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Wikipedia related words
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Two-dimensional code(Nijigen code) is a one-dimensional code that has information only in the horizontal direction (barcode), the code of the display method that has information in the horizontal and vertical directions. The information density per area is higher than that of a bar code, and if the coded data is the same, the printing and display area is smaller.
There is a matrix type (matrix code) in which small squares are arranged vertically and horizontally, and a stack type (stack code) in which a plurality of one-dimensional barcodes are vertically stacked.
Technical principles of the entire 2D code
The technical elements that are common to both types of 2D code are as follows.
- Encoding technology to generate code
- Code shape
- Data efficiency
- Technology for printing and displaying
- Error correction for deformation and dirt
- Decoding technology that processes the code image and converts it to a character string etc.
The accuracy of reading depends on the image processing technology of reading and the performance of the optical system in addition to the standard of the code itself.
In the matrix type code, the data cell that represents the minimum unit of data is a point (or triangle/square) shape, and the data storage range is often a straight line or a dotted line. If data cells are colored or transformed (including three-dimensionalization), if they are black and white, the data that is N 3 (m × n) power is increased to the expressive power of M (integer) N power data. You can also
When the invention was first invented in the world of this technology, several types of stack codes and matrix type two-dimensional codes were invented and developed in the United States in the early 1970s. In the 2s, NASA and UPS adopted some of them, but the processor cost, software development environment/hardware technology (processing speed), performance and cost of laser readers and CCD cameras were obstacles to its spread. It was mainly used for factory automation (FA) such as factory automation. In the United States, some companies, such as Veritec, went public with this technology, but there were many successful cases, but it did not spread widely until the mid-1990s. After that, in Japan as well, around 1990, each company added automatic error correction and image processing technology, and the standardization movement was accelerated worldwide, and its applications gradually expanded.
One of the major reasons for the widespread use may be the explosive spread of mobile phones with CCD cameras in Japan from around 1999, but the price problem was solved at once and the standardization proceeded, especially until then. The later-developed matrix-type code has also become widespread. Around that time, two-dimensional matrix codes of various shapes were born in Japan, and new types of printing methods and optical hardware for reading were also developed.
Main two-dimensional code
- JAISA Japan Automatic Recognition System Association
- The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika) "Two-dimensional code』- Koto bank
image(Gazo) is a phenomenon visually媒体It was established in and developed fromTextDoes not include (eg: text and images,Calligraphy). Mainly fixed medium is two-dimensionalflat OfpaperIn Although,金属,stone,Thu,bamboo,cloth, Resin,monitor-ProjectorEtc.Output deviceThere is. Also, three-dimensionalPasting,holographyEtc. are also included.
The existing old image isLate Paleolithic OfCave paintings(スペインof"Altamira CaveMural'' (Full text: La Cueva de Altamira(Museo de Altamira)AndFrance'Lascaux CaveMural >> (Calligraphy: Sadatoshi Miura (2008)). ) Etc.). Abstraction is done from these images, i.e. petroglyphs, and belongs to the imagesPictogram(絵 文字),furtherTextBelongs tohieroglyphWas born.
- painting OfEtymologyIs the "world" (the four boundaries of the field) and the "shape" (calligraphy: "" p.763.).
- imageIs derived fromImage, It is (Calligraphy: "Kanhee character web version" p.116).
Classification of the term "image"
- StyleFor a spiritual figure,English OfImage) Or "picture" (example:,,,肖像画,"become a drawing").
- Points, lines, surfaces, etc.GeometryTo expressGraph,FigureIs used.
- Classification by the method of fixing: direct drawing描画Is a temporary settlementmirror,water surfaceReflection ofCamera obscura, Make a plate and transferPrint,カメラ,telescope,microscopeAnd so on写真,Print, Monitor input/output, etc. The image output as a photograph is called a "image."movies,tv setThe image projected on the screen is called "video".Digital cameraWith the spread ofDigital imageThe term was also generalized.
- Based on time,Still image,MovieIt is classified as a still image video. An image generally refers to a still image.
- ColorFrom the numbermonochrome, Colored.
- Original imageOriginal picture, The image fixed as a platePlate,Electronic mediumWhat is established in (is the image of the book is the calligraphy).
- Dense and denseresolutionFrom, ambiguous expressions are used, such as.
- Computer graphicsFile format of
- Bitmap image(Raster graphics)WhenJaggyWithoutVector graphicsAnd the vector graphics often use the term "graphic".
- MImage file format
- There are many image file formats,W3CRecommended byRaster formatToJPEG,PNGEtc.,Vector formatToXMLCan be expressed because of the baseSVGThere is. Also,Adobe OfVector formatDocument filePDFInternational standard ISO 32000-1:2008It became.
- Image element
- Color expression
- In order not to have different color expressions on different devices,Color management systemIt is necessary to control each device with.
- To combine colorsAdditive mixing(Three primary colors of transmitted light, eg:RGBvalue),Subtractive mixing(Three primary colors of reflected light, eg color printingCMYK) And so on.
- Image compression
- To raiseImage compressionOr reducedCatalogsForthumbnailOften uses or.
- ^ Museo_de_Altamira
- ^ Sadatoshi Miura "Preservation status of Lascaux cave paintings"(Takamatsuzuka Tomb Mural Degradation Cause Investigation Group (XNUMXth) Material/Culture Agency)
- ^ "Kangxi character web version"763 page
- ^ "Kangxi character web version"116 page
- ^ Document management-Portable document format / ISO Store
- "Video Revolution CG-Computer Graphics Changes Society, Art, and Industry" ISBN-978 4872463040