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🥾 | Mt. Fuji ・ "Mountain Railway" concept Even in Yamanashi, there are pros and cons ...


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Mt. Fuji / "Mountain Railway" concept Yamanashi has its pros and cons ...

 
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The direction of wanting to connect Mt. Fuji, a World Heritage Site, to future generations as a "valuable mountain" is the same.
 

Mt. Fuji and mountain railways that have been floating and disappearing many times in the past.Yamanashi Prefecture, which came here and made a promise to realize it ... → Continue reading

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Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji(Mt.Fuji,English: Mount Fuji) IsShizuoka(Fujinomiya city,Susono City,Fuji city,Gotemba,Sunto-gunOyama Town)When,Yamanashi(Fujiyoshida,Minamitsuru-gunNarusawa Village)active volcanoIs[Annotation 2].elevation3776.12 m,Japan's highest peak(Kengamine[Annotation 3] OfIndependence peakAnd that graceful appearance even outside JapanJapan OfSymbolIs widely known as. It is a subject of many works of art and has a great social impact not only on the artistic side, but also on the geological aspects such as climate and strata. It is composed of a basaltic stratified volcano with a suspension curve and its mountain body isSuruga BayExtends to the coast.

Since ancient timesSacred peakAnd especially at the summitAsama OkamiWas considered sacred because he was supposed to be seated there. To calm the eruptionRitsuryoku NationByAsama ShrineIs enshrined,Asama faithWas established. It is also the founder of Mt. Fuji ShugendoFuji superiorAs a result, it became recognized as a sacred place of Shugendo, and worship began. theseFuji faithDiversified with the times,Murayama Shuken,Fuji lectureTo form a school such as. Currently, there are many tourist attractions around the foot of Mt. Fuji, and during the summer seasonFuji mountain climbingIs thriving.

Three famous mountains in Japan(Three sacred mountains),Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)[4],Top XNUMX geological features in JapanHas been selected. Also,1936(Showa 11)Fuji Hakone Izu National ParkIs specified in[Annotation 4]. afterwards,1952(Showa 27)Special scenic spot,2011(23)Historic site,further2013(25)May 6Together with related cultural propertiesMt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of artIn the name ofworld Cultural HeritageRegistered in[6].

Name

Etymology

The oldest record about Mt. Fuji is "Hitachi Country Culture] InMt. FukujiIt is said that it is a word. There are many other names,FujiyamaOrInexhaustible mountain[Annotation 5]There is also an old document written as. Also,"Taketori storyThere is also a legend in[Annotation 6].. Represents a long mountain slope called "Fuji"Yamato languageThere is also a theory that it was called Mt. Fuji after that. As the etymology after modern times,MissionaryBachelorMeans the name "fire-breathing mountain"AinuHe presented the theory that it was derived from "Funchinupuri". However, this represents the fire deity god enshrined in the hearth.Ape Fuchi KamuiThere is a counterargument that it is a misunderstanding that came from[Annotation 7].. As another etymology,MalayTheory,Maori languageTheory[8],Original polynesianThere is a theory.

Explicitly"Mount FujiIn the processSuruga countryThere is something that is said to be derived from[9], As a recordYoshika ToruIn "Mount Fuji"The name of the mountain is named Fuji."a.

Named after Mt. Fuji

Since Mt. Fuji is a famous peak of Japan, "Fuji" is attached to various parts of Japan.Place nameThere are many. Shizuoka Prefecture at the foot of Mt. FujiFuji city,Fujinomiya city,Fuji-gunIn Yamanashi PrefectureFujiyoshida,Fujikawaguchiko Town,Fujikawa TownThere is. Another place where you can see Mt. FujiFujimiOr (for example:SaitamaFujimi), a mountain similar to Mt. Fuji (mainlyStratovolcano)) with the name "Fuji" (Shinano Fujiand so on.Japanese immigrated outside JapanIn some cases, the mountains near the place of residence are sometimes called "○○ Fuji".

There are at least 321 mountains, including other names, throughout Japan, and there are mountains with the name "Fuji".Local FujiCall.

In addition to the place name, there are many names bearing "Fuji."

Also known as "Furong Peak" and "Futake" as synonyms.

Mount Fuji altitude

Mt. Fuji is often seen as an independent peak, and since it is the highest peak in Japan, its height has been noted for a long time.

Altitude measurement history

The following is the process of measuring the altitude of Mt. Fuji from the Edo period.[10].

The height of Mt. Fuji measured by the early Meiji era

TimeMeasurement yearMeasurerMeasuring method or instrumentResult (m)Remarks
Edo Period1727Fukudatrigonometry3 895.1
1803Tadataka Inotrigonometry3 927.7
1826SieboldExtant3 793Sexent: sextant
1834Kyō UchidaQuadrant, cylinder3 475.7
1860Orcockbarometer4 322*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
1860Fagan3 987
1860Williambarometer3 266*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
1860Ruby3 518
1860Knippingbarometer3 729
Meiji Era1874StewartOmni meter3 769
1874Fenton3 772
1874Fabre Brunton3 768
1880Seiki Nakamura, Yuji Wadabarometer3 823Menden Hall, Tanakakan Ai Tachibana and others carried out at the same time as the measurement of the summit gravity of Mt. Fuji
1880Takeshi NojiriRecalculation above3 812Different temperature compensation
1880チ ャ ッ プ リ ンTriangulation3 787.2
1880ラ イ ン3 745.5
1880Shut3 766.4
1880Milne3 882.3
1887Chief of StaffTriangulation and flat survey3 778

Eiichi Hakoiwa (2003): “Geological News” pp.23-30, October 2003.

* Hiromichi Suzuki (1998): "Height of Mountains", September 1998

Latest elevation

There are two references to elevation:

Triangle point elevation (3775.51 m)

It is often quoted as the altitude of mountains. Near the highest point of the main mountainTriangular pointIs installed and its altitude is measured accurately (in centimeters). However, the triangular point is not always installed at the highest point of the mountain because the triangular point is installed with an emphasis on the visibility with the nearby mountains and the stability of the installation position.[11].

On Mount Fuji,KengamineIt is inSecond-order triangular pointThe height of "Mt. Fuji"3775.51 mIs. The number before the elevation revision on April 2014, 4 was 1m.[12].

Highest altitude of the mountain (3776.12 m)

Since the height of the triangular point is not always the highest altitude of the mountain, the highest altitude value may be measured separately. For example,Geographical Survey InstitutePublishes about 1003 major Japanese mountains as "Japan's major mountain elevations"[13]..Since the highest altitude point is not necessarily the altitude of a triangulation point such as the height of a rock body, the mountain altitude is displayed in units of 1 meter.According to the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan's "Major Mountain Elevations in Japan", the height of Mt. Fuji is 3776 m, and its position is 35 degrees 21 minutes 39 seconds 138 degrees 43 minutes 39 seconds.

The highest point of Mt. Fuji isKengamineIt is a rock about 12 m north of the location of Mt. Fuji at the second triangle, and the relative height to the second triangle is 0.61 m. Therefore, the elevation of this rock is3776.12 mAnd this is the highest altitude of Mt. Fuji[14][Annotation 8][15][16].

Altitude of other mountains

  • Yushan(Taiwan)-In the Japanese colonial eraShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan.Altitude 3,952m.
  • Snow mountain(Taiwan) -During the Japanese colonial eraNext TakayamaIt was called and was the second highest mountain in Japan.Altitude 2m.
  • Mt. Kitadake --The second highest mountain in Japan.Altitude 2m.
  • Mt. Ontake --The second highest volcano in Japan.Altitude 2m.
  • Hiyoriyama (Sendai City) --The lowest mountain in Japan.Altitude 3m.
  • Everest --The highest peak in the world.Altitude 8,844m.

Geologically Mount Fuji

GeologyMt. Fuji above is typicalStratovolcanoIt has a beautiful mountain body peculiar to this kind of volcano.The current body of Mt. Fuji is thought to have been formed by the following four stages of volcanic activity.

  • Sengotake volcano
  • Komitake Volcano
  • Kofuji Volcano
  • Shin Fuji Volcano

Among them, Sakikomitake is the oldest, and it was several hundred thousand years ago.PleistoceneI was able toVolcano.Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo 2004Went in Aprilボ ー リ ン グResearch has revealed that there are older mountains beneath Komitake.AndesiteThis fourth mountain body, which is mainly composed of[17].

Kofuji continued to erupt from about 8 years ago to about 1 years ago and erupted.Volcanic ashIt has grown to an altitude of less than 3,000m. The summitHoei craterIt is believed to have been 1–2 km north of.

