbabwe dollar
reason:Currency basket systemWith the introduction ofZimbabwe dollarIndefinitely issued (after abolished distribution)
Zimbabwe flag ZimbabweCurrency of
2014 - 2019
Next generation:
RTGS dollar


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