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👩‍🎤 | Valentine's Day for Minako Kotobuki is "Sphere Formation Day" Even the sweet and sour episodes of her childhood [Minako Kotobuki ...


Photo Valentine's Day for Minako Kotobuki is "Sphere Formation Day" A sweet and sour episode of childhood [Minako Kotobuki's Another Wonderland in the UK 11th]

Valentine's Day for Minako Kotobuki is "Sphere Formation Day" Even the sweet and sour episodes of her childhood [Minako Kotobuki ...

 
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Kotobuki: This is a dessert called "Cranachan" made from Scottish specialties such as raspberries and oats.
 

Minako Kotobuki, a voice actor who is currently living in the UK, tells us what kind of daily life she is living in the UK. → Continue reading

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Oat

Oat(Scientific name:Avena sativa) IsPoaceaeOatsare categorizedAnnual grassAnd the seeds穀物Treated as.In kanjioatIs written.The kanji for Marumugi and the reading for Enmugi are incorrect.Also, from the English name "Oat"Oats,Oats,AutoAlso called.Also, wild species of the same genusOats(A. fatua) Because it is a cultivated species, it has a high value.OatsAlso called[1].

Features

The culm length is 60-150 cm, and the internodes on the flag leaf are long.[2]..The leaves are wide and lack leaf ears[2]..The spike length is about 20-25 cm, and the spike type is generally the scatter type, but there are also single-ear type varieties.[2].. One spikelet has two bracts and wraps florets 1-2[2]..Oats are generally strongly sandwiched between oats and cannot be easily removed, but those cultivated in East Asia are mostly naked, which is easy to remove.

Cultivation is divided into autumn sowing and spring sowing.Oats like cool, butRyeUnlike cold hardiness, it is often frost-damaged in cold regions and cannot survive the winter.Therefore, it is customary to sow in autumn in warm regions and in spring in cold regions.Oats are often cultivated in cold, thin high latitudes, and are mostly produced by spring sowing worldwide.Among wheat species, it prefers moistness and requires a large amount of water to grow.In addition, it is the most vulnerable to drying among wheat, and it has an adverse effect when it becomes extremely dry during the growing season.Prefers humus, but has a wide range of habitats.It is resistant to acidity and grows widely in acidic soil, but can withstand alkaline soil.It grows well, but it is easy to fall down.

Nutrition

Oats are generally considered healthy foods, and health foods made from them are advertised as nutritious.[5]..Most of the water-soluble dietary fiber in oatsβ-glucanIs. About β-glucan derived from oats in bloodcholesterolPrice increase suppression effect,Blood glucose levelRise suppression effect,blood pressureLowering effect, defecation promoting effect,ImmunologyA large number of reports have been reported, mainly in Europe and the United States, of function regulating effects[6]..This characteristic of cholesterol reduction has been confirmed[7][8]This was also the reason why oats were accepted as a health food.Also, oats are compared to wheatprotein,LipidIs included a lot and is most usedoatmealIs a whole grain, so more than other refined grainsDietary fiber,mineralCan be taken.On the contrary, because of their high content,StarchThe proportion of cereals is low compared to other grains, and the amount of energy is slightly low,[9]This was also one of the reasons why oats are considered healthy.

History

The place of origin is地中海From the coastFertile crescent,Central AsiaIn this region, wild grass-type oats are widely distributed even in modern times.The cultivation of oats is slow, with no evidence of cultivation at the Fertile Crescent ruins 6000 to 7000 years ago.However, wild oats are native to this region.Wheat,BarleyIt entered the field and began to grow as a weed.Over time, this weed-type oat acquired important grain properties such as dormancy and non-dropping, and is thought to have become a crop in Central Europe about 5,000 years ago.[10]..At this time, it was sown by mixing it with wheat etc. as insurance for cultivation in wasteland and poor crops because it can be harvested even in a harsh environment.Iron ageCultivated normal oats were established after they were cultivated in earnest in Northern Europe, where they were cultivated in place of crops in the harsh climate of Northern Europe.[10]..By such a formation processVavilovIs classified as a secondary crop[10].

On the other hand, oats spread to the east,Pamir PlateauIt is thought that it acquired the so-called nakedness, which is easy to thresh in the mountainous areas of China, and became the origin of the naked cultivation type oat (Hadaka oat).[10]..This Avena nuda is called Yumai and is located in northern China.Inner MongoliaIt is widely cultivated in such places.Common oats are written as "swallow" and are distinguished from oats, but most of the oats cultivated in China are oats.[11].

