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Comic(Manzai) is two or more peoplebyYose performanceThe first kind of.Usually, two people who have formed a combination talk with each other in a funny way, and say something that makes the customer laugh..Heian periodSincetraditional culture"Man years oldIt was originally developed from ", and it was common to have a drum and sing songs...Today, from the ones that mix musicSocial satireIt is popular not only in vaudeville but also in many media such as movies, TV and radio..
Was a classical performing artMan years old(Manzai),Above(Kyoto and Osaka)vaudevilleAtEdo PeriodからShowaIt has evolved independently over the years.A humorous style that was established in the early Showa period会話Makes you laugh with strange things such as "Talking manzaiSince its appearancebroadcastIt has spread nationwide as content and has become one of the mainstream of laughter in modern times.In modern times, the term "manzai" generally refers to this "manzai", but until the advent of the manzai.MusicThe material using was the mainstream (described later).
Especially the upper comicsUpper manzaiIt's called (Kami ga Tamanzai).
Manzai performers are generally called "manzai masters", but the notation "manzai family" is used in..
Basic format and configuration
Manzai is basically a performance in which the performer speaks as "the performer himself" and tries to evoke the laughter of the audience by the flow of the conversation, and in that respect, some role or stage setting is disguised or simple.SetsPresented byControlDifferent from.
Since it is based on a simple conversational body, it is suitable for the individuality of the performer.mimicryIn the story, "No matter what you do, you are allowedIt is a free performing style.It is possible to handle a wide range of subjects such as daily life, popular culture, political economy, etc., and it is possible to change the material finely and greatly according to the times.
Bokeh and Tsukkomi
Manzai is basically "Blur"When"TsukkomiIt consists of two roles.Derived from the classic hurrays "Saizou" and "Tayu" respectively.
"Bokeh" is a role that is expected to invite the laughter of the audience by making jokes, incorporating obvious mistakes and misunderstandings in the topic, and performing actions that invite laughter.The blur is originallyBokehWas called.What was called "Tsukomi (role) / Toboke (role)" in each introduction at the performing arts later changed to "Tsukomi / Toboke" → "Tsukomi and Boke".[Source required]
"Tsukomi" is the role of pointing out the mistakes of blurring at key points and presenting the audience with laughter.It was called "Shin" during the Meiji and Taisho eras...In addition to pointing out verbally, Tsukkomi may replace it by hitting somewhere on the blurred body with a flat hand, back of hand, props, etc. (dotsuki), or kicking with a foot.Minoru AkitaPaper[Source required]According toEgg shop dragonBut"Soga storyThe beginning of Tsukkomi is the interaction with the substitute taiko drummer when singing.
The division of roles between bokeh and tsukkomi is not always fixed, and some combinations use a development in which bokeh and tsukkomi naturally switch depending on the flow...For example, in response to the joke of the role of bokeh, the role of Tsukkomi "knocks" without tsukkomi, that is, the art of temporarily synchronizing with the bokeh, and after knocking to some extent, inserting the tsukkomi and adding punch lines (Nori Tsukkomi) And so on.For this reason, it is appropriate to think of bokeh and tsukkomi as a conceptualization of interaction rather than a "role."
In the trio manzai (when the role is fixed), the ratio of 2 blurs and 1 tsukkomi is the mainstream.Depending on the division of roles of the material, a small blur that pretends to be (described later) may be classified as a "small blur", and a person who has a large blur that reaches the punch line may be classified as a "large blur".
In addition to the above role, "Muscle pretending"Or"freeOne of the members must play the role of advancing, developing, and converting the composition of the material. "DaijisenThe "Tsukomi" section of "Tsukomi" is defined as "a manzai, a role that mainly advances the story of blurring," and defines that Tsukkomi is responsible for pretending, but there are also combinations in which blur is in charge of pretending. Not a few.
Assuming a combination in which blur and tsukkomi are fixed, there are three possible combinations: a combination in which tsukkomi progresses, a combination in which blur progresses, and a combination in which both blur and tsukkomi progress.
In his own book, Manzai was classified into the following 4 categories and 10 species.. Manzai's tricks and stories have specialized or combined any one of these ten elements.
