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Rice bowl

Rice bowl(Hango) isキャンプ-ClimbingPortable for outdoor cookingrice cooker-Tableware.JapanThen mainly outdoorsCooked riceUsed for.Cooking rice with a mess tin"Cooking" (Sui-san)(Cuanman also means "cook rice").

Overview

The letter "盒" means a container with a lid.EnglishThen Messtin (meaning Mestin, meal + can).Originally, it was mainly used as a container for soldiers to carry food during field battles and to receive food rations, and was also used as cooking utensils and buckets in an emergency.in JapanFormer Japanese ArmyHas been improved and used for cooking rice during the field war, and has become established for outdoor rice cooking.The material of the main body and lid is generallyAluminumMade.

Speaking of mess tin in Japan, it is mainly Kidney (kidney) Type (or broad bean type), which is a curved and flat shape.Military Mess TinAlso called.The original form is the "Ro-go Mess Tin" equipped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army, and since there was also an officer's version, it has the name "military ceremony" in the sense of "for soldiers".Other shapes are square (for former Japanese military officers,French armyOval ones (etc.)Swedish army)and so on.Cylindrical ones have increased for leisure use in Japan, where camping stoves are used more often than bonfires.

The unique shape of the military mess tinEuropeIn the form seen in military mess tins of each country, the former Japanese Army in Japan,Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceHas been adopted in successive generations.The reason why this shape was adopted is as follows.

  • Belt and backpack (rucksack) This is considered to be the first reason because it is not bulky and stable when it is squeezed and carried (the same shape can be seen in European mess tins and military water bottles in each country, which are not mainly used for cooking). ).
  • When cooking rice at the same time by passing a stick through a vine with a large number of mess tins, the overall width becomes narrowerCan be made smallerfirewoodBecause it is efficient and can save money.
  • Hard to hit evenlyBonfireEven when cooking rice in Japan, the heat is easily circulated by convection, making it easy.RiceBecause it can be cooked.
  • This is because when you carry multiple mess tins with the contents after cooking with one hand, they are uniformly horizontal and stable unlike other shapes.

Japanese mess tins are specialized for cooking rice, and the standard military mess tin is cooked with 4 go of rice, and the main body is engraved with a guideline for the amount of water used for 2 go and 4 go.In addition to the main body, it consists of a lid and a core (inner lid / kakeko), which are also used for weighing tableware and rice (2 cores, 3 lids).In the former Japanese army, the lid part of the mess tin was called "Menko".[1].

The main body has an iron vine so that it can be cooked over a bonfire or held in the hand.There are two types of hangers, one that only rotates and the other that can be slid when carried so that it is not bulky (for officers, SDF mess, and some leisure activities).Some Japanese mess tins were mainly used for "tableware" and "lunch boxes" and had no swords (early officer mess tins, small military nurse mess tins, etc.).

Foldable on the outer lidsteelWith a handle made ofA frying panThere is also a type that can be used as a type (generally used for military purposes in European countries), and for leisure in Japan it is called the Tyrolean type or Swiss type.

In traditional Japanese military mess tins, a belt loop metal fitting is attached to the outside of the main body to allow the belt to pass vertically.It was used to tie it to a backpack with a flat cord or belt, but since it is rarely carried in such a form today, there are many products in which this metal fitting is omitted in recent years.It is also possible to hook an L-shaped metal fitting on this belt loop and use it as a removable handle.

History

Mess tin seems to have originated in Europe, but its history is short.Various metals such asproportionThis is because it was not suitable for carrying because of its height, and it was not realistic to carry cooking utensils.1886ToaluminumWith the possibility of mass production, outdoor cooking utensils that are supposed to be carried have become realistic.19st centuryFrom the end to the current Swiss styleGermanyWas used in.Also,1931You can find the same design as the current German military uniform (but with a handle to use the lid as a frying pan).Also,"Western Front No abnormalitiesYou can see the protagonists being used to receive meals.