Oats are cultivated mainly in cultivated Central Europe,Roman EmpireWas introduced to Rome as well as advancing into this region.It was used only for feed in Rome and was never edible by humans, while living north of Rome.GermanicCultivated oats for human consumption.Medieval europeInThree-field agricultureWhen was established, oats were sown along with barley in the first year of spring cultivated land and were mainly used for feed.Oats were incorporated into three-field agricultural crops because horses, which were used only as war horses in Roman times, have become widely used in rural areas for agricultural work and transportation due to advances in farming methods. This was due to a surge in feed demand in rural areas.[12]..Oat straw was also used as a litter for horses and the like.After that19st centuryUntil you reach(I.e.Mainly for feed, and mainly for foodEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt was limited to some areas.There is already a widely used record in Scotland in the 5th century, mainlyoatmealWas eaten as oatcake[13]..Besides this, oatsアイルランド,Wales,スウェーデン,ノルウェー,フィンランドIt was a major grain in areas where the climate was harsh and wheat yields could not be expected to be high.But in IrelandpotatoThe staple food status was changed to potatoes due to the introduction of.中 世 OfFranceEven in the moist highlands, oats were the main cultivated grain.[14]..Also in the Middle AgesAleOften oat malt was used in addition to barley malt[15].oatmealWas mainly eaten by poor farmers, who had to grind the grain into flour.BreadCompared to less loss, and with a stone millbakeryIt was because there was no need to deduct the commission from and the price was low.[16].North AmericaTo17st centuryAlthough it had already been imported into Scotland, it was not edible except in areas centered on Scottish immigrants.18st centuryIn Scotland, the dietary habits changed due to the cold climate and population growth.meatAt the same time as the sharp drop in consumption of oats, the consumption of oats surged. Oat modern in the 19th centuryBreed improvementWas started and started in earnest at the beginning of the 20th century, which greatly improved yield, lodging resistance, and resistance to pathogens.

The medicinal properties of oats have been known for a long time, but until the 19th century, they were used in American cookbooks.oatmealWas barely listed, but in the 1870s Ferdinand Schumacher industrialized oats.flakeDevelop technology to transform Oat押麦(Rolled oats) is invented[17]As a result, oats have changed to something that can be easily cooked.In addition, Henry Crowwell commercialized this under the name "Quaker Oats".[18],Quaker Oats CompanyWhen was established, a food companyoatmealHas embarked on mass production and has spread rapidly throughout the United States since the end of the 19th century.[19].. further1880AroundJohn Harvey KelloggHowever, the food called granula, which used to use graham flour, was improved to use oat flakes.GranolaWas born.Granola is so-calledCereal foodIt was the source of the development of various cereal foods.By the way1900Around the time, Swiss doctor Maximilian Bircher-BennerMuesliWas developed.Granola and muesliCorn flakesAlthough production was decreasing due to being pushed by other cereal foods such as1960 era OfHippie movementIt has been reviewed and improved from the viewpoint of health, and it has been consumed more. In the late 1980s, OatBran(Oat bran)healthy foodOat became more popular as it became a boom.[20].

生産

Top 10 Oat Production Countries — 2013
(Thousand tons)
Russian flag ロシア4,027
Canadian flag カナダ2,680
Polish flag ポーランド1,439
 ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰1,159
Australian flag Australia1,050
United States flag The United States of America929
Spanish flag スペイン799
British flag The United Kingdom784
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³776
German flag Germany668
World gross domestic product20,732
Source: FAO[21]

2005Worldwide production is 2460 million tons,wheat,Rice,corn,barley,SorghumIt is the sixth highest-producing grain after that.The highest production in the worldロシアIs 510 million tons,カナダ330 million tons,America170 million tons,ポーランド130 million tons,フィンランドIt continues with 120 million tons.Due to its adaptability to the cool and humid summer climate, it is often produced in high latitudes.North AmericaIn Japan, production is particularly concentrated in the Great Plains of Canada and the states of the north-central United States, where spring-sown oats are cultivated.On the other hand, the warmer southern states andTexas,CaliforniaIn, autumn-sown oats are mainly cultivated.However, the production of oats in these autumn sowing states is low, and the cost of transportation to the oat processing plants concentrated in the spring-sown area is not enough, so most of them are consumed locally as feed.[22].

