Photo Ito renews his determination as a professional climber with a diploma
"To win a gold medal at the Paris Olympics" Sports Climbing Futaba Ito Morioka Chuo High School Graduation Professional
If you write the contents roughly
The graduation ceremony was held after taking measures against the new coronavirus, and about 500 graduates, parents, faculty and staff attended in masks.
Futaba Ito (18) of sports climbing = from Morioka City, belonging to TEAM au = was held in the city on the 3rd ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Graduation ceremony(Graduation ceremony) recognizes that the curriculum has been completed by obtaining a diploma and congratulates it.ceremonyIs.Especially in JapanSchool Education Law Enforcement RegulationsDetermined byschool eventIt has become.Universities in Europe and AmericaBachelor of ScienceThere is a ceremony for the award, but there is a ceremony to celebrate each schoolJapanと South KoreaIt is a custom that can only be seen in.The graduates are also a ceremony to express their gratitude and a ceremony to mark a milestone.
About the name of the expression
primary school-Junior high school-Compulsory education school-high school-Secondary schoolandSpecial schoolThen, at the ceremony, "Graduation certificateFrom awarding ""Graduation ceremony(See "History" below for this).
UniversityIngraduate School"Diploma" will not be awarded to graduatesDiplomaWill be awarded, so if you are going to do it only at the graduate school,Degree Conferral Ceremony"FacultyIf you want to do it jointly withGraduation Ceremony / Degree Conferral CeremonyIt becomes.
KindergartenAnd in the kindergarten of special needs schools,Graduation ceremonyIs called, and a "graduation certificate" is awarded.
in Japan1872(5th year of Meiji)School systemWith the enforcement ofgrade(school year) Has its origin in giving diplomas to those who have completed the exam..After that, it became established as an independent ritual as it is today in the 10s of the Meiji era (from the mid-1870s to the 1880s).
2020(2nd year of Reiwa)Spread of new coronavirus infectionThe graduation ceremony of this year was canceled one after another in the face of the problem of..On the other hand, some schools postponed while watching the spread of infection, and in that caseDenseDivide the expression into multiple parts to preventSocial distanceIngenuity was made such as spacing the seats to keep the seats apart..
Graduation ceremony in Japan
Normal,3To be carried out (Early spring OfYearbook(It's enough to make it a target), but someprivateJunior high school,high schoolThen it will be implemented in February.Traditionally in elementary and junior high schoolsMay 3There were many times, but in recent years, elementary and junior high schools have been held around mid-March.
Positioning in primary and secondary education
School education lawSchools stipulated in Article 1 (Ichijo school) Out ofPrimary Educationorgan(primary schooletc)·Secondary educationorgan(Junior high school-high schoolEtc.)CurriculumInSpecial activityLocated inOpening ceremony-Closing ceremony-Entrance ceremony-Completion ceremonyLine up withschool eventHas become.
Still moreMinistry of educationDetermined byCourse of StudyThen,Special activity"In the areaCeremonial event'It is considered to be a kind of, and like the entrance ceremony, "based on its significance,National flagAlong with displayingNational anthemTheChorusWe shall instruct you to do so. "
Graduation ceremony abroad
There are graduation ceremonies outside Japan for conferring degrees,Western EuropeThe end of the school course in each country is a public examination (Baccalaureate,AbiturThere is no concept of graduation in a country accredited by (acquisition of), so there is no graduation ceremony..
US Naval AcademyGraduation ceremony and (second lieutenant) appointment ceremony
XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X Day Shooting
There are roughly two types, one-sided type and face-to-face type.
All graduates, all current students, and all parents will be assigned to the podium in the same direction.Faculty members and guests are assigned inward from both sides.This is the traditional method.
This method has been increasing especially in elementary schools in recent years.It is also used in some junior high schools and special needs schools.
- As the name suggests, it is a system in which graduates with the podium in the center, current students / guardians, faculty and staff, and guests face each other.For this reason, it is easy to have a sense of tension because the eyes of current students and graduates meet, and it has been adopted in many elementary schools in recent years.