- Onomaku Manzai
- Popular song
- Storytelling manzai
- Dancing manzai
- Gesture manzai
- Skit manzai
- Those who show disguise.The purpose is not to play a role like Tale, but to invite laughter with the disguise itself.The lining of the kimono is dyed with words such as "Beware of fire" by the Matsuba family and Kiku, and the gag that is shown to the audience at the right time is applicable..
- Talking manzai
- Boyman Mansai
It is a type that has become popular since Heisei, and both the blur and the Tsukkomi can be used as the role set with the costume and standing position as it is, and the manzai who exchanges the blur and Tsukkomi.Comic ManzaiCalled.In many cases, only one of them will be useful, or the same situation will be repeated to create a unique tempo.The feature is that you can put more bokeh than the control, and you can take advantage of the fact that there is no set or disguise.
In some cases, the story of Tale Mansai is diverted as Tale Mansai, and in some cases, the combination that performs Tale plays the story of Tale as Tale Mansai.
Heian periodSince then, dispatched at festivals (Preliminary entertainment) And go around the housesWith gateHurray, which was a performing art of the world, began to be performed as a hut hanging art in the upper part of the first half of the 18th century., The end of the 18th centuryTenmeiPeriod)Ikutama Shrine,Yasaka ShrineA permanent hut has been opened in.Hurray as a hut art is different from the form for dedication in the palace (Goten hurray, hurray Miyanaka), and it is a laughing art by a humorous conversation between two people.OsakaIn the undercard ofLight mouthThere was an overlap with (Karukuchi. Both dialogue and dialogue).
This hurray hut has a light mouth andRakugoObsolete due to the rise ofHowever, at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, Mansai came back to life as a new vaudeville art.this isOwari Mansai,Managawa MikawaIn a format called "Sangyoku Manzai", which was directly influenced byCrossbow-drum-三味 線A large number of hurray masters with three types of musical instrumentsSmall songInteraction,Wordplay,Counting songIn between, the music is lively and lively.Rather than a conversational drama with a single flow, in modern timesOkiriWas similar to..This Sankyoku Mansai almost always ends with the performance and singing of "", which is a combination of "Ainarae".Therefore, the form itself at this time may be called "Ainarae".In addition, Goten Mansai etc.One knee standWhile it was performed in Sankyoku Mansai, it was also called "Standing Mansai" because it was performed while standing.Some of the most popular people in this format are the first and second generation.
In addition, with the Rokyoku master, which was established in the early Meiji eraAcrobatIt is a performance format by a pair of two peopleRompAlso interacted with Mansai and Light Mouth.In this way, the performance format based on "humorous music and shabekuri based on two or more people" will take root in the upper part.
MeijiTerminal stage,Kawachi Ondo-Jiangju OndoWas a comedianEgg shop dragonHowever, it became popular in the form of having a humorous shabekuri between Kabuki songs, which has a stronger musicality than the previous box office Manzai, and in order to emphasize the differentiation from Manzai, "Manzai (manzai)" I used the notation "Zai)"..In response to the popularity of the dragon, many entertainers and comedians turned into genius, and "Women's musicThe musicians such as "" advocated "mansai" without changing the traditional arts.This has created a variety of styles for all talents.The format of this periodShowaTo the combination that I told until the middle termSunagawa Shumaru and Nakamura HaruyoThere is.Including this period, the upper vaudeville performances have been centered on rakugo for a long time, and many of the Manzai masters have the opportunity to appear only in low-priced vaudeville seats, and even in such vaudeville, ondo, rokyoku, etc. He was placed in a position as an adjunct to major programs such as Gidayu.
In Tokyo, from KamigataJapanese bush warbler, Japanese bush warblerIs 1917 (TaishoIn the same year when he played Mansai for the first time in 6 years), Tamagoya Entaro and Tamagoya from Tokyo (later)Kiyomaru Arakawa / Tama guy) Is making its debut.In addition, it is said that it was written as "interaction" instead of "mansai" in the incense board table and the program..