Currently, production continues to decline in all major producing countries except Russia.1965から1994By then, production has decreased by 23% worldwide and acreage has decreased by 27%, surpassing sorghum in production.The reason for the decrease in production was first of all the main use of oat.A horseDue to the sharp drop in demand for feed.HorseWarhorseIt was bred all over the world as a livestock for transportation, but since the middle of the 20th century.tankWith the advent of such items, war horses have become almost unnecessary and munitions have disappeared.motorizationDemand for transportation is also almostTrackSuch asAutomobileAs a result of the drastic decrease in demand here, the use of horses was limited to a small number mainly for racing and sports, and the number of horses bred decreased.As a result, oat production, which was primarily intended for horse feed, plummeted accordingly.Further remaining demandsoy,cornWith the advent of new forage crops such as, competition has arisen and demand has decreased.[23]..However, even in modern times, the demand for feed, especially for horse feed, remains the largest demand for oats.79% of oat production is still consumed today for feed.However, the weight of food demand continues to increase due to health-conscious lumps and the spread of oatmeal, and 42% is produced for food and seeds in the United States.[24].

Finland has the highest per capita consumption of oats, followed by Finland.デンマーク,スウェーデン,The United KingdomFollowed by countries in northern Europe[25]..However, even in Finland, which has the highest edible consumption of oats, the annual consumption is only 3 kg.[26], It is hard to say that it occupies a large proportion as edible grain in any country.This is because the main edible use of oats is almost limited to oatmeal, which cannot be made into bread by itself like wheat and rye, and is rarely used as a main food.

Number

seed ThefeedoredibleAs well asstrawIs used as feed.

edible

When edible, oats are either pressed or split to make them easier to use, or milled.After threshing and drying to make grains, heat and roll to make flakes (rolled oats).When making oat flour, mill it by heating it after making it into grains.Sift this flour and divide it into oat flour and bran (oat bran), both of which are edible.[27].

Among cereal foodsmineral-protein-Dietary fiberIs the richest, butBiscuitAlthough it is used forglutenBecause it does not havewheatAboutBreadNot suitable for raw materials.Coarsely ground or compacted (oatmeal) With watermilkCooked withPorridgeIs the most common way to use oats for food, and has been eaten everywhere since ancient times in the oat-growing areas of Northern and Eastern Europe.It may be salted, but it is also widely eaten by adding sugar or jam to make it sweet.Furthermore, the development of oat flake technology in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century has greatly reduced the time and effort required for cooking, and can be cooked simply by boiling lightly.oatmealIs a standard breakfastシ リ ア ルIt became.thisoatmealIs widely eaten in the developing countries of the United States and other European countries.TheseoatmealThere are so-called rolled oats, which are pressed barley, and steel-cut oats, which are made by cutting two or three oat grains. In addition, this cooking process is further simplified by simply pouring hot water.oatmealInstant oatmeal that can be used is also available on the market.Besides this, like other grains, from oatsMilk replacerCan be made and is commercially available as oat milk.Alsobeer,whiskeyIt is also used as a material for.

In addition,oatmealTobrown rice,wheatEtc.,honey,oilMix and bake, thenDried fruitThe result is a mixture ofGranolaIt is eaten in flakes.There is also a snack at the granola bar, which is made by hardening it into a stick.healthy foodIt is commercially available as.Also, for fluffy oatmealfruit,nutsMixedMuesliIs also a cereal food[28]..The difference between granola and muesli is the presence or absence of heat treatment.Apart from these cereal foods, oatmeal itself may be used as a confectionery ingredient.Bread,ク ッ キ ー,cakeIn addition to being mixed with dough such as, oatmeal and cookies are typical oat confectionery, and are sold by various companies in Europe and the United States.EnglandWith oatmeal in the north ofMolassesからParkinA cake called is made.

Also, of oatsWisdomIs called oat bran and is water-soluble in Europe and the United States.Dietary fiberIt has become a health food as a representative of.