The following mainly describes Japanese Mess tin.

in JapanMeiji RestorationAfter,Yoshiki TokugawaIt seems that it was introduced together with the Western-style military because there is a record that he enjoyed cooking rice with a mess tin at home.Hyoshoku before the introduction of Mess tinPorridge,Grilled misoCarrySengoku periodIt was almost the same as.The former Japanese Army adopted Mess TinSino-Japanese warIt is said to be around that time.However, the mess tin at that timeLacquered,EnamelIt only functioned as tableware.Mess tin with cooking function like today is adopted1890It is said that it was manufactured by the Army Artillery Factory (Meiji 23).This became a Western-style design, and it was devised to cook more rice.

In peacetime military life, eat meals cooked in the kitchenCafeteriaEat at the restaurant and use the menu as riceMiso Soup-picklesIt was not much different from a home like this.Cooking rice with a mess tin has a risk of exposing the placement and power of troops to the enemy due to the number of smoke and kamado, and it was limited to field battles and inevitable cases.Field lunch on the battlefieldbattalionBasically, meals cooked with the field cooker in the rear were distributed to each subordinate unit, and each soldier received the distributed food in a mess tin.Also, as a portable foodrice ballEtc. were sometimes distributed.Only when such replenishment was not available was the rice cooked on the front line with a mess tin.

Since that time, military mess tins are usually cooked in 4 go, and the capacity is larger than that of military mess tins in European countries.This is because the Japanese soldiers at that time were able to cook two meals at a time, as it was standard for Japanese soldiers to cook only rice without meat.Today, many leisure-use mess tins are cooked in 1 go, which is a remnant of that.The military mess tins from the Meiji period to the early Showa period were slightly smaller than those of today.afterwardsPacific War(Great East Asian War) Until the end, the one with almost the same shape as today's leisure military mess tin, which is mainly called the Ro-go mess tin, was adopted.

There were two types of Mess tin, one was a group cooking with multiple soldiers and the other was an individual cooking with each soldier.In the case of group cooking, multiple mess tins were used as a set, some rice was cooked, and the rest was used to cook side dishes.In each individual rice cooker, when rice was cooked, a side dish was put in the inner lid and cooked at the same time as the rice was cooked.It is inevitable that the side dishes cannot be cooked in each individual cooker and it becomes unpleasant, so the Army's cooking manual "Army cooking method”, It is instructed to avoid cooking rice and side dishes at the same time with one mess tin unless it is unavoidable, and to cook with multiple mess tins as much as possible.When soldiers carry food, they usually put it in a cloth bag and put it in their backpack, but in some cases, they carry raw rice in a mess tin.

1932(Showa 7 = Imperial Year 2592Year) was adoptedType XNUMX mess tinAt first glance, the (commonly known as "double mess tin") looks like a soldier-style mess tin, but it has a unique double structure.It is a nesting type of inner and outer boxes, and if you use both, you can cook up to 2 go of rice at a time, or you can cook 8 go of rice and miso soup at the same time.Until then, it was necessary to cook at least two times to cook 4 meals and 4 gos a day with the 1 go cooked mess, but with the 3 type mess tin, it is now possible to cook at once.However, due to its drawbacks such as complicated structure and complexity compared to general military mess tins, it was soon replaced by the aforementioned B-go mess tin.

At the end of the Pacific War1944In (Showa 19), the inner lid was omitted from the mess tin due to the shortage of metals and the simplification of the production process.castingIt came to be made in.

After the end of the war, it seems that the mess tins brought back by the demobilized soldiers were used in daily life due to lack of supplies.

Current usage status

For military use, Mess tin is still in EuropeロシアIt is used in military equipment in each country.But the need for firewoodRationDue to the evolution ofU.S. ForcesNow, a plate, knife, and fork that will become a frying pan with a handleKochel Of(English editionThe mess tin was removed from.After the war, the Ground Self-Defense Force used a mess tin with the same structure as the Ro-go mess tin (later called type 1), but it was mostly used as tableware without being used for cooking rice.Nowadays, giving priority to convenience as tableware, it has been changed to what is called "battle mess tin type 2", which is low in height and has a small capacity (2 go can be cooked).A plastic bag may be placed on the main body or lid of the mess tin and the meal may be served on top of it. In that case, only the plastic bag needs to be discarded after eating, which saves the trouble of cleaning.