1930 years(Showa5 years), Yoshimoto Kogyo Club (Yoshimoto Kogyo(Predecessor of) belonging combination "Yokoyama Entertainment-Hanabishi AchacoHowever, unlike the traditional Japanese clothes, Mansai-shi and Mansai-shi,SuitThe epoch-making "Shabekuri Mansai" style, which was treated as a "connector" of the songs of Mansai and Mansai for a long time, was established and gained immense popularity...Manzai is characterized by trying to laugh more than Manzai and Manzai so far, and since Entatsu Achako, many combinations have been formed to follow them.Radio broadcastMany star comic masters were born with national recognition as the content of.As the number of venues for presentations increases and expandsMinoru AkitaManzai writers who are full-time professionals have started their activities.Eventually, Manzai became a word that mainly refers to "Shakuri Manzai," and the previous Manzai became a minority, and was called "Otokaku Manzai."Retro NimBecame.
In Tokyo at the same time,Yanagiya KingoroInspired by Entatsu Achako, he had his disciples, Achako Hanabishi and Midori Yanagiya, perform a dialogue in Takaza.Both laterLegal Senda/MankichiIn 1935 (Showa 10), along with about 80 other combinations, "Imperial City Manzai UnionWas established.
Second World WarAfter the end, some of the manzai masters were killed in action, died of illness, unknown whereabouts, and the operation of theaters and productions stopped (for example, Yoshimoto temporarily changed to a movie theater management company). In the shortage of physical and physical resourcesMatsuzuru Family DannosukeThe self-management company "Dannosuke Performing Arts Company" was launched by Minoru Akita, and the young research group "MZ Kenshinkai" was established by Minoru Akita, and other movements were made toward the reconstruction of comics.Eventually, entertainment production and theater management companies revived one after another, and many entertainers belonged to one of them.
Private broadcastingStart ofTV broadcastWith the rise of, many manzai masters in both Kamigata and TokyoTV programShowed off the art through and became a popular star..Also, in 1966 (Showa 41), "Kamikaze Manzai Award”, A series of comic contests were established by broadcasting stations. A nationwide television program "Introducing Young Manzai Masters from East and West," which was started one after another in 1980 (Showa 55).Clash! Mansai Shinkansen』(Kansai TVProduction·Fuji TV series)and"THE MANZAI(Fuji TV series) attracted a lot of attention mainly from young people at that time.Manzai boomIt became a social phenomenon called.Manzai masters who appeared in each program became popular talents, and also acted as moderators, singers, actors, etc. on the front lines.
2001 years(Heisei13 years), was a party to the former "mansai boom"Shimada Shinsuke(OriginalShinsuke Shimada/Ryusuke Matsumoto), A new comic contest "M-1 Grand PrixWas founded.Regardless of professional or amateur, exceptional prize money is set, and the provision of "time limit per story" of "M-1" where the final is broadcast live on the national TV program has changed the style of comics. Being the winner of 1NON STYLE OfAkira Ishida"In our time, we cut off 10 minutes of material for the M-1 by more than half. Or we made it entirely. But today's younger guys have 10 minutes of material if it's a 5 minute turn. It is natural to do two.Tighten the first one with "Moeuewa" and enter the second story "No such thing".If it is 2 minutes, cut waste to 1 minutes It's easy to do, and I think this is entirely an effect of the M-2.".
About changes in names and notations
As mentioned above, the notations of "manzai" and "manzai" were basically used until the early Showa period until the modern name "manzai". In January 1933 (Showa 8), in "Yoshimoto Kogyo Tsushin" published by the advertising department newly established in Yoshimoto Kogyo, the notation in the advertising media of Mansai and Mansai and the signboards of theaters is "ComicIt was declared that the name would be changed, emphasizing the difference from the previous Mansai and Mansai.As of March 1932 (Showa 7), the Yoshimoto Kogyo Department has already announced that "Yoshimoto Kogyo"Partnership companyIn the in-house materials when it was reorganized into "Manzai", the notation "Manzai" is used as a business item..
There are various theories about the background to this notation change and the inventor.
- Yoshimoto Kogyo solicited a public call for the name of "new manzai" by Entatsu Achako (Entatsu Achako himself called it "two-person talk" when it was first formed.). Proposals such as "humorous control", "humor hurray", "modern hurray", and "smiley question and answer" were gatheredTetsuhiko HashimotoHowever, he was not convinced by any of them, and he himself devised the name "Manzai" by changing only the kanji notation...In addition, Hashimoto joined Yoshimoto after the reorganization to Yoshimoto Kogyo, and there is a contradiction with the above materials.
