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Photo Collar with solar panel

Azpec Multi-functional pet collar development Check your health condition with your smartphone GPS-equipped to prevent lost children

 
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It is equipped with a solar panel as a power source.
 

Pet supplies sales Azpec (Azpec, head office 2, Kuruwamachihigashi, Ogaki-shi, President Hiroya Furuta, telephone 27…. → Continue reading

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solar panel

solar panel(British: solar panel) OrSolar panelWhat is the Taiyo Denchi Panel?Sun lightでPower generationFor doingパ ネ ルThat.Solar cell plate,Solar cell moduleTomo.

Overview

Solar panels are generally small one by oneSolar cellCollect multiple and put them in some kind of frame/structureパ ネ ルIt is a shape. The frame isAluminumIs often used.

 In some cases, a cell is sandwiched between two pieces of glass and used as an integrated building material. (See the photo on the right, a solar cell with integrated building materials)

Each solar cellElectromotive forceIs small, but multipleseriesBy joiningVoltageTo make it easier to use. In general,Lead acid batteryThe solar panel, which is supposed to be combined with (12V), uses a storage battery.ChargingIn order to do so, the electromotive force on the solar panel side is designed to be about 12 to 17V (higher than 20V of the storage battery). In addition, in order to increase the amount of current, a plurality of the above-mentioned series units,ParallelSometimes it is organized into.

A single solar panel can be used by connecting it to a battery or the like.

One solar panel can generate electricityelectricityIs different depending on the size and power generation efficiency depending on the type of crystal, but it is difficult to say unequivocally.WattIt is about 100 watts. In the case of a small solar panel with a side of a few centimeters, it is less than 1W and at most several watts.

Solar power generation used in homesシステム(ResidentialroofWhat is installed on top of), multiple solar panels are used, connected to the power conditioner via a junction box. The electricity generated by the solar panel is consumed in the home and may also be connected to the electric power grid in this form, in which case it is supplied to the electric power grid.

Solar power plantIn Japan, a large number of solar panels are used to supply a large amount of power.

The combination of multiple solar panels is "Solararray"""It is called.

Solar panelsArtificial satellite,Space stationBut it is often used.

Structure and mechanism

The solar panel is the light energy from the sun (Photon),Photovoltaic effectApplyElectricalGenerate. The structure of the module is retained in the upper layer (top plate structure) and the lower layer (substrate structure). Often usedWaferBase crystalssiliconWith solar cells usingCadmium tellurideOr using siliconfilmType solar cell. Crystalline siliconsemiconductorIt is also a raw material for manufacturing.

For solar cells to be practical, they must first be electrically interconnected and connected to the rest of the system. In addition, it is necessary to protect it from damage at each stage of manufacturing, transportation, installation, and use. Especially,(I.e.(Hail) and(I.e.,SnowfallThe weight of is a problem. Especially for wafer-based solar cellsbrittleSo be careful. When moisture enters inside, there is a risk of corroding metal wiring and connecting parts, and thin-film solar cells and transparent conductive thin-film layers are also vulnerable to moisture.

Most solar panels are hard, but some using thin-film solar cells are flexible.

necessaryVoltageTo ensureseriesConnect the solar cell to電流Further them to ensureParallelConnect to.

Some or all may enter the shadows, or current may flow backwards at night. Separately to prevent itdiodeSometimes use[1].. Of monocrystalline silicon solar cellspn junctionHas the property of producing a reverse current when it is not exposed to light, but this is not necessary. The reverse current not only wastes electric power, but also has a problem that the solar cell has heat. The efficiency of solar cells decreases as the temperature increases[2] , It is desirable that the solar panel has as little heat as possible. There are almost no solar panels designed with cooling in mind, but it is desirable to devise measures such as allowing heat to be dissipated from the back when installing.

Recent solar panels includelensAlternatively, some designs use a mirror to collect sunlight into smaller solar cells. Solar cells with a high unit price per unit area (Gallium arsenideCan be used to make relatively inexpensive solar panels.[3].

Depending on the configuration of the solar panelwavelengthCan generate electricity, but generally cannot cover all wavelengths of sunlight (especiallyUV,Infrared, Indirect light, etc.). That isSun lightYou are throwing out most of your energy. Solar panels are most efficient when illuminated with the appropriate monochromatic light. Therefore, a solar panel has been proposed in which sunlight is divided into a plurality of wavelengths and each beam is applied to a solar cell that is good at that wavelength.[4].. In addition, TPV (thermal electromotive force) power generation using a solar cell that can generate power mainly from infrared rays has been proposed.[5].