In June 2009,GPSIn the observation of Mt. Fuji byCrustal movementWas confirmed. This is the first time since the observation started in April 1996. Due to this crustal movement, a maximum change of 4 cm appeared, and the distance between Fujinomiya and Fujiyoshida increased by about 2 cm. this ismagmaHas been accumulated (which is an active volcano)[18].

plateFrom the perspective ofEurasia plateAt the outer edge,North American plateOrOkhotsk plateContact withFossa Magna(Just westItoigawa Shizuoka Structural Line) To the southPhilippine Sea PlateIs the position where theSagami TroughSuruga Troughas well as the Izu, Ogasawara, Mariana Island ArcIs an intersection point that extends to the land), and the boundary area of ​​the three plates ((English edition). Underneath the Philippine Sea Plate subducting below Mt. FujiPacific plateIs sinking, and of Mt. FujimagmaIs in eastern JapanIsland arc volcanoIs derived from the Pacific plate as well as[19][20].. The characteristic of Mt. Fuji on the volcano is that there are many side volcanoes.[21]Most of Japan's volcanoesAndesitemagmaWhile many are gushing[21]Mt. FujibasaltSpewing a lot of magma[21]There is.

Mount Fuji
On the summitcraterThere is a (bowl) and this is called "Ouchiin". Eight peaks located to surround thisYagami PeakCall. The highest point on the southwest side of the craterKengamineThere isSecond-order triangular point(The point name is Mt. Fuji. Altitude 3775.51m Revised April 2014, 4[2]), the second triangular point on the north side of the crater (point name is Fuji Hakusan. Altitude 3756.23m (April 2014, 4 revision) has been installed. The structure of the crater isGeographical Survey InstituteAccording to the data, the altitude of the deepest part is 3538.7 m, the depth of the crater is about 237 m, the diameter of the summit crater is 780 m, and the diameter of the crater bottom is 130 m.[22].
Above the 8th station, excluding the trail, is in Fujinomiya City.Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaAlthough it is a private land ofPrefectural borderAnd the boundaries of municipalities are undetermined. At the press conference after the Mount Fuji World Cultural Heritage Council in January 2014,Heita KawakatsuAnd the governor of Yamanashi PrefectureMasaaki YokouchiDeclares that the prefectural border is not set[23].Geographical Survey InstituteIs published on the InternetTopographic mapThen, from October 2013, when a point on the map is specified, the function to display the address, latitude/longitude, and altitude has been added, but if the position is unconfirmed, the nearby confirmed address is displayed. Since it is set to be displayed, it is pointed out by Yamanashi Prefecture etc. that if you specify the summit of Mt. Fuji (Kengamine), it will be displayed as Fujinomiya city in Shizuoka prefecture. Was changed to[24][25].
Hoeizan
Hoeizan(Hoeizan) isHoei4 years(1707)ofHoei Great EruptionIt is a side volcano (parasitic volcano) born in. Located on the southeastern slope of Mt. Fuji, the altitude is 2,693 m. A huge crater opens to the west of Hoeizan. There is also a mountaineering course where you can see these things up close.

Source river

The following sourcesRiverIs divided into 4 water systems, allThe Pacific OceanFlows to.

Mount Fuji and volcanic activity

Mt. Fuji eruption

Last glacial periodAbout 1 years before the end of the eruption, an eruption began on the west side of the mountaintop of Kofuji,溶岩Was ejected in large quantities.This lava formed Shin-Fuji, the current mountain body of Mt. Fuji.After that, it seems that the summit of Kofuji was on the east side of the summit of Shin-Fuji, but about 2,500–2,800 years ago.weatheringThe large summit of the old Fuji that has advancedMountain collapse("Gotemba rock avalanche") caused and collapsed.

It is believed that lava erupted from the summit of Shin-Fuji for 1 years, about 1 years ago – about 8,000 years ago, and 3,000 years, about 4,500 years ago – about 3,200 years ago.The last explosive eruption from the summit was 1,300 years ago[26], After this, there is no eruption from the summit, but Nagaoyama andHoeizanEruptions from the volcanoes on the side and the like occur sporadically.

Postponement19 years-21st year of the calendar (800 - 802) To Enryaku eruption (“Japanese later"In summary, "Mt. Fuji burned by itself, the light of the fire shined at night, the thunder ash fell, and the river water beneath the mountain turned red."Virtue6 years(864)Aoki gaharaSpewing lavaJogan large eruptionHappened. The last time Mt. Fuji eruptedHoei4 years(1707)ofHoei Great EruptionAnd the smoke isstratosphereReachEdoThen about 4 cmVolcanic ashWas piled up. Mt. Hoei was formed on the body of Mt. Fuji by the eruption of Hoei. Then volcanicEarthquakeAnd fumaroles have been observed, and the possibility of eruption remains in the future.

eruptionThe oldest record that the age ofJapanese sequel],Ten ONew Year (781It was a mountain where there was ash fall from Mt. Established in the early Heian periodTaketori story] Also has a description that suggests that Mt. Fuji was in an active period when the work was established. History books from the Heian period "Japan's third generation]Jogan large eruptionThe situation of is described in a powerful style, "Sarashina diary], there is a depiction of Mt. Fuji's fumarolic and ephemeral phenomena.

Hoei Great EruptionThe record aboutArai Shiroishiby"Folding shiba no ki] And many other documents, pictures, etc.
After that, although many records of volcanic smoke and rumbling are left, from the description, it is surmised that it was a short-term and small-scale activity.

Mt. Fuji has not been erupted for 300 years since the Hoei Great Eruption.dormant volcanoWas taught. However, as mentioned earlier, Mt.Fuji is still observing active activities.Japanese Meteorological AgencyAbolished the classification of dormant volcano,active volcanoIt is divided into.

August 2013, 7,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIs a collection of exploration data and geological survey data for about 1999 years from 15 at Fuji VolcanoGeological mapAnnounced as the second edition (Ver.2)[27], Modifications ended in 2016[26].. At the same time, it claims that there were at least 2000 eruptions of lava flow in the last 43 years.

Occurrence of mountain collapse

Due to earthquake and eruption activityMountain collapse(Debris (gansetsu avalanche)) is said to have occurred 5 times, including 3 times in the southwest, 4 times in the northeast, and 12 times in the east, including those with an unclear age.[28].. In addition, it is suggested that it exists directly belowActive faultBy the activity ofmagnitudeThere is also concern about collapse due to a 7-class earthquake.

Main occurrence history

Disaster countermeasures

  • Volcanic eruption prediction liaison meeting -Though not limited to Mt. Fuji, study volcanic activity in Japan. We will give an opinion depending on the situation, but we will not announce the date and time of the eruption. Regular meetings are held three times a year, but are held at any time during an eruption. When the number of low-frequency earthquakes on Mt. Fuji increased in October 3, a working group was established to intensively examine the collection and arrangement of basic data on Mt. Fuji, examination of the monitoring system, and volcanic information transmission methods.
  • Cabinet OfficeWebsite "Mt. Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures[33]Fuji,"Hazard mapInformation such as the Review Committee is provided.
  • Fuji direct control erosion control project- Osawa collapseGenerated from a large-scaleEarth and stone flowFrom now on, we are implementing a sabo project to protect downstream conservation targets.
  • Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures have created an "evacuation route map for Mt. Fuji eruption"[34][35].
  • Shizuoka City MayorNobuhiro TanabeIn a regular press conference on January 2016, 1, the city fire aviation team dropped a climber who slipped on Mt.Fuji from a helicopter during rescue in 22, and as a preventive measure against recurrence, this climber died Clarified that the city fire department has set an upper limit of 2013 meters to the height of a mountain that can be rescued by a helicopter[36].

Observation of crustal movements

Government agency (Disaster Prevention Research Institute, JMA,Geographical Survey Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) and local governments (Yamanashi Prefecture Fuji Scientific Research Institute) And university (Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo) Etc. have been observed.

  • Geographical Survey Institute:GeomagnetismObservation point[37]Is installed at Kanoyama Geodetic Observatory, Mizusawa Geodetic Observatory and Esashi Observatory. Also, at the summitGPSElectronic reference point.
  • JMA Observatory[38]: Seismometer (mountain, Gotembaguchi 8th station, Yoshidaguchi 6th station, Narusawa Hiruzuka Higashi, Tarobou), inclinometer (Tarobou), aerial vibration meter (Tarobou, Uide), GSP (Tarobou), telephoto camera (Hagiwara)
  • Disaster Prevention Research Institute[39]: VIsualization system for Volcanic Activity

Measures against eruption disasters

Mt. Fuji and the weather

climate

Even in August, the warmest month, the summit has an average temperature of only 8°C.[42],Köppen climate classificationIf the average temperature of the warmest month is above 0℃ and below 10℃Tundra climateare categorized. Due to the Pacific climate, January and February are dry, with March, April, May, and June accounting for the top 1 deepest snowfalls. The lowest temperature in the history of observation was -2°C, which was observed on February 3, 4, and it was observed several times in the past even when the maximum temperature was less than -5°C. There is no one day in Hokkaido where the temperature does not exceed -6℃.[43].