- At that time, "words of graduation" are prepared instead of the essay / answer described later, and a call is made.In addition, graduation songs are often included on the way.
- As a feature, the stage is vacant, so it is easy to produce various effects.On the other hand, there are pros and cons because it dilutes the hierarchical relationship between students and faculty members, parents, guests, etc., so it is "bad equality".
Even in the one-sided graduation ceremony, when the "words of graduation" are given, it will be a face-to-face ceremony, and the graduates will turn around and face the current students.
Contents of graduation ceremony
The following is a basic example, and the actual format etc. will differ depending on the school.
- 1. Admission to graduates
Class teachers lead graduates.that time,Brass band clubPlaying byBGM("stately"Etc.) to enter the back.In elementary and junior high schools, men and women often enter in two rows, one class each, but mainlyhigh schoolIn many cases, the certificate is awarded by the class teacher, so two classes may be entered in one row at the same time.
Incidentally,UniversityEtc.Higher educationIt is not held at institutions (hereinafter referred to as "universities, etc.") depending on the ceremony (the same applies to "graduate exit" described later).
- 2. Opening remarks (opening words)
The opening ceremony is declared by the moderator.
- 3.National anthemUnison (national anthem performance)
UniversityIn some cases, a ceremonial song singing (a song unique to the university, which is different from the graduation song described later) may be performed instead.
- 4. Academic report
Invited as a guestschool educationRelated person (Board of educationEtc.) to make a business report.This is a report on the staff system for one year and the results of admission and promotion in each grade, and is often done mainly in public elementary schools.
- 5. Awarding a diploma
The diploma is awarded by the principal (in the case of a kindergarten / nursery school, the principal, in the case of a university, the president / president, hereinafter collectively referred to as the "principal, etc.").Beside the principal, there are vice-principals, grade chiefs of graduates, and teachers such as homeroom teachers in the case of kindergartens and nursery schools.
At the time of awarding, the faculty member may give a word of hope to the graduates.However, it depends on the scale of the grade and the school spirit.
- 6. Ceremony ("School principal" etc.)
It is done by the principal. Sometimes referred to as a "complaint".Also, in private schoolsSchool corporationA ceremony will also be held by the president.
- 7. Guest congratulations
It is performed by guests in attendance, such as those involved in education.
In the case of prefectural high schools, there is always a congratulatory address from the governor, but the regular assembly is open at the end of the fiscal year, andGovernorHowever, it is impossible to attend all high schools in terms of time, so there are many cases where the vice-governor reads the attendance.
- 8. Guest introduction
Introducing guests in attendance, including those mentioned above.
Announce congratulatory messages from people other than the above.
- 10. Presenting souvenirs
Introducing souvenirs left by graduates at their alma mater.
- 11. Sending / Answering / Graduation Words
Basically, the representative of the current students speaks to the graduates, and the representative of the graduates speaks to the principal, etc.
In elementary schools, it is called "graduation word" and depends on current students and graduates.Face-to-faceIn many cases.
On the other hand, some schools do not send or answer, and some schools do not send or answer.
- 12. Acknowledgments
Performed by a parental representative.
- 13. Ceremony song (graduation song)
The departure of the day,I'm honored,Firefly light,To the future,Departure Time ~ Asian Dream Song ~,letterSuch.In the case of elementary school, it is often sung between the above "words of graduation".
In some schools, the graduation song itself is not sung.
- 14. School song singing
Some schools sing after the national anthem.
- 15. Closing remarks (closing words)
A closing ceremony is declared by the moderator.
- 16. Alumni exit
The homeroom teacher leads.As with the entrance, the performance of the brass band (""my way”, Etc.) to leave.It is not held at universities, etc. depending on the ceremony.
- National Defense Academy(Ministry of educationnotMinistry of DefenseJurisdictionMinistry College）In the case of, "graduation" means "dissolution of the unit", so the graduates throw their caps at the signal and jump out of the venue all at once.
Outfits for graduation attendees
- Since it is basically a ceremonial place, children, students, and studentsuniformIn the case of school, wear uniforms, and in the case of plain clothes, wear suits, formal wear, hakama, etc.