In addition, cooking stoves have become widespread in mountaineering, and bonfires are rarely performed during mountaineering, the shape of the military mess tin is not suitable for use in stoves, and it is easy to use and has good storage efficiency (Kochel). It became popular, Retort food,freeze dryDue to the development of food, it is almost no longer used.In addition, demand is diversifying with the introduction of rice cooking pots called rice cookers for camping.However, even in modern times, camps and elementary and junior high schoolsForest schoolIn such cases, Mess tin is a standard event.In addition to cooking rice, the unique shape of the military-style mess tin is that of curry and rice.retortWarm the pack or shape it into a squareInstant noodleSuitable for cooking (especially 2 servings).Because there is depthpasta,Raw noodlesAlso suitable for boiling noodles such as.Demand for Mess tin, including its unique design and atmosphere, is still considerable, and it is still sold at home improvement stores and outdoor equipment stores.

In addition, since general mess tins and rice cookers have a large capacity and are not suitable for single lines, they are originally "tableware with handles".TrangiaThe square-shaped Mestin made by the company is sometimes used as a mess tin for one person in Japan.However, this is a unique usage in Japan and is rarely used for cooking in foreign countries except in a water bath.

In addition, although it deviates greatly from the original purpose of use, there are cases where a military mess tin is used as a sewing tool holder.

How to cook rice and cook outdoors

The method of "putting sharpened rice and water, putting the lid on without putting the inner lid, and putting it on the fire" is written for beginners, but in fact, this inner pig is both a measuring cup and a tableware. It is also a convenient rice cooker that can heat and steam food with one cooking such as soup, and it is also a convenient rice cooker that can cook plump rice by applying medium pressure even in high and lowland camps.It is difficult to deform the shape of aluminum when it is used on high heat or open flame in camping, and it also has an important role to prevent accidents such as the lid not being removed due to the blowout that often occurs when cooking rice.It also has the important purpose of extending the life of the mess tin itself by reinforcing the mess tin and maintaining the overall shape of the mess tin made of relatively soft aluminum when moving.

  • When burning two or more at a time, dig a shallow ditch in the ground to put fuel, pierce the branches of a Y-shaped tree at both ends, and stick to the strings of multiple mess tins (usually even tree branches). It doesn't matter, but if you want to hang a lot of mess tins at once, a metal rod is preferable) and hang it on the Y-shaped support.
  • If you want to cook with just onetripodIt is convenient to make it into a shape. About 2mwirePrepare, bundle one end of a straight tree branch of approximately the same length, open the other like a tripod, and stand on the ground.Hang the rest of the wire down and hang it through the string of the mess tin, and wrap the rest around the wire to stop it.You can freely adjust the height and position of the mess tin by widening or narrowing the tripod.

Place a tree branch or stick on the lid, and when the vibration disappears, cook it.Turn the mess tin upside down and steam it for a few minutes before eating.There is not much difference in the finished product without turning it upside down, but it will be easier to remove later because the charred inside will be steamed.If you wipe the bottom surface with grass while turning it upside down, it will be easier to wash it later.

To prevent steam from escaping, a heavy stone may be placed on the lid to prevent problems such as a large amount of spills.When cooking in the highlands(I.e.Because ofBoiling pointThe temperature does not rise as much as when cooking in the lowlands, and it may not be possible to cook well, so add a medium pig to increase the pressure.

In addition, it was dissolved in water before it was put on fire.baking sodaIf you apply mud dissolved in water to the outside of the mess tin, it will adhere to the area around the mess tin when it is cooked.Is easy to drop.This is a tool to use over fire (pot,KettleIt is a method that can be used in common with).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ National Diet Library Reference joint database http://crd.ndl.go.jp/reference/modules/d3ndlcrdentry/index.php?page=ref_view&id=1000030475

References

  • "Imperial Army Battlefield Clothing, Food and Housing: The Whole Picture of the" Unknown Army "Understanding Food," Gakken, 2002,ISBN 4056029199.

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