Mt. Fuji climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F−1.7
(28.9)
0.0
(32)
1.0
(33.8)
4.7
(40.5)
12.2
(54)
12.3
(54.1)
17.4
(63.3)
17.8
(64)
16.3
(61.3)
10.4
(50.7)
6.9
(44.4)
3.6
(38.5)
17.8
(64)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F−15.4
(4.3)
−14.7
(5.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.6
(38.5)
7.5
(45.5)
9.3
(48.7)
6.1
(43)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−12.2
(10)
−3.4
(25.9)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F−18.4
(-1.1)
−17.8
(0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−8.7
(16.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.1
(34)
4.9
(40.8)
6.2
(43.2)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.8
(27)
−9.2
(15.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F−21.7
(-7.1)
−21.5
(-6.7)
−17.8
(0)
−12.1
(10.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.4
(36.3)
3.6
(38.5)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−12.2
(10)
−18.3
(-0.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−37.3
(-35.1)
−38
(-36)
−33.9
(-29)
−27.8
(-18)
−18.9
(-2)
−13.1
(8.4)
−6.9
(19.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−19.5
(-3.1)
−28.1
(-18.6)
−33
(-27)
−38
(-36)
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[44][45] Average temperature (1981-2010) High and low temperature records (July 1932-7)
Changes in average temperature[Annotation 9]
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[46]

Meteorological observation at Mt. Fuji

Once meteorological agencyTokyo District Meteorological ObservatoryMt. Fuji was the meteorological office that was installed at Mt. CurrentlyMount Fuji Special Area Meteorological ObservatoryThe weather observation is performed by the automatic weather observation device.

Meteorological phenomenon

  • When strong winds blow on the mountain body, the sand is rolled up and may fall to nearby municipalities. On December 2010, 12, it was reported that black sand was piled up from the western part to the southern part of Kanagawa prefecture, and the sand of Mt.[47].
  • Mt. Fuji's "first snowfall"Kofu Local Meteorological ObservatoryHas been observed and announced. Separately from this, the Mt. Fuji section of Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, at the northern foot of Mt. doing[48].
  • In some parts of the northern foot of Mt. Fuji (currently Fujiyoshida City in Yamanashi Prefecture, etc.), farm birds appearing near the altitude of Mt.Remaining snowAccording to the time when) appears, there is a legend to judge the good harvest or bad harvest of agricultural products.[49].
  • At Mt. FujiMountain waveMay occur, and an aircraft crash has occurred (British overseas aircraft aerial disassembly accidentSuch).

Natural environment at the foot of Mt. Fuji

At the foot of Mt. FujiNatural treasureAs for "Mt. Fuji primeval forest andAokigahara"(Natural treasure : 1926Designated on February 2, added and renamed on March 24, 2010, "Fuji-fuana" (natural monument:1929December 12 designated) etc.

Underground water

Rain and snow on Mt. Fuji have taken many yearsUnderground waterAsgroundwaterIt flows through the pulse. An example that is confirmed as spring water that springs from the highest point is at an altitude of 1670 m (near the second station of Fujinomiya Exit), and the other foothills are distributed in strips. The total amount of spring water at the foot of Mt. Fuji in 1968 was more than 1 million cubic meters per day. However, in recent years there is an example in which a decrease in the amount of discharge has been confirmed.[50].

RegionName
Southeast footKakita River(Japan's three major streams),Obama pond
South footYoshiwara springs
XiluYudama Pond(Special Natural Monument),Shiraito Falls(Specified by countryScenic spotas well as the Natural treasure), Inokashira springs
North footOshino Hachiumi(National natural monument)

Also, in someSuruga Bay,Fuji Five Lakes OfWest LakeIt is said that there is a spring at a water depth of around 25 m.[50].

Utilizing the underground water from Mt. Fuji, industries such as paper manufacturing and pharmaceutical-related manufacturing are actively carried out in the surrounding area. Also, the underground water of Mt. FujivanadiumBecause it contains abundantMineral waterAsPET bottlesIt is packed and sold.

Lava cave

More than 100 large and small around the foot of Mt. FujiLava caveA cave is formed.

Among them, the total length of 2139 m, Mitsuike hole (Fujinomiya city, Shizuoka prefecture) is the longest lava cave in Japan. Also, as the largest lava cave around the foot of the mountainWest Lake Bat Hole(Fujikawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture), and is designated as a national natural monument. Other,Narusawa Ice Cave(Naruzawa Village, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture) is also designated as a national natural monument.

Vegetation

Mt. Fuji has a high altitude, but compared to other high mountains in JapanAlpine plantPoor vegetation such as. This is because of the large-scale repeated eruptions from the summit of Mt. Fuji after the end of the last glacial period.EcosystemIt was because the mountain was destroyed and it was an independent peak, so the invasion of plants from other mountains was delayed. However, some alpine plants can be seen around Hoeiyama. At the top of the mountainPolygonaceaeOn Polygonum OfOntade(Gyotaya), on the hillsideAsteraceaeThistle OfFuji thistle(Fujinagi) grows naturally[51].. Above the forest limits of the high mountains of the central mountain rangeHimatsuIt is customary for the belt to spread, but there is no Himatsu belt on Mt.LarchThe forest is wide.

History of human relationships

Ancient times

Ancient timesMt. Fuji has become a subject of mountain worship, and it has come to be said that Mt. Fuji is regarded as a sacred mountain and also as an object of worship. Because it is a "sacred place"Meiji EraUntilFemale ProhibitionDue to the tradition of women, mountain climbing has long been prohibited. Especially with Asama Okami, who is considered as a spirit of Mount FujiKonohananosakubimeIs the main deityAsama ShrineAndSensetsushaAre scattered all over the country. At the foot of the main shrine of Asama ShrineFujinomiya cityIt is inMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt is (Asama Shrine), and the god of Mt. Fuji is worshiped at "Hongu" in the city of Fujinomiya and "Okumiya" at the top of Mt. Fuji. From this history, Mt. Fujiworld HeritageAlso registered inworld Natural Heritage SiteWorld Cultural Heritage (Mt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of art) Was as.

In ancient times, the idea that Mt. Fuji belonged to Suruga was universal. These are "The Takamine of Fuji, which is a high and noble river" (Akato Yamabe's "Manyoshu") and "Mt. Fuji is in the country of Suruga." "Mt. Fuji is the mountain of the country of Suruga (omitted). It is widely seen as "Aru" (Toroka, "Mount Fuji"), "Naruyama Narumu in Suruga no Kuni" ("Taketori Monogatari"). However, it is written with a shared view that it is a mountain that straddles the two countries of Suruga and Kai, such as "Surugawa no Kuni to Kochigochino" ("Takashi Mashi Maro" and "Manyoshu"). There are also valuable examples.

Later times,Jesuits OfJoan RodriguezSaid in his book "History of the Church of Japan" that "Mt. Fuji belongs to Suruga Kuni," it is probable that the relationship of "Surukawa Kuni" was maintained.

The mountain trail originated from the mountain trail opened by Suetsudai, and it is said that the first mountain trail was completed.MurayamaguchiIs. ThisFuji ShukenIs said to have been established. Other mountain trails are gradually being excavated, and Omiya/Murayamaguchi, Suyamaguchi, and Subashiriguchi exist.

God Buddha practiceMt. Fuji was no exception. The summit has come to be considered the world of Buddha and has a special meaning.[52].. As a precedentMasaka3 years(1259) Is said to be an old wooden sitting image, which was the former principal image of Dainichido (Murayama). A book from the Kamakura period "Azuma mirrorThe names of "Fuji Daibosatsu" and "Asama Daibosatsu" have been confirmed in ". Eight mines at the top of Mt. Fuji (Yagami Peak) Is called "Yaha", which is also associated with the Shinto-Butsu tradition.BuneiIn the year (1264-1275), "Manyo-shu's commentary" says, "There is a ridge of Yachiha." The description of "Yaha" can be confirmed in many other books.

Edo Period

In the Edo period, under the patronage of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Edo Shogunate contributed more than the 18th station based on the fact that he gained priority in the construction of the main shrine, etc. The area above the seam is the precinct of Asama Taisha Shrine, except for the trail and Mt. Fuji weather station. Along with the popularization of mountain climbing, a group such as Murayama Shugen and Fuji Ko was formed, and the faith of Fuji was developed. Since the late 18th century when the rise of Fuji-ko was seen, it was considered that the use of Yoshidaguchi had become conspicuous because it could not be developed as a new religion on the old mountain trails. It was said that it was about the same as the sum total of the trailheads[52].

People visiting Fuji are called "guides," for example, "MyohojiIn the record of 9 (1500)GuideInfinite counselors, everyone to Kanto Ran Niyori SubashiriGuide"Tsukeya". In addition, the guides/leaders in mountain climbing are called "predecessors", and it has been confirmed that the names of the predecessors can be seen ("Koubun Fuji's document" and "Eiroku 6 years" in the text).

After the Meiji era

KeioIn 4 years (1868)Divine and Buddhist separation orderWhen is issued, the form of these Shinto and Buddhist practices will be greatly disrupted. Demolition of Buddha statues in Mt. Fuji and Murayama progressed[53].Mount Fuji Koboji TempleIs separated, Dainichido isHuman holeBecomes Sengen ShrineGongenThe company has undergone modifications such as being abolished.Kitaguchi Motomiya Fuji Asama ShrineThen Niomon and Gomado will be demolished.[52].. The Buddhist name has also been changed, and the name of "Yaha" has also been changed. In 1883 (Meiji 16), Gotembaguchi mountain trail,1906Shin-Omiyaguchi was excavated in (Meiji 39).