Oat food culture in each country

The countries that mainly used oats for foodEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ベ ラ ル ー シAnd so on.In Scotland, oats are the main grain, mainly porridge (Porridge) Was eaten.Even in modern times in ScotlandoatmealPorridge is common.In addition, porridge is cooked softly with more water (Gruel)重湯).Oatcakes made by mixing oat flour with wheat flour have also been used in Scotland for a long time.[29]..Oatcakes are not sweet and salty, and oats are lightly baked to prevent them from swelling, and are mainly used for light meals.In addition to oatcake, we also kneaded oat flour into wheat flour, added sugar, and baked it sweetly.BiscuitAre also sold in large numbers, and this is a confectionery.Also,Baking powder,saltPut in and makeBannockIt can also be used as a material for quick bread called[30]..A Scottish specialtyHaggisBoiledSheep Of内 臓To minced meatonionとHerbsAfter engraving and adding oats as a binderbeef tallowBoil in the sheep's stomach with[31]SteamedpuddingIs.In Scotland, oatsBlood puddingIt is also used as a binder.It can also be mixed with fish batter to give it a crispy texture, or put in soup.ThoromiIt is also used to attach.

アイルランドInpotatoUntil the introduction of oats, oats were the most widely used grain, and even after being replaced by the introduction of potatoes, the habit of eating oatmeal and oatcake remained.

Oats are the most used grain in Belarus, mainlyKashaUsed for (porridge).However, when baking bread, rye, which is more likely to swell, was mainly used.Also, Jules, a traditional Belarusian soup, is made from oat flour.[32].AlpsOats were also the main food source in rural areas.I used to make oats, rye, and wheat in this region, but I couldn't get much wheat and the yield of rye was not so high, so I ate oats as a daily food, and rye bread was also a daily food but more expensive Treated, and rye bread was only eaten on public holidays.In this region, oats were eaten as bread or porridge, but as mentioned above, oats do not swell, so a little flour is used as a binder to make them biscuit-like rather than thin bread with a thickness of about 2 cm. I made it and ate it.It tasted good but was very hard, and when cheap rye flour and wheat flour came in from the 1950s to the 1960s due to the development of transportation networks, it almost disappeared from eating oats in this region.[33].

In the United States, oats were brought in by Scottish migrants, but their edible use was limited to Scottish-rich areas, and most were not edible.This has changed since the technological innovations of the latter half of the 19th century, including rolled oats, and further.Kellogg,Quaker Oats CompanySince the end of the 19th century, it rapidly became popular as an edible product because food companies such as the above marketed it with a large-scale advertising strategy.In modern timesoatmealCereal foods such as granola and granola are widely used as simple and healthy foods, and oatmeal cookies and oatmeal muffins are widely used as general confectionery.[34].

Using oats in ChinaInner Mongolia,Shanxi ProvinceLimited to a part of the northwestern part, but in edible areasnoodles,GyozaThere are various dishes using oat powder, including[35].

Other uses

The most important use of oats is for feed, especially(I.e.However, in the present age when the production of war horses has almost stopped and the demand for transportation has dropped sharply, the number of horses raised has decreased sharply, which is the main reason why the cultivation of oats has been on a downward trend.However, oats are a favorite feed for horses and have a high dietary fiber content.Concentrated feedIs the most commonly used in modern times[36]..Oats are preferred as feed for horses, and because oats are low in starch and low in energy, they do not require rigorous feed calculations and are easy to handle.In addition to domestic horse breeding in JapanAustralia産、カナダ産、AmericaMainly used from oats.In addition to oat grains themselves, pressed barley is also used as feed for horses.Pressed barley improves digestion, but nutrients are slightly impaired compared to grains[37]..Other animals, such asChickenMay be used as one of the feed ingredients for[38].

Plow the oats growing in the field into the soil as they are,Green manureIt is also used as.Of the oats used as green manure, the one called wild oat (Avena strigosa)Negusare nematodeCultivated as a means of controlling soil pests,Companion plants,Bunker plantsAlso used as.

For domestic cats because some cats eat oat sproutsCat grassCultivation kits, or those that have already grown about 10 cm or more, may be sold at pet stores and DIY shops.[39]

Also recentlycadmiumIncluding重金属Taking advantage of its excellent adsorption properties, rice and sorghum (Sorghum) WithcadmiumbySoil contaminationRestoration (Bioremediation) Is used.