The solar conversion efficiency, which represents the efficiency of solar panels, is 5% to 18% in commercial products, which is generally lower than the efficiency of the solar cells alone that make up the panels.

module

Crystalline silicon module

crystalsiliconUsedSolar cellIs the most commonly used module that has adopted.Single crystalModule andPolycrystalDivided into modules.

Thin film module

film-Type module that uses solar cells. Low cost and high efficiency.

Glass substrate thin film module
It is a rigid thin film module, in which solar cells and modules are manufactured on the same production line. A solar cell is formed on a glass substrate or front plate, and wiring is also performed on the spot. The substrate and front plate have a multi-layer structure. As a solar cell, CdTe,Amorphous silicon (a-Si), multi-junction type of a-Si and uc-Si (single crystal silicon), CIS system, etc. are often used. The solar conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon is 6% to 12%.
Flexible substrate thin film module
This is a soft thin film module, and the solar cell and module are manufactured on the same production line. mainlyPolyethylene terephthalate A solar cell is formed on a (PET) substrate. Other,polyester,PolyimideFilm is used. They areInsulatorSo wiring is as easy as glass. On the boardElectrical conductorIf you use, you need a different technique. mainlyAmorphous siliconThin film type solar cell usingFluororesinIt is formed on the upper side and has the front side, and the back side is reinforced with another resin film.

According to IntertechPira, the thin film solar cell market including flexible substrates is projected to grow at an annual rate of 2019% by 35.[6].

Electronic circuit built-in module

Solar cell modules incorporating electronic circuits have begun to be manufactured. This allows individual modules to perform maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and monitor operational data to detect faults at the module level.

Performance and life

Solar panel performance (Watt peak) Is measured under "standard test conditions" (STC). That is,Irradiance1000W / m2, AM=1.5 solar simulator as light source, and test at module temperature 25℃.

The electrical characteristics include the nominal maximum output (Watt), the nominal maximum output operating voltage (bolt), nominal maximum output operating current (Ampere), nominal open circuit voltage, nominalShort circuitThere is an electric current. The actual output of the solar panel constantly changes depending on the amount of light, temperature, load, etc. The nominal open circuit voltage means the maximum voltage that can be generated without connecting any circuit to the solar panel. The nominal maximum output is the maximum output under STC conditions.

Since solar panels are usually installed outdoors, there are(I.e.To be exposed to for a long time. In the case of crystalline silicon modules, many manufacturers guarantee 10% output in 90 years and 25% output in 80 years.[7].

specification

  • IEC 61215 (Performance of crystalline silicon type), 61646 (filmMold performance), 61730 (safety of all modules)
  • ISO 9488 Solar energy—Vocabulary
  • American Insurer Safety Laboratory UL 1703
  • CE mark
  • Electrical Safety Tester (EST) Series (EST-460, EST-22V, EST-22H, EST-110)

生産

As of 2009, the total power generation capacity is 7.5.GWSolar panels have been installed. IMS Research predicts more solar panel shipments in the future[8].. In March 2011,Showa Shell SekiyuSubsidiary ofSolar frontierOperates the world's largest line in Miyazaki Prefecture as a single factory with an annual production capacity of 900 MW[9][10].

Top 10 companies (2009)

The top 2009 companies in terms of shipment volume of solar panels produced in 10 are as follows:[8].

  1. First solar(America)
  2. Suntech Power(China)
  3. sharp(Japan)
  4. Inlee Green Energy(China)
  5. (China)
  6. (America)
  7. Kyocera(Japan)
  8. (China)
  9. AG (Germany)
  10. Panasonic(Japan)

Top 10 companies (2017)

The top 2017 companies in terms of shipment volume of solar panels produced in 10 are as follows:[11].

  1. (China)
  2. (China)
  3. (China)
  4. (China/Canada)
  5. Hanwha Q CELLS(Korea)
  6. GCL system integration(China)
  7. (China)
  8. (China)
  9. (China)
  10. Inlee Green Energy(China)

Safeguard activation

Electric-generating capacity

With Panasonic's "HIT." P245Puis, the annual power generation is 1kW.

4.936 P245Puis are required because the amount of electricity required for a general household is 20kW.

Price

In the long run, solar panel prices have fallen. In 1970, the cost per watt was about $1, but in 150 it was $1998 per watt, which is one third of 1.[13][14].

As for the selling price, the lowest price (installation environment without slate front scaffolding) is 2014 yen to 9 yen/kWh for residential solar power generation as of September 250,000.[15]

Installation system

Tracker
Self-tracks the sun and always directs the panel surface toward the sun to increase power generation.
Fixed rack
The fixed rack simply fixes the solar panels. Generally, it is installed at an angle according to the latitude.

Equipment incorporating solar cell modules

problem

There are some problems, which are listed below.