Mt. Fuji was designated as a "historic site", which is a nationally designated cultural property on February 23, 2011. Mt. Fuji as a historic site is composed of multiple assets and is included as "Historic site Mt. Fuji". The designated range is Fujinomiya City, Susono City and Oyama Town in Sunto District in Shizuoka Prefecture, Fujiyoshida City in Yamanashi Prefecture, and Fuji Kawaguchiko Town and Narusawa Village in Minamitsuru District.[54].. At this time, the mountaintops of Mt. After that, a part of the Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha Shrine's company land, the human hole Fuji Ko ruins, and each trail were designated[55].

Mountain climbing history

There are many legendary parts in the tradition of climbing Mt. Fuji, and there are various theories.

Mt. Fuji's climbing history
Japanese CalendarADMessageSupplemental
Emperor Suiko6598Heian period OfKai's Black PieceIn tradition,Prince ShotokuThere is a description that says that he rode a Shinba and crossed Mt. Fuji.White among hundreds donated by various countriesWorthAfter seeing Kurokoma as a Shinma horse, and when the Prince went on a test ride in September of the same year, the horse jumped high in the sky and went to the eastern country, crossing Mt. Fuji.Shinano countryIt is said that he returned to the city after 3 days.
Emperor Tenchi2663Small angleWas exiledizu-OshimaThere is a legend that he secretly escaped every night and climbed Mt. Fuji.The role of Kokaku is also known as "the founder of Mt. Fuji. The climbing of this role, Ogaku, was published in Marcel Kurtz's Chronicle of the World Climbing, and although the record was revised, it was described as "the world's first climbing".
Virtue17875Heian periodIs a scholar ofYoshika ToruDescribes the summit crater in "Mt. Fuji".Always boils down to the summitCrater lakeThere is on the banktigerIt is thought that the person who actually climbed the mountain or interviewed the person who climbed the mountain because of the depictions that only the person who actually saw it could know, such as the rock that resembled the figure. It is not the summit eruption about 10 years agoJogan large eruptionwas there.
Hisasu51149It is said that in the "Honcho Century", the supreme ancestors repeated hundreds of times.It is unknown whether the numbers match, but he is known as a person who has done many mountaineering.
Edo PeriodWhen you enterFuji lectureBecame popular, and many worshipers climbed Mt. Fuji.Especially in the late Edo periodKoshaThere were a lot of people, and Fujita had the character of acting as a substitute for the local community and the village community. At the height of the peak, near Yoshidaguchi aloneShukubo(Mountain hut)was there.
Bunsei111828Attempt to measure altitude by barometerSieboldIs a disciple ofNinomiya KeisakuClimbed,(I.e.The altitude was measured by the change of.Tadataka InoSurveyed at 2603m-3732m[56]However, it was calculated to be 3794.5m in this measurement.[57].
Tempo31832Takayama TatsuIs the first woman to climb.Female ProhibitionWas the time when was laid.
Kaei61852Munehide Matsudaira(Munehide Honjo) Is the first ascendant as a modern-day daimyo.An old record called "Sode Nikki" written by the owner of a sake brewery, which is a tangible cultural property of Fujinomiya City,Miyazu DomainThere is a record that Munehide Matsudaira made a climb on Mt. Fuji. According to No. 6 in "Sode Nikki", Munehide began thinking about climbing Mt. Fuji while making a round trip between Edo and Miyazu, but the route of the shift of participation is the route designated by the Shogunate. It is not allowed to go through a course that deviates from No. 3 or to detour even if visiting a shrine. For this reason, he asked the shogunate to climb Mt. Fuji, but he didn't get a permit, and even after three years, he got a permit, but it was only up to the point called "horseback". (Horseback is a place below the first station, where mountaineers descend horses and climb mountains.)

So, on June 6, 1852, Soshu decided to keep climbing secretly to the Shogunate, starting from dawn and climbing the mountain, and reaching the summit in the afternoon. Munehide's summit of Mt. Fuji was the only record that the modern daimyo climbed Mt. Fuji.

MannobuFirst year1860British MinisterAll cockIs the first foreigner to climb."Kojien』Records of allcock climbing (Fuji Heavy[Annotation 18]Has submitted to the shrine magistrate's office), and said, "Er. Fuji, the survey of Sulni, Omiya Tsukasa Yori Notification Form... On the 7nd heavy rain of the day, the 24th day of Hiratsu, Omiya Kokyu, and Murayama Tomari. It was fine on the 26th, we stayed at the XNUMXth station of Mt. Shishi, and the summit of the XNUMXth day was the summit of the fine weather..." Allcock entered Murayama from Omiya on July XNUMX, climbed, and climbed on XNUMXth.[53].
Meiji41872The female prohibition is lifted.Meiji EraIn that case, faith mountaineering will gradually decline, and instead, it will be possible to climb as an entertainment or sport, and modern Western mountaineering technology will be adopted.
Meiji 25 Year1892BritishWalter WestonIs the summit.I climbed the next year. After that, he published a book and introduced Japanese mountains such as Mount Fuji to the world.[58].
Meiji 28 Year1895Nonaka ItaruIs the first winter climb.On February 2th, we climbed the Gotemba Exit alone. Meteorological observations were made at the summit from October to December of the same year.[59].
Taisho121923Crown Prince Hirohito (laterEmperor Showa) MountaineeringOn July 7th, after going to Subashiri, I climbed on horseback until the 26th station, and then on foot from the 8th station onwards. After worshiping Okumiya and branding the Kongo stick, we descended from Gotembaguchi[60].
12th year of Taisho1923Chichibu PalaceMountaineeringOn the evening of August 8, we climbed from Gotembaguchi and arrived at the summit the next morning. After visiting Okumiya, go down.
Showa 2 Year1927Teru NakamuraIs the first woman to climb in winterClimbing from Gotembaguchi on January 1, with two men[59].
Showa631988Tokujin HiromiyaMountain climbing (the then-now Emperor).May 8-2 DayI went back and forth from the Subashiriguchi to the XNUMXth station on the mountain climbing[61].. The summit was abandoned due to bad weather.
Heisei202008Crown Prince Tokuhito has reached the summit.May 8After leaving Fujinomiyaguchi, enter the Gotembaguchi mountain trail and climb[62].

2020(2nd year of Reiwa)New coronavirus4 trails due to the spread of infection (GotenbaRoute, Subashiri route,Fujinomiyaroot,(I.e.Route) is the first ever[Annotation 19]Closed[63].

Conflict of rights over Mount Fuji

Mountain service money and house spending

There are mountain trails in each area at the foot of the mountain, especially Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi, Subashiriguchi and Suyamaguchi are ancient mountain trails, and Sengen Taisha in the area that manages them[Annotation 20]Had been collected. These areas are fighting each other over mountain services. Especially internal payment[Annotation 21]Is very expensive, so it was easy to become a source of contention. For example, the distribution to Subashiri Village is 1 in one year.BothIt is said that it has been exceeded, and that it will be calculated that about one car will be paid to each household[64].. The right to spend in houseDamingIt was contested mainly by the three regions based on the rights given to them. "Murayama" and "Subashiri"[Annotation 22]And "Omiya". In Murayama, 1533 (astronomical"Tsujinobo" of Sanbo Murayama in 2 years)Mr. ImakiHave been granted the right to get a house spending[65].. Subashiri in 1577 (Tensho 5th year)Mr. TakedaBy Yakushido (currentKusushi Shrine)ofOpen bookYou have the right to get the daily house spending[66].. Omiya in 1609 (Keicho14 years)Tokugawa IeyasuSent in house payment to Asama ShrineDonationAnd has the advantage of getting a house spending[52].. When Omiya Tsukasa of Asama Shrine climbed from Murayama, he had to take a mountain service, so there were some customs to avoid Murayama and worship from "Susashiri".[67].

The current Fujiyoshidaguchi, which is a newly created mountain trail, is without permission from "Subashiri" who manages the mountain trail, and Omiya Tsukasa of Asama ShrineFuji Shinanな どMr. FujiIf they pay themselves the mountain money, it will be a controversy because they will give permission for mountain climbing (make a mountain trail and build a mountain hut) without permission, despite using the mountain trail of "Subashiri".[Annotation 23]And "Yoshida" argued in 1810 about the mountain climbing route and the method of collecting mountain services, and in "Omiya" and "Yoshida" there is a history of fighting the distribution of funds in the Yakushido.[68].