Use in Japan

in JapanMeiji EraIt was introduced early and was cultivated especially in Hokkaido.Use in Japan is horse feed, especiallyWarhorseBecause cultivation was encouraged as feed forPrewarThe cultivated area does not fall below 10 hectares, especiallySecond World WarIn1940から1944It was the highest, counting 131080 hectares.After the warIn addition to the disappearance of military horse production and the disappearance of munitions, the spread of automobiles due to the progress of motorization drastically reduced the breeding of horses, and the cultivation area of ​​oats, whose main purpose was horse feed, also drastically decreased.[40].

There are few examples that are edible by humans.As one of the few examplesEmperor Showa OfWestern foodOf typebreakfastAlways inoatmealIs provided[41],movies"The longest day in Japan"according to,1945Breakfast on August 8thoatmealIt is mentioned in the work that it is an unexpectedly simple meal.However, since the beginning of the 21st century, due to the spread of cereal foodsoatmealAnd granola are now produced by domestic companies, and oat foods are widely distributed in the country.Furthermore, due to growing health consciousness, various companies have begun to sell granola bars and health foods containing oat bran.

Currently in JapanHokkaidoProduced in Japan and for domestic useoatmealShipped for.Besides, it is cultivated all over Japan,Crop rotationFor feed and green manure as part of[42]In most cases, it is rarely harvested for food.Many are cultivated for feedsilageFor use or mowinggrassUsed as[43], Cultivation as a winter forage cropItalian ryegrassNext to[44]..In warm regions, it is sown in autumn and overwintered, but in cold regions, it is sown in spring and harvested in summer or autumn.[45].

Also, in general, "Cat grassMost of the items sold as "oats" are oats.

culture

EnglandThen, the image of wheat as edible and oat as feed was strong.On the other hand, to the northEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn, oats had established themselves as a staple food.

An English poet and criticScottishI hate itSamuel JohnsonThere is a famous definition of oat that he left in a contemporary dictionary.

Oats --A grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland appears to support the people. (Samuel Johnson, 1755, A Dictionary of the English Language)

Translated by: Oats-A type of grain that feeds horses in England and people in Scotland.

This was furious for the Scottish people and was also a disciple of Samuel Johnson.James BoswellIn return, he argued with humor as follows.

Which is why England is known for its horses and Scotland for its men.

Therefore, England is renowned for its horses and Scotland is renowned for its talent.

Scottish EnglishIn, oats are sometimes called "corns"[46].. this is,EnglishThis is because the most important grain in the region is often called corn.[47].. In addition,American EnglishIn other countries,MaizeWhat was called "maize" is called "Indian corn", and this turns into "corn"cornCame to point to[47].