- In elementary schools, in the case of plain clothes schools, the uniforms of the junior high school to which they go to school may be worn.
- School staff, the principal is dressed in formal wear (morning, womenHakama), Semi-formal dress is the mainstream for the vice-principal and below.
- Homeroom teachers are often dressed in semi-formal wear, but female teachers sometimes wear hakama.
- In elementary school, female teachers wear hakama, half in junior high school, and more in semi-formal suits in high school.
- At university, female students often wear hakama.
- Cultural Costume InstituteProfessor Makoto Asahi said, "It was about five years ago that hakama started at the graduation ceremony of elementary school students (at the time of 5). Hakama became popular at the graduation ceremony of the university.1990 eraRecently, a female college student at that time began to graduate from elementary school. The declining birthrate in the kimono industry has reduced the demand for coming-of-age ceremonies, and the new target was the graduation ceremony of elementary schools (without uniforms)..
The end of the final year
Regardless of the date of the ceremony, the end of the final year (so-called school registration expiration date)School Education Law Enforcement RegulationsIs treated as follows.
- Elementary and secondary education (Vocational school(Excluding advanced courses), preschool education andCollege of technologyIs March 3, which is the end of the fiscal year, as in the lower grades...Therefore, even after the graduation ceremony, you will be treated as enrolled in the school until March 3st.
- For universities, the president shall determine according to Article 163, and for vocational schools (higher courses, specialized courses, general courses), the principal shall determine according to Article 184.BasicallyStudent cardIt will be the expiration date stated in.
Departure ceremony / retirement ceremony
A few days after the graduation ceremony, as a farewell ceremony for the faculty members who will be transferredDeparture ceremonyA retirement ceremony is often held as a farewell ceremony for faculty and staff who retire early or retire.By the way, if a graduate participates, that day will be the de facto final school day.
In addition, if the graduate's homeroom teacher or the principal / vice-principal teacher is about to retire, a graduation ceremony (so-called "labor ceremony") will be held by the graduate in the sense of "teacher graduation" in addition to the retirement ceremony. There is also.
Problems at the graduation ceremony
Graduation ceremony canceled due to student activism
Problems with raising the Japanese flag and singing the National Anthem of Japan
Course of StudyIt is stipulated that "based on its significance, the national flag shall be displayed and the national anthem shall be instructed to be sung."
1990 era(Heisei2 years-11), in the graduation ceremony (and entrance ceremony) in this waySun flagHoisting,You areThere are teachers who insist that this is "compulsory" and oppose the raising of the national flag and the singing of the national anthem.Various problems have arisen in connection with this.
Graduation guidelinesWe give instructions and guidance to each school and principal by formulating something likePrefecturesOr市町村-special area OfBoard of educationThere is also.The guideline has the following contents, for example.
- The Japanese flag is displayed in the center of the front of the ceremony hall, and children and students face the Japanese flag.
- Gradually specify "national anthem singing".
- The national anthem of Japan is performed by the teacher's piano performance, and everyone stands up and pays attention to the Japanese flag.
- All faculty and staff except security personnel will attend.
However, some faculty members, children, and students do not stand up when singing the national anthem, or you do not sing the national anthem, saying, "I am dissatisfied with" freedom of thought and beliefs. "The Board of Education has stated that these opinions and actions of faculty and staff are causing confusion in educational settings in Japan.Job orderAs a result, the number of cases in which faculty and staff who are contrary to this are punished for admonition, admonition, salary reduction, etc. is increasing year by year.
TokyoThen, the Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education (Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education)Metropolitan high schoolGraduation ceremony (Entrance ceremonyIn (also), the national flag is raised on the left side when facing the stage, and when singing the national anthem, the national flag is to stand up toward the national flag and sing with piano accompaniment.Disciplinary actionHowever, there are some faculty members who oppose this.The faculty and staff who were punished for the violationArticle 19 of the Constitution of JapanStipulated inFreedom of thought and conscienceThe plaintiff's teacher has won the case in the Tokyo District Court, as he has filed a lawsuit against the Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education, saying that he is invading.Law concerning national flags and national anthemsSee).