Genroku controversy

GenrokuIn 16 (1703), there was a dispute that Susari Village sued Fuji Sengen Shrine main shrine (Asama Taisha) over spending money and management of mountain huts.Genroku controversyIs. Subashiri sideEast Exit Motomiya Asahi ShrineShinto priests and masters of the shrineFuji Shinanな どMr. Fuji[Annotation 24]I appealed them to the shrine magistrate. The complaint was three-way. One is dissatisfaction with Asama Taisha's recognition of Yakushitake's hut by Yoshida villagers. It is said that it is a thing that violates the vested right of Subashiri, and the third is that it is the custom that the Subashi side will get the second pick up in the institution's acquisition of fines, which Asama Taisha acquired. It is a complaint that there is. In response to this, the Sengen Taisha side went to Edo, Yakushitake was not in the suburbs of Subashiri village, and the entrance to Yakushido was built by the Sengen Taisha side, so the right is to Sengen Taisha Shrine. He argued that the second picking practice was groundless. They are treated as naisha entrusted to a third party, and in that naisai, "Do not let other people hang up" "Yakushido's entrance to Buddha is done by Subashiri Village." And Subashiri are divided at 1:2, and Subashiri will get the second pick up.[69].

Yasunaga's dispute

Ernst & YoungIn the first year (1772), a dispute that Subashiri-mura sued Asama-taisha for controlling the mountaintop was under the control of the village.[Annotation 25] Yasunaga's disputeIs. Looking at this, Fujiminsai on the side of Asama Taisha[Annotation 26]Also raised objections. In addition, there was a dispute between Yoshida-mura and Asama-taisha to determine the territory, so it was hoped that Omiya and newcomers, Yoshida and Subashiri, would settle the dispute, and there was a major dispute involving the service of accounts. It will be carried over in 8. The conclusion is that Ieyasu TokugawaMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaThere was consideration by the shogunate side that they believed thatThree magistratesWith the approval of, finally above the 8th station of Mt.Fuji,Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt was decided to have[Annotation 27].

By the litigation resulting from the dispute between the two parties, the vagueness of the mountaintop and the whereabouts of other rights, which had been vague until now, have been clearly defined by the Edo Shogunate.

Mount Fuji and the view

Mt. Fuji as a special scenic spot

Mt. Fuji was designated as a "scenic spot" on October 27, 1952, and was designated as a "special scenic spot" on November 10, 7.[70].. On the Yamanashi side, the range of Fujiyoshida City, Funatsu Village (now Fujikawaguchiko Town), Narusawa Village, Nakano Village (now Yamanakako Village) was designated.[71][72].. Shizuoka Prefecture is located in the entire area surrounded by Gochumichi, in areas with an altitude of 1,500m or higher between the Fujinomiyaguchi Trail (Fujinomiya City) and the Gotembaguchi Trail (Gotemba City), and at the first or more Gochumichi that do not overlap. The Fujinomiyaguchi mountain trail and the Subashiriguchi mountain trail (Oyama Town) that reach the area[73].

View of Mount Fuji

At 128 points, 233 views, you can get a good view of Mount Fuji.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismKanto Regional Development BureauXNUMX views of Fujimi in the Kanto regionWas selected in 2005. In 17, the Ministry of the Environment and prefectures/municipalities played a central role in selecting 2017 "landscapes with Mt. Fuji". This is associated with the 100th anniversary of the designation of Fuji Hakone Izu National Park.

Haneda airportFor domestic flights to the west from, pass over Mt. Fuji. At that time, the captain often announces Mt. Fuji. Also for the new yearComing lightThere is also a scenic flight to see.

The farthest place where you can see Mt. Fuji is Wakayama PrefectureNachi Katsuura TownThe Shirakawa Fujimi Pass (separate from Mt. Myoho) is 322.9 km from the summit of Mt. Fuji.[74][75][76][77].. The northern limit of the view is Fukushima Prefecture on January 2017, 1.Kawamata TownIitate VillageStraddleHanazuka(At an altitude of 919m)Japan Map CenterCertified by (at a distance of 308km from Mt. Fuji)[78].. About 271 km away in the southeast directionHachijojimaIt can be seen from Mt. Mihara[76].. The prefecture where you can see Mt. Fuji was theoretically possibleKyotoWas successfully shot in 2014[79]As a result, it became 20 prefectures (Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Niigata, Toyama, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shiga, Mie, Kyoto, Nara, Wakayama).[80].

Mt. Fuji with various expressions

The expression of Mt. Fuji changes variously depending on the location, angle, season, and time. There are several figures with the name Fuji.

imageMt. FujiCommentary
Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2001-7-2.jpgAkafujiIn summer morning, the exposed mountain surface turned red due to the morning glow.
Painters, including Hokusai Katsushika, left paintings depicting "Akafuji."
Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2000-2-10.jpgRed FujiMt. Fuji covered with snow is dyed red in the morning sun and sunset.
"Morgenroth"(GermanMorgenrot) may be used.
01 Fujisan from Yamanakako 2004-2-7.jpgUpside down fujiAn upside-down view of Mt. Fuji reflected on the surface of the water with few ripples.
D XNUMX yen ticketThe upside-down Fuji of Lake Motosu was used for the design on the back.
Diamond Fuji at sunrise from Ryugatake (Yamanashi Prefecture) (photographed on December 2015, 12)Diamond FujiWhen the sun rises or sets,(I.e.Overlaps with the top of Mt. Fuji,
Near the top of Mt. FujidiamondPhenomenon that shines like.
Can be seen twice a year from the western or eastern location where Mt. Fuji can be seen[81].
Kagefuji frm kengamine.jpgShadow FujiThe scenery where the shadow of Mt. Fuji is reflected in the surrounding area by the sunrise or sunset.
From the top of the mountain when climbing Mt. Fuji,sea ​​of ​​cloudsMay be seen above.
Fujiyama-kasagumo 01.JPGKasamomoIt is accompanied by a cloud and a lens cloud. A landscape with clouds over the top of Mt. Fuji.
In that case, it often becomes cloudy or rainy at the base of the mountain.

"Front Fuji" and "Back Fuji"

Of Mt. FujiMountain hutThe expressions "front entrance" and "back entrance" can be seen as signs for mountain trails, and it is generally recognized that Mt. Fuji seen from Shizuoka prefecture is the front Fuji and the view from Yamanashi prefecture is the back Fuji.[82], This has a historical background. In the "Yaha-Kyuson-zu" created in 8, there is already a notation "Suru ga Kuchimo". There is also such a description in Volume 1680 of "Kunishi Kai".

Climbing road Ha Kitaha Yoshidaguchi, Minamiha Subashiriguchi, Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi no Yotsudo Nari, (Omitted) South side, front side, north side — "Kunishi Kai"

There are common descriptions in other materials as well, and it can be said that the idea of ​​using the southern foot as the front and the northern foot as the back was a general recognition. Separately, there is the word "Ura Fuji," which is Hokusai Katsushika's "Futake XNUMX Famous Views Ura Fuji".[Annotation 28]Some examples are used in the titles of works, such as "Thirty-six Views of Tomitake Minobu Kawaura Fuji" and Hiroshige Utagawa's "Thirty-Six Views of Fuji Kai Yumeyama Back Fuji".

Mount Fuji culture

Academic research

Mt. Fuji, which is an active volcano and the highest peak in Japan and has a vast foothills,natural ScienceHumanitiesBoth sides are the subject of research. Volcanic disaster prevention, geology, meteorology,EcosystemIn Yamanashi Prefecture Fujiyama Science Institute (Fujiyoshida City) in natural sciences such as, in interdisciplinary research including humanitiesShizuoka Prefecture Mt. Fuji World Heritage Center(Fujinomiya City)Fuji SocietyThere are also specialized research institutions and organizations such as.

Due to the steep topography and strong winds near the summit, only about 5-10% of Mt. Fuji can be field surveyed outdoors, and there are many areas where vegetation is unknown. Observation and photography from the sky,DroneThere is a restriction that the rising limit of 2750m[83].

Mount Fuji in art

Mount Fuji painting was in the Heian periodSong pillowDraw the sights of the countries that were described asFamous placeAlthough there is no existing example, it is believed that it was drawn as a famous picture screen painting of Fuji by this time. The oldest existing Fuji map isHoryuji Dedication Treasure"Shotoku Prince Eden" (1069, first year of Enkyu)Tokyo National MuseumKura), this isKai's Black PieceI got on a black piece based on traditionPrince ShotokuIs running up the mountain, and Fuji is depicted as a mountain landscape in the style of Chinese landscape painting.

In the Kamakura era, a method of describing a three-peaked Fuji with the summit divided into three peaks was established.Ise story"Emaki""Soga storyFuji, which is the stage with the establishment of story literature such as Fuji Makikari, is drawn.Fuji faithThe "Fuji Mandala diagram" as a worship image was also drawn with the establishment of the. Also, in pictorial maps, etc., it was recognized as a special existence because the peaks were drawn with white snow caps on other mountains that were arc-shaped and colored in green.[Annotation 29].

Muromachi Period"Color Fuji by Kinumoto"MandalaFigure” (Mt. Fuji Hongu Sengen Taisha holdings,Important cultural property) Depicts the three peaks of Mt. Fuji and the people who climb Mt. Fuji, asama shrine and Yudama pond, which were the places of sakage, and are reminiscent of what they were like at the time. In addition,SesshuProduct "Fuji Miho Kiyomiji Figure" (Eisei Bunko(Holding) isMatsubara of MihoIt is a work that put Mt.NihondairaIt is supposed to be a view from[85].. The Sesshu-shaped map of Mt. Fuji was used as a copy model throughout the Edo period,Kano schoolMany works are derived mainly from.