image

footnote

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ "FOOD'S FOOD New Edition Ingredients Dictionary Fresh Ingredients" p315 March 2003, 3 First Edition 20st Print Shogakukan
  2. ^ a b c d Kanji Goto (1977), p.162
  3. ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
  4. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
  5. ^ "Nutrition for everyone: carbohydrates”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services (2014). 2014/12/8Browse.
  6. ^ Shigeki Araki, Kazutoshi Ito, Seiichiro Aoe, Yukie Ikegami, "Current status of barley physiological effects and health claims"Nutrition Magazine," 2009, Vol. 67, No. 5, p.235-251, two:10.5264 / eiyogakuzashi.67.235
  7. ^ "Oats”. World's Healthiest Foods, The George Mateljan Foundation (2014). 2014/12/8Browse.
  8. ^ Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TM (2014). “Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Am J Clin Nutr 100 (6): 1413–21. two:10.3945 / ajcn.114.086108. PMID 25411276. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/100/6/1413.long. 
  9. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print p.1
  10. ^ a b c d Toshinobu Morikawa (2010), p.203
  11. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p121 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  12. ^ "Rural Life in Medieval Europe" p30 Translated by Joseph Gies and Francis Gies Yoshiko Qingdao Kodansha Academic Bunko May 2008, 5 First Print
  13. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print pp.1
  14. ^ "History of Food Life in Medieval Europe" p69-70 by Bruno Loriou Translated by Harumi Yoshida Original Shobo October 2003, 10 4st print
  15. ^ "History of Food Life in Medieval Europe" p52 by Bruno Loriou Translated by Harumi Yoshida Original Shobo October 2003, 10 4st print
  16. ^ "Rural Life in Medieval Europe" p137 Translated by Joseph Gies and Francis Gies Yoshiko Qingdao Kodansha Academic Bunko May 2008, 5 First Print
  17. ^ "World's Edible Plant Culture Picture Book" p217 Barbara Santitch, Jeff Bryant Translated by Norio Yamamoto Hiiragifusha January 2010, 1 20st print
  18. ^ "World's Edible Plant Culture Picture Book" p217 Barbara Santitch, Jeff Bryant Translated by Norio Yamamoto Hiiragifusha January 2010, 1 20st print
  19. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print pp.1-75
  20. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p122 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  21. ^ "World oats production, consumption, and stocks". United States Department of Agriculture. 2013/3/18Browse.
  22. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print p.1
  23. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print p.1
  24. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print p.1
  25. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p121 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  26. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p121 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  27. ^ "Cambridge World Food History Encyclopedia 2 Main Foods: Cultivated Crops and Domestic Animals" Translated by Mutaro Miwa Asakura Shoten September 2004, 9 10nd Edition 2st Print p.1
  28. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p122 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  29. ^ "Chapter 65 for Knowing Scotland" "52 Food Culture Built by the Warmth of Porridge" Yuka Noguchi p301 Masatoshi Kimura ed.
  30. ^ "World Food Culture Picture Book: Origin and Propagation of Food" p40 Supervised by Mary Donovan Susie Ward, Claire Clifton, Jenny Stacey Supervised by Tsuneo Namba Japanese Edition Toyo Shorin January 2003, 1 First print
  31. ^ "Chapter 65 for Knowing Scotland" "52 Food Culture Built by the Warmth of Porridge" Yuka Noguchi p303 Masatoshi Kimura ed.
  32. ^ Mitsuyoshi Numano, Kyoko Numano "Russia" p151 (World Food Culture 19, Rural Culture Association Japan, March 2006)
  33. ^ "Cultural History of Bread" pp161-163 Eiko Funada Kodansha Academic Bunko December 2013, 12 First print issued
  34. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Volume 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p122 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  35. ^ "Regional Ingredients Encyclopedia Vol. 1 Cereals, Potatoes, Beans, Nuts" p124-125 Rural Culture Association Japan March 2010, 3 10st print
  36. ^ "About Horse Breeding Management" p6 JRA Retrieved May 2016, 5 (PDF)
  37. ^ "Racehorse Feed" pp3-5 Japan Racing Association Racehorse Accident Prevention Measures Committee Viewed May 2016, 5 (PDF)
  38. ^ "Chicken Science" (series "Livestock Science" 4) p89 Mitsuhiro Furuse ed. Asakura Shoten July 2014, 7 First Edition First Edition
  39. ^ MUJI Net Store See other cat-related products such as cat grass cultivation kits
  40. ^ "New edible crops" Kiyochika Hoshikawa Yokendo May 60, 5 Correction 10th edition pp5-293
  41. ^ M. Watanabe "Meal of Emperor Showa" Bungei Bunko, 2009
  42. ^ Ken Konagai, Kazunori Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Usami and others,Effects of cultivation and plow of wild oats on indigenous microbial fauna and tomato soil disease outbreak Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Plant Pathology, 2005, Vol. 71, No. 2, p.101-110, two:10.3186 / jjphytopath.71.101
  43. ^ Oat varieties suitable for spring sowing cultivation and cultivation and harvesting / preparation methods (PDF)
  44. ^ "New Revised Edible Crop" p226 Makie Kokubun Yokendo August 2010, 8 10st Edition
  45. ^ Spring-sown oat cultivation, harvesting and preparation manual (PDF) Nagano
  46. ^ Partridge, Eric; Janet Whitcut (ed.) (1995). Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English (1st American ed. Ed.). New York: WW Norton, 1995. p. 82. ISBN 0-393-03761-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=icnKIlILT4oC&pg=PA82&vq=corn&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1&sig=gDb63y1bG3c40htw8rMw_1_v4GI 
  47. ^ a b NA (2007). Shorter Oxford English DictionaryOxford: Oxford University Press. P. 522. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2 

References

  • Kanji Goto "Wheat and Millet" "Food Crop Science" Geng Sato et al., Bunnagado, 1977, pp.141 --180
  • Toshinobu Morikawa "The Road Where Oats Came" "Natural History of Oats: Wheat Farming Nurtured by People and Nature", edited by Yoichiro Sato and Kamashi Kato, Hokkaido University Press, 2010, pp.197-219 ISBN 978-4-8329-8190-4

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