- The godfather of "Manzai" was not Hashimoto, but the general manager of the company at that time.Hayashi MasanosukeThere is also a theory that it is.After Hashimoto left Yoshimoto, Masanosuke said, "I devised it" and "I proposed it to Hashimoto.".
- After the death of the forest,Ryuji SawadaAsked Hashimoto if the godfather of "Manzai" was Hayashi, and Hashimoto replied, "If that person said so, that would be the case." Sawada said, "History belongs to a powerful person. I thought I was informed that it was. "" If you live as long as Mr. Shonosuke Hayashi, there is no one around you to argue with you, so you have done everything yourself, "he said...longYoshimoto New ComedyAlthough he has been in contact with Entatsu Achako in the literary club, he has denied Masayuki's theory..
- Teiji KojimaWhile taking the Hashimoto theory, the reason why the notation of "manzai" spread and became established,1934(9)May 43 days from TokyoShimbashi TheaterIt is used as an advertisement and introductory article for the "Special Manzai Tournament" held in Japan. At that time I was in charge of Tokyo YoshimotoHirotaka HayashiTells Kojima that Hirotaka, a writer who is an entertainment lover,Shin HasegawaHe said that he decided to make a full-scale unification of the notation after holding the same box office..
- ^ a b c Akio Aiba"Introduction to Manzai" (, 1995) p.10 "What kind of art is Manzai?"
- ^ a b c "What is Manzai?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/12/21Browse.
- ^ Walk through the law book - House of Councilors Legal Affairs Bureau
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.11 "Manzai and Tale are different"
- ^ a b "Introduction to Manzai" p.12 "It consists of two roles, blur and tsukkomi."
- ^ "Upper Manzai 1975 Years History" (, 162) p.XNUMX
- ^ "Introduction to Kami Manzai" p.13 "What kind of role is muscle pretending?"
- ^ "Upper Manzai 198 Years History" pp.203-XNUMX "Types of Manzai and Their Essence"
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.38 "Manzai Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.39 "Narrative Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Kami Manzai" p.40 "Kayo Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.41 "Song-playing Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Upper Manzai" p.42 "Dancing Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Upper Manzai" p.43 "Sketch Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Kami Manzai" p.44 "Manzai Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.45 "Disguise Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" p.46 "Interaction Manzai"
- ^ "Introduction to Upper Manzai" p.47 "Boyaki Manzai"
- ^ a b "Kamigata Manzai 111 Years History" pp.117-XNUMX "Hurray, Hurray, Entertain"
- ^ Teiji Kojima"The Manzai Seishi History Revised New Edition" Mainichi Shimbun, 1978 pp.50-53 "Is it going to be edited here?"
- ^ a b "Introduction to Kami Manzai" pp.20-21 "Goten Manzai and Sankyoku Manzai"
- ^ History of Manzai: Long live the transition to performing arts Culture digital library
- ^ "Introduction to Manzai" pp.22-23 "The Age of Manzai"
- ^ "Kamigata Manzai 167 Years History" p.XNUMX
- ^ "Manzai History Revised New Edition" pp.130-133 "Manzai before the Earthquake"
- ^ a b "Introduction to Manzai" pp.24-25 "The Age of Manzai"
- ^ History of Manzai: To the Times with TV Culture digital library
- ^ Non-star Ishida talks about manzai and competition (1) "M-1 has changed the story making"
- ^ Person of Cultural Merit in Reiwa 2nd year Ministry of education
- ^ a b c Ryuji Sawada"History of entertainment and broadcast of laughter" (Japan Broadcast Publishing Association,1994(6)) pp.30-33
- ^ a b c "Manzai History Revised New Edition" pp.112-114 "Unified to" Manzai ""
- ^ a b "Record of Warawashi Corps" (Takashi HayasakaAuthor,Chuko Bunko,2010(22)) pp.90-91
- ^ Takaharu Sawada "Definitive Edition Upper Performing Arts Retsuden" (Chikuma Shobo, 2007) p.235
- List of Manzai Masters
- Japanese comedy history
- Narrative art by multiple people overseas
- crosstalk --Chinese storytelling.Xiangsheng is similar in form to a two-person manzai.
- Harisen # Prehistory