In the Edo period, in 1767 (4th year of Meiwa)Kawamura Minoru Picture bookPublished "Hundred Fuji" and presented the style of a series of Fuji diagrams.Katsushika HokusaiIs a series of prints by Fujizu, which uses the method of Minoru Kawamura.Thirty-six views of Mt.(1831-34, Tempo 2-5), and picture book "XNUMX views of Futaku』(All three editions. The first edition 1834, Tenpo 5 years) was published. In the former, we drew Fuji by making full use of techniques such as indigo that made use of imported pigments, and drew summer red Fuji.Kaifu fine weatherAnd 'Yamashita white rain], depicting the raging big waves and Fuji.Kanagawa Surfing] Is known. The latter is a mono-colored black ink, and it is more abstract, such as sticking to the weather description, not sticking to traditional attractions.[86].

In addition,Hiroshige UtagawaAlso published in the 1850s after Hokusai, "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji" and "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji". Hiroshige has traveled to various countries including Kai, and has been making sketches of actual scenes and using them in his works. 『Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido], but you can see many pictures of Mt. Fuji. Hokusai and Hiroshige et al. pioneered a series of works that had not been recognized as a good spot for Fujimi until then, and Fuji behind Kai from the side of Kai.CraftasHonamikoenCreated byEasy burning OfBowlI found the atmosphere of Mt. Fuji and called it "Fujiyama"[87].

Fuji is treated as a motif for all art, including Japanese paintings, paintings, crafts, photographs, and designs. In modern Japanese painting, Fuji was positioned as a symbolic design of Japan through the Sangyo Kogyo industry, and is widely used in commercial design including art. In painting, a painting of Mt. Fuji drawn from a modern point of view while continuing tradition is produced. It was Also, due to the development of transportation systems such as railroads and road networks, many literary figures and painters stay at the foot of Mt. Fuji as a summer resort and recreation area to make works on Fuji. As a painter leavingTomioka Tetsusai, In Western moviesWada EisakuAnd so on.

Mt. Fuji's motif art works were widely distributed in Europe at the time, and Mt. Fuji was also widely known in Europe. Traveled to Japan in 1893 (Meiji 26)Austria-Hungary EmpireSuccessor toGrand Duke of Franz FerdinandWrote in his diary as follows:

Fujisan, Fujinoyama. Who on earth does not know this Japanese symbol-usually called Fujiyama in Europe? It is already familiar to us because it is drawn on lacquer ware, ceramics, Japanese paper, metal, etc. as the most popular Japanese craft design in Europe.[88]. — August 8th

After that, Mt. FujiDainichi this empireBy the ruler of both Japanese and sacredEmperorJapan's unique political system centered onNational bodyPositioned as a symbol of, Fuji was drawn in various ways as a national symbol. this isPacific War(Second World War,Great East Asian War) Fought against JapanThe United States of AmericaMt. Fuji was also featured in the fighting spirit-enhancing creations such as anime and posters that arouse anti-Japanese sentiment. An attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji was also carried out as a military target (described later).

After the war, as a "symbol of Japan" that was released from the image as a symbol of the national polity, the Japanese painterYokoyama Taikan,Kataoka KyokoThey drew Fuji. In the world of contemporary art, there is also a tendency to draw parody and satire as an antithesis to these traditional subjects, and Fuji as an icon.

Fukada HisayaDescribes "Mt. Fuji in Japan" as "a big simple that does not tamper with small works" in "Japan's XNUMX Famous Mountains", and says "Even young children draw Fuji's picture, but masters of the art circle are troublesome to show its trueness". ..

There is "Fujimi Saigyo" as a subject of all Japanese paintings, and a person like a bean kernel (monk,West lineThe composition is that the (master) looks up,Ink painting,EngravingBut it is drawn.

In modern times, it is also used for the design of banknotes and stamps.

  • There are many examples of Mount Fuji being used in the design of banknotes. In the old days, there were 1913 yen government bills issued in 50,AtagoyamaIt is Mt. Fuji from. The subsequent 1951 yen bills issued in 1969 and XNUMXOtsuki City OfKarigagasuriBased on Mt. Fuji from. The old 1984 yen bill issued in 2004 and the XNUMX yen bill issued in XNUMX are Mount Fuji from the shore of Lake Motosu.[89].
  • Depicting Mt. Fujistamp post officeReleased by[90].
    • Lake Kawaguchi, Lake Saiko, Lake Shoji, Lake Motosu, Lake Yamanaka (1999)
    • Hokusai Katsushika (1999 (Heisei 11))
    • Evening primrose・Yamanashi Prefecture (2005 (17))

Fuji in literature

Mt. Fuji is a wakaSong pillowIs often mentioned as. Also,"ManyoshuIn "," there are many songs about Mt. Fuji.

"If you go out from Tago no Ura Yuchi, you can get snow on the Takamine of Fuji, which is pure white" (3.318)Red man YamabeFamous byTanka(Antong).

In addition, next to this antique, there is a long poem whose author is unknown. ) While extinguishing the burning fire with snow (falling on the summit) and extinguishing snow (falling on the summit) with (eruption) fire," it can be seen that Mt. Fuji was performing volcanic activity at that time.

"Shinko Kon Wakashu] From. The smoke of Fuji is sung.

I'm afraid of my heart to the sky of the smoke of Fuji fluttering in the wind West line (# 1613)

Fuji is perceived as a mysterious mountain by the metropolitan people, and in the classical literature, Yoshika Tora's "Fuji Diary" records the state and tradition of Fuji.

"Taketori storyIs set in Fuji in the latter half of the story,EmperorIt is supposed that the immortal medicine given by Princess Kaguya was burned at the summit of the mountain closest to heaven by instructing Itsuki of Itsuki and a large number of men. Then there is a naming story that the mountain was named Fujiyama (Mt. Fuji) in honor of many people. In the Hina area of ​​Fuji City, Shizuoka Prefecture, at the foot of Mt. Fuji, there is still a place known as "Bamboo Mound."[91].

In addition,The Tale of GenjiAnd 'Ise story], but there are some points where Fuji is mentioned, but there are few cases where it becomes the main stage. It is precisely recognized that Fuji is located on the border of Koshun, and in ancient times it wasSuruga countryBecause it was attributed to, Fuji in the Suruga side is often the subject of classical literature.Tsutsumi Nakanagon Story] InWorthHe mentions Fuji on the side.

It is said that the word "Hachimen Reiko" was born from Mt. Fuji, which means that it has a beautiful shape in all directions.[92].

From the Middle Ages to the early modern times, Fuji worshipers traveled to the northern foothills of Fuji, and during the Edo period as a local literary artHaikuWas thriving. In modern timesTrainSuch as the development of transportation and Fuji(I.e.Under the influence ofFolklore Summer vacationI came to visit Fuji for my purpose, Jiro Nitta andShinpei Kusano,Horiguchi UniversityThey wrote works on the theme of Fuji and were drawn in many travelogues including mountain literature.

There are many writers who have stayed at the foot of Mt.Fuji, and Taijun Takeda wrote a novel "Fuji" set in a mental hospital at the foot of Mt. Fuji, and his wife, Yuriko Takeda, wrote a record of her life at Mt. Fuji after her death. Diary”.Yushima TsushimaIs a story of a family who spent a turbulent era looking at Fuji, modeled on the maternal Ishihara family who was a geologist in Yamanashi Prefecture.Mountain of Fire-Sanmon] Was written.

Also, as a literary man from the northern foot areaNaturalist literaturePerson ofNakamura SeikoOr postwarKorean Literature in JapanPerson ofLee RieIn each of the works, Fuji is depicted, and Seiko Nakamura also promotes regional literary arts.

Osamu DazaiThe novel "14" written byXNUMX views of FutakuIs well-known in Yamanashi Prefecture.Fujikawaguchiko Town OfMisaka PassThe inscription stands on.Naoki PrizeIs a writerJiro NittaIs based on the experience of working at the Mt. Fuji summit station.StrongNaoki Prize-winning work "Kaiden" and "Gouriki"Mount Fuji"[93]He has written many works related to Fuji including.

Kyoko TakahamaOf Fujinomiya City, Shizuoka PrefectureNumakubo StationWhen I got off at, I saw the beautiful Mount Fuji and sang a song. The song monument is built in front of the station.

"A certain stop at the foot of Mt. Fuji in the fall of bamboo/Namakubo's child-friendly flower niece"

Mount Fuji and regional promotion

Mt. Fuji's religious facilities, summer resorts, and tourist business for tourists aiming to climb Mt. Fuji are also actively carried out. However, at the foot of Mt. Fujihot springThe amount of hot water of the scale[94].

Regarding the use of Mt. Fuji, the Shizuoka prefecture attaches great importance to the protection of nature and culture, while the Yamanashi prefecture traditionally attaches importance to tourism development. Mountain peak ownership problem, mountain hut toilet problem, car regulation problem[95], World Heritage Registration Problem[96]As a result, the differences between the two thoughts have become apparent from the past to the present.

Mount Fuji and sightseeing

Fuji mountain climbing

Mt. Fuji's climbing knowledge, experience, and equipment are essential[97].. In general, it is possible to climb every year from the opening of the mountain on July 7st until the beginning of September.Outside the period, climbing of people who do not make thorough preparations is prohibited in principle[98]. In particularMountaineering during the snowy/remaining snow season is extremely dangerous[98].

Other tourism

From its graceful appearance, the place where you can see Mt. Fuji is often a famous tourist destination.

Mt. Fuji Day (February 2)

May 2There are some local governments that read "2:F・2:J・3:san" together and have established it as "Mount Fuji Day".

  • 2001 Ordinance was established in Fujikawaguchiko Town (then Kawaguchiko Town) in Yamanashi Prefecture.
  • 2002 (Heisei 14) Mainly in Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, approved by 10 municipal forest associations in 2 municipalities at the foot of Mt. Fuji in Yamanashi Prefecture.
  • 2009 year (Heisei 21 year)May 12 The Shizuoka Prefectural Assembly passed the regulations unanimously. The regulations were established on December 12 of the same year.

In both Shizuoka and Yamanashi prefectures, Mt. Fuji is too integrated into everyday life, and it is a kind of "natural" atmosphere. Therefore, on "Mt. Fuji Day", various local governments, companies in the prefecture, etc. hold various events and participate in it, which is an opportunity to re-recognize Mt.Fuji that is too familiar and re-recognize it as a famous peak as a symbol of Japan. .. At the same time, it is hoped that local residents will be encouraged to move toward the World Heritage registration of Mt. Fuji.

The Shizuoka Prefectural Board of Education has requested that each municipality have “Mt. Fuji Day” as a school holiday from 2011 (23). Among the local governments that have incorporated them as holidays, the Fuji City Board of Education, which is located at the foot of the municipality, has decided that it will not be a holiday since 2011 because it does not fit into a specific day as a school holiday. However, from the significance of Mt. Fuji's day, we provide a place to learn at school,Fuji Children's CountryWe are also requesting the free opening of the site and the implementation of projects related to Mt. Fuji at social education facilities such as libraries and museums.

The day of Mt. Fuji was first declared at the "Forum of Mountain Views and Maps (FYAMAP)" in PC communication "NIFTY-Serve", which was announced online on January 1996, 1.

Mount Fuji number

Shizuoka Transport BureauWith 4 cities and 2 towns in the jurisdictionYamanashi Transport BranchSo-called targeting 1 city, 2 towns, 4 villages in the jurisdictionLocal numberAs from November 2008, 11Mount Fuji numberIssuance of was started. License plates with jurisdiction over two prefectures are rare[99][100].

Mt. Fuji test

Sponsored by the "Mt. Fuji test executive committee"Mt. Fuji testHowever, it is carried out by five members: Fuji Chamber of Commerce, Fujiyoshida Chamber of Commerce, Shizuoka Shimbun/Shizuoka Broadcasting, Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/Yamanashi Broadcasting, and the Fujisan Kenkyukai.

Inter-regional exchange

Exchanges of water from Mt.Fuji into Lake Biwa and water from Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji have been carried out since XNUMX. Fujinomiya City and Shiga Prefecture, Shizuoka Prefecture.OmihachimanContinued between. This is "digging the soil of Omi and making Mt. FujiBiwa lakeIt has become a legend. Pouring the spring water of Mt. Fuji to Lake Biwa is called "water return", and pouring the water of Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji is called "water catching".[101][102].

In 2014, the Japan Fujisan Association and the Republic of China Mountains AssociationYushanHas signed a friendly mountain tie-up[103].. Tamayama, which has an altitude of 3,952 meters,TaiwanDuring the Japanese era ofShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan.

Other

Second World War

It was on the summit of Mt. Fuji on July 1945, 7.Mt. Fuji weather stationToU.S. ForcesbyMachine gun sweepThe attack was made[104].. Mt. Fuji is an independent peak with a distant view, and it was a place where you can see the movement of U.S. military aircraft conducting air raids on the mainland of Japan.HachijojimaSince the old mountain climbing hut on the summit was used as a relay base for the wireless communication line connecting the two, power transmission was started from the foot of the mountain, and power was also supplied to the weather station, which is important as a high-rise meteorological observation base. Also, from this weather station, in TokyoLight controlWas inspecting. In addition to the cultural meaning of being a symbol of Japan, the attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji, which was also a military base, was carried out at the end of World War II, and the fact that the observer was injured is recorded through the business diary "Cantera Diary".

In addition, the US military has devised a plan to dye Mt. Fuji bright red with paint to reduce morale in order to accelerate the surrender of Japan. However, the amount of supplies needed for the planB-29There is also an episode that the plan was canceled because it was unrealistic because it was a huge amount of about 3 aircraft and about 12 tons of paint.[105].

Text

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symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
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MOUNT FUJI

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The altitude of the highest point of Kengamine.The altitude of the second triangulation point "Mt. Fuji" is 3775.51 m (altitude revised on April 2014, 4).
  2. ^ Mt. FujiMt. Ontake-Mt. NorikuraThere are three.
  3. ^ Japan isYushan(Shin Takayama)TaiwanExcludes the period when the
  4. ^ 1936(Showa 11) Designated on February 2. The upper part of the mountain is the special protected area, and the surrounding area is the special and ordinary areas. There is also a prohibited area for vehicles[5].
  5. ^ (Example) "Yu Tago no Ura If you go out and look sincerely yoursSnow falls on the high ridges ofRed man Yamabe ("Manyoshu]). "Fuji" is said to be "there is no one in Japan's highest peak". In addition, there are books that use the letters “Nufu” and “Nunoji”.
  6. ^ In the last chapter of the Taketori story,emperorHowever, the immortal medicine given to the vassals by KaguyahimeSuruga countryThere is a description that it is ordered to burn at the summit of the highest mountain in Japan, which is closest to heaven in Japan. The mountain can be named "Fujinoyama". "Editor's footnote "The fashionable name of Mt. Fuji, a mountain rich in swords, was named because he climbed with a lot of swords (swords). At the same time, he burned an immortal drug, so he could put the spirit of "Mt. .. "[7][Detailed information for identifying documents].
  7. ^ Fuchi = Funch means "old woman", not "fire."[Source required].
  8. ^ The altitude of the second-class triangulation station "Mt. Fuji" is 2 m.The highest point is the summit of a rock about 3775.51 m north of this triangulation station, which is 12 m higher than the triangulation station (observed in 0.61).
  9. ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1970 (-8), 2014 (-7.2), 2019 (-5.7)"
  10. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-5),2006(-3.4),2008(-4),2010(-0.6),2014(-4.3),2019(-2.8)」
  11. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(13.9),2006(14.6),2008(16.7),2010(15.3),2014(16.3),2019(16)」
  12. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-27.8),2006(-26.3),2008(-25.6),2010(-27.1),2014(-24.8),2019(-22.2)」
  13. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-11.2),2006(-9.9),2008(-10.4),2010(-6.8),2014(-10.3),2019(-8.8)」
  14. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-33.2),2006(-32.3),2008(-33.2),2010(-30.2),2014(-30.1),2019(-30.4)」
  15. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(6.3),2006(6.9),2008(6.7),2010(8.8),2014(6.7),2019(7.4)」
  16. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(<0℃最低277,<0℃最高205),2006(<0℃最低277,<0℃最高205),2008(<0℃最低277,<0℃最高207),,2014(<0℃最低271,<0℃最高216),2019(<0℃最低198,<0℃最高166)」
  17. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載1970(64),1984(60),1986(60),1990(60),1991(61),1992(60),1995(58),1996(53),1997(58),2000(62),2001(60),2004(56),2007(59),2014(94),2019(63)
  18. ^ In the document, it says "Fushi Omiya Fushi Honmiya Asama Omiya Tsuji Fushi Yahaka".
  19. ^ The two prefectures explained that all four routes would be closed during the July-September opening period, at least since 7, when Shizuoka Prefecture began managing three mountain trails.18 DayThe policy is to close the 3th to the summit of Mt. Fuji's 5 mountain trails managed by Shizuoka Prefecture during the period from July 7 to September 10, which is the opening period. Because there is concern about infection due to crowds of mountain climbers. All mountain huts on the route will also be closed. Yamanashi Prefecture announced on May 9 that it will close the "Yoshida Route" at the same time. Mt. Fuji is expected to be closed in summer.
  20. ^ Concept like a mountain climbing fee.
  21. ^ The inn refers to the crater, and the act of spending money at this crater (the act of throwing money) was performed. The right to get that money.
  22. ^ Current Sunto-gun, Shizuoka PrefectureOyama Town.
  23. ^ An area that consists of Kawaguchi-shishi, etc. in Fuji Kawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture today. It may be written as "Kawaguchi".
  24. ^ The document says it is a Fuji obi sword (Fuji Shinan). Other proponents/Koubun etc.
  25. ^ Odawara DomainOf the shrine magistrateTadajun MatsudairaA complaint was submitted to
  26. ^ Fuji Ouji. The document says it is Fuji Nakamitsu.
  27. ^ In addition, it was decided that the opening of Yakushido and in-house spending would be the same as before.
  28. ^ It is supposed to be viewed from the western part of the Kofu Basin
  29. ^ In modern-day Kaikuni pictures and drawings, there is a tendency to describe the appearance of Kaikuni as a spiritual place surrounded by mountains, but Mt.YatsugatakeMt. Shirane (Mt. Kitadake) With a deity expression that is depicted as a snow-covered white mountain, and it is pointed out that especially Mt.[84].
  30. ^ From Yuno area, Fujinomiya city.

Source

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  14. ^ Measure the tide level for over 100 years nationwide What is the height? (Part 2), Page 7/7, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, March 2019, 3, "The current altitude of the triangulation station is 12 m by recalculation. The highest point of Mt. Fuji. Is 3775.51 m, 61 cm higher than the triangulation station, on the rock north of the triangulation station. "
  15. ^ Mount Fuji Information Corner What is the height and size of Mt. Fuji? , Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Fuji Sabo Office.The altitude of the second triangulation point described on this website, 2 m, was revised to 3775.63 m on April 2014, 4.
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  23. ^ ""Mt. Fuji, no prefectural borders" Yamanashi, Shizuoka, and Governor Affirmed". Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 1). https://archive.is/aIXSt 2014th of February 6Browse. (Archive version)
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  25. ^ "Hidden summit of Mt. Fuji, Geographical Institute HP "correction"". Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun(July 2014, 6). https://archive.is/L8itO 2014th of February 6Browse. (Archive version)
  26. ^ a b Completely revised the geological map of Mt. Fuji for the first time in about 50 years Geological Survey of Japan, AIST 2016/07/15
  27. ^ Geological Survey of Japan Research Material Collection no. 592
  28. ^ Masato Koyama: Collapse of Mt. Fuji -Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Research Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory *Published in Tokyo Shimbun (October 2012, 10)
  29. ^ Naomiya Miyachi: Large-scale eruption of Mt. Fuji and collapse of mountain body(11th Open Lecture) Volcanological Society of Japan (PDF)
  30. ^ Masato Oyama: Volcanic Disaster Prevention on Mt. Fuji-Current Status and Challenges (PDF) Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory
  31. ^ Daily monitoring of the Fujikawa fault and prediction of the Tokai earthquake (PDF) Earthquake Prediction Liaison Bulletin Volume 46
  32. ^ Collapse due to earthquake motion in 24 Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory
  33. ^ Mount Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures Cabinet Office
  34. ^ Shizuoka Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures Shizuoka
  35. ^ Yamanashi Evacuation route map at Mt. Fuji eruption
  36. ^ Helicopter rescue upper limit, 3200 m mountain... Mayor Shizuoka[Broken link]
  37. ^ Geomagnetic continuous observation (observation station) -GSI
  38. ^ Mt. Fuji observation point layout -Meteorological Agency
  39. ^ Volcanic activity continuous observation network VIVA ver.2 Mt.Fuji -Disaster Prevention Research Institute
  40. ^ Mount Fuji volcano hazard map Archived August 2012, 7, at the Wayback Machine.-- Fujinomiya City Hall
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  43. ^ Meteorological statistics, past meteorological data search, 1st to 10th value in the history of observation (value throughout the year), deepest snow in the month - Japanese Meteorological Agency(Retrieved September 2013, 10)
  44. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency | Normal year value (year/month value) -Meteorological Agency (viewed January 2011, 8)
  45. ^ 1st to 10th value in the history of observation (value throughout the year) -Meteorological Agency (viewed January 2013, 7)
  46. ^ "Past weather data". Japanese Meteorological Agency. 2021th of February 4Browse.
  47. ^ "Mysterious black sand, from Mt. Fuji?" Asahi Shimbun (April 2010, 17, 39 pages)
  48. ^ Mt. Fuji "First Snow Makeup""Asahi Shimbun" evening edition October 2017, 10
  49. ^ Mt. Fuji's "agricultural bird"(Mt. Fuji NET)-Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/YBS Yamanashi Broadcasting
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  51. ^ "Japanese alpine plants (Sankei color directory)"Mountain and valley company, 1988,ISBN-4 635-09019-1, P107,502
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  55. ^ About designation such as historic spots (Agency for Cultural Affairs, November 23, 11) (PDF) [Broken link]
  56. ^ Quarterly Ino Tadataka Research No. 9 (Autumn 1996 issue)
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References

Related item

外部 リンク

Disaster prevention (hazard map)

world Heritage

world Heritage(World Heritage,English: World Heritage Site) Is1972 OfUNESCOAdopted at the General Assembly, "Convention on the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage" (World Heritage Convention)On the basis of theWorld Heritage ListRegistered in (World Heritage List),Cultural property,Landscape,NATURESuch,(I.e.Property with “prominent universal value” to be shared byReal estateIs targeted. As a customary usage,cultural heritageTheworld Cultural Heritage,Natural heritageTheworld Natural Heritage SiteSometimes called.

It should be noted that in the World Heritage system, formal documents are shown in English and French, and English is often written together in Japanese literature, but French is not usually written together, so it is easy to refer to it below. in view of,Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017Based on the above, English will be added to the main terms.

Overview

World Heritage Sites Have "Outstanding Universal Value"cultural heritage,Natural heritageAnd was established in 1972.World Heritage ConventionRefers to the property registered in the World Heritage List based on. World Heritage ConventionUNESCOBefore the formation, the flow of international cultural property protection that has been gradually formed since the beginning of the 20th century,National parkIt was established as a unified plan for nature conservation led by the United States of America, which established the system first.

World Heritage is an intergovernmental committeeWorld Heritage CommitteeIt is decided after the deliberation. At that time, as an advisory body,International Monument Remains Conference(ICOMOS) but for the natural heritageInternational Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) each made recommendations and provided both elementsComplex heritageIn the case of, both sides make recommendations.Heritage that is threatened by potential or overt preservationCrisis heritageYou will be registered on the list and will seek international cooperation. For other World Heritage sites, confirmation of the conservation status, including regular reports, will be performed even after registration. If it is determined that the “prominent universal value” as a World Heritage Site has been lost, such as the lack of appropriate conservation activities,Delete from World Heritage ListIt may be done. In fact, in 2007Arabian Oryx ReserveBecame the first property to be erased.

On the other hand, more than 190 countries have signed the World Heritage Convention, and in 2015 the number of properties registered on the World Heritage List exceeded 1,000. The World Heritage Convention is often called the most successful international treaty, but on the other hand, the increase in the number of registrations is worried by some experts in the light of the original purpose of protection and management. Not only that, there are also problems caused by the rise of the name recognition, such as the increase in political decisions overturning expert recommendations, the conflict between urban development and heritage protection, and excessive tourism. In addition, although "World Heritage Crossing Borders" shared by multiple countries can contribute to international peace, it may be controversial internationally or domestically in the deliberation involving territorial issues and historical recognition. It even led to an armed conflict (Border dispute between Thailand and Cambodia).

The importance of education and public relations has been pointed out to protect the World Heritage Site, and UNESCO has been developing teaching materials for young people and holding international forums. Some researchers such as universities advocate an interdisciplinary discipline called "World Heritage Studies".graduate SchoolDepending on the world heritage departments and majors may be set up, there are also universities that offer related courses.

World heritage is targeted at tangible real estate, and even with the same UNESCO heritage,Intangible cultural heritage,World memoryIt is a system different from (World Memory Heritage). However, in Japanese literature and news reports, these are sometimes collectively referred to as the “XNUMX major UNESCO heritage projects”.

History

8th UNESCO Executive DirectorKoichiro MatsuuraWhen describing the World Heritage Sites in 2008, they positioned 1978 to 1991 as the "first phase", 1992 to 2006 as the "second phase", and 2007 as the "third phase".[3]. The following describes the history of World Heritage according to this classification[Annotation 1].

Prehistory

The movement to protect cultural heritage internationally prohibited damage to war memorials and other structures.1907 Hague ConventionIt is said that it started from[4]. afterwards,(English edition,Athens CharterAnd so on, butWorld War I,Second World WarThen also caused a great deal of damage to cultural properties[5].

In 1945United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationWhen (UNESCO) was established,That charterThe "World Heritage[Annotation 2]Ensure the preservation and protection of books, works of art and historical and scientific monuments, and recommend the necessary international treaties to the countries concerned" (Article 1, excerpt)[6]. UNESCO has developed a system of cultural heritage protection, and in 1951 the "International Committee on Monuments, Artistic and Historical Heritage, and Archaeological Excavations" was established.[7]. It was founded in 1959 based on the adoption by the UNESCO General Assembly based on the recommendations of this committee.(English edition(ICCROM)[7]. And the International Commission itself1931 Athens CharterInherited fromVenice charterBased on (1964), in 1965International Monument Remains ConferenceBecame (ICOMOS)[7].

In addition, based on the results that UNESCO examined to develop the 1907 Hague Convention,