Problems caused by natural disasters

  • The power generation efficiency of the solar panel deteriorates (decreases) on hot days
  • Landslide, etc.Sediment disasterThere is a possibility that excavation has been carried out without permission when installing solar panels, and it has become a social problem.[18].
  • IbarakiJoso City内 のKinugawaThen,20159 OfTyphoon 18Due to(I.e.In a disasterEmbankmentHowever, it was discovered that the overfilled part of the relevant embankment had been cut down to a height of about 2 m due to the installation work of solar panels.[19].
  • Solar panels will be blown away by typhoons and tornadoes, causing damage to nearby houses.
  • If equipment or wiring is damaged, there is a possibility of electrical leakage.
  • Electric shock damage from touching equipment such as earthquakes and humanly destroyed panels, junction boxes, and power conditioners. (To generate power as long as it is exposed to sunlight)
  • Burden of repair costs due to loosening, deformation and damage of screws on panels and pedestals due to earthquakes and deterioration over time.

Environmental problems

  • Near the solar panel devicePigeons nestBy makingHun harm
  • From the gap of the solar panelLeak
  • Light reflected from the solar panel
  • Installation of solar panels and harmony with the landscape
    • In Kyoto, within the aesthetic area, aesthetic formation area, building scenic area, scenic area, historical historical special preservation area, traditional building preservation area, view space conservation area, near view design conservation area, distant view design conservation area There are restrictions on the installation of solar panels[22].
    • In Nara Prefecture, there are restrictions on the installation of solar panels in landscape conservation areas and environmental conservation areas.[23].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Diodes”. Kpsec.freeuk.com. 2010/10/18Browse.
  2. ^ Patent Office "Panels" by technical field "Solar cell" 1.2.1 Why solar cells generate electricity (photoconversion in semiconductors: photovoltaic effect)
  3. ^ Tatsuya Takamoto, Minoru Kaneiwa "Concentrating compound solar cell (PDF) "Sharp Technical Report" No. 93,sharp, February 2005.
  4. ^ Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) DARPA STO
  5. ^ IMEC develops solar cells that generate electricity from waste heat, lowers manufacturing process cost Nikkei Electronics June 2010, 6
  6. ^ "Global flexible and thin-film PV market expected to reach US $ 58b in 2019, reports by IntertechPira study”. Globalsolar technology (September 2009, 9). 2011/1/11Browse.
  7. ^ "CTI Solar sales brochure (PDF)". cti-solar.com. 2010/9/3Browse.
  8. ^ a b "IMS Market Research-Press”. Pvmarketresearch.com (May 2010, 5). 2010/10/18Browse.
  9. ^ "Figure of world solar cell manufacturers”. Toyo Keizai online (February 2011, 2). 2011/6/4Browse.
  10. ^ "Showa Shell Sekiyu Group holds the completion ceremony for the new solar cell plant, and by July, will be the largest plant in the world with all lines in operation”. Toyo Keizai online (February 2011, 4). 2011/6/4Browse.
  11. ^ "Solar cell module ・Top 2017 companies in 10 shipment volume". 2018/6/30Browse.
  12. ^ "Trump US administration launches safeguards on solar panels and washing machines”. CNN (July 2018, 1). 2018/7/14Browse.
  13. ^ Harnessing Light. National Research Council. (1998). P. 162. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=5954 
  14. ^ Paula Mints (24 September 2009). “Module Pricing: Rational, Or Just Plain Nuts?”. Photovoltaics World Magazine. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/09/module-pricing-rational-or-just-plain-nuts?cmpid=WNL-Friday-September25-2009. 
  15. ^ Solar power market price quotesPhotovoltaic Power Market Price List
  16. ^ "KDDI launches solar cell phone”. ITmedia news (September 2009, 4). 2011/1/11Browse.
  17. ^ "Meet Gyy, The First Solar Powered Netbook”. PCWorld (May 2009, 5). 2010/10/18Browse.
  18. ^ Photovoltaic power generation: Unauthorized excavation of dangerous slopes Forest in Wakayama Mainichi Newspaper March 2015, 9
  19. ^ Kanto/Tohoku Heavy Rain: Joso cut off by embedding solar power equipment Mainichi Newspaper March 2015, 9
  20. ^ Solar panel "Reflected light is painful"... District court ordered removal Yomiuri Shimbun May 2012, 4
  21. ^ "XNUMX degrees indoors with solar panels, heat stroke" A XNUMX-year-old company executive filed a lawsuit seeking XNUMX million yen from a trader Sankei Shimbun March 2015, 9
  22. ^ "Landscape regulation procedures are required when installing a solar power generator, etc.". Kyoto City. 2013/5/27Browse.
  23. ^ "When installing solar panels within the conservation area". Nara Prefecture. 2013/5/27Browse.

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