In connection with these mattersLaw concerning national flags and national anthems(National Flag and Anthem Law, Law No. 11, August 8, 13) In response to the enactment, the Prime Minister of the timeKeizo Obuchi"It does not force the educational field," but at the same timeMinistry of Education(At that time, the presentMinistry of education) Director of Educational Grants Bureau, Shigenori Yano (later Deputy Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology)National Institute for Educational Policy Researchchief,Independent administrative agencyJapan Student Services OrganizationAfter serving as a directorPublic school mutual aid associationChairman)House of CouncilorsAt the National Flag and Anthem Special Committee, regarding the raising of the Japanese flag at school and the guidance of the national anthem, "It is guaranteed that faculty and staff will feel a contradiction in the guidance of the national flag and national anthem and refuse guidance because of freedom of thought and conscience. No. As long as you have the status of a civil servant, you need to execute it properly. "
Incidentally,UniversityaboutBasic Education LawFrom Article 7, Paragraph 2, it is stated that "independence, autonomy and other characteristics of education and research in universities must be respected" (by the way, in universitiesCourse of StudyDoes not exist),National University CorporationHowever, the national flag is often not raised or the national anthem is sung.
Also, private religious schools are often not held from the perspective of the founding spirit..
- ^ Isn't "graduation ceremony" the official name of "graduation ceremony"? -Excite news
- ^ "Due to postponement/cancellation of graduation and entrance ceremonies due to the spread of new corona infections". Mainichi Newspaper (February 2020, 2).Retrieved January 2021, 2.
- ^ “For a special graduation ceremony, a graduation ceremony was held in Tokyo that was not held in Corona”. NHK News (NHK). (August 2020, 11) 2021/2/26Browse.
- ^ According to the School Education Law Enforcement Regulations, Article 50 for elementary schools, Article 72 for junior high schools, Article 83 for high schools, Article 108, Paragraphs 1 (first semester) and 2 (second semester) for secondary schools, andSpecial schoolIs stipulated in Article 126 (elementary school), Article 127 (junior high school), and Article 128 (high school), respectively.It should be noted thatCompulsory education schoolIn Article 79-6, Paragraph 1, the provisions of elementary school apply mutatis mutandis to the first semester course, and in Paragraph 2 of the same Article, the provisions of junior high school apply mutatis mutandis to the second semester course.
- ^ In Article 58 of the School Education Law Enforcement Regulations, "The principal is an elementary schoolAll coursesA diploma must be awarded to those who admit that they have completed(Article 79: Junior High School, Article 79-8: Compulsory Education School, Article 104: High School, Article 113: Secondary School, and Article 135, Paragraph 2: Special Needs School (Elementary / Junior High School)・ It is stipulated that it applies mutatis mutandis to (high school)), but in the sense that school events are also educational courses,All coursesIsEntrance ceremonyからGraduation ceremonyIncluding school events leading up toAll courses"It turns out that.
- ^ "Make meaningful changes and creases in school life, enjoy a solemn and fresh mood, and carry out activities that motivate you to develop a new life."It is an object.
- ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia (sub-item version for electronic dictionaries 2006)
- ^ Yokohama City Lifelong Learning Page "Hamanabi" --Yokohama City Song
- ^ land海Our SkySDF OfExecutive self defenseIt is a training institution (in other countries)軍隊InMilitary academyEquivalent to),School education lawIt is not a university specified in.
- ^ June 2019, 3 Chunichi Shimbun 8 pages
- ^ Article 59 stipulates elementary schools, Article 79 is junior high school, Article 79-8 is compulsory education school, Article 104 is high school, Article 113 is secondary school, Article 135 is special needs school, Article 179. Article 39 applies mutatis mutandis to colleges of technology and Article XNUMX applies to kindergartens.
- ^ Basic Education LawArticle 15 states that "tolerant attitude", "general education", and "position in social life" regarding religion "must be respected educationally."In addition, "religious education" and "religious activities" are prohibited in national and public schools according to Paragraph 2 of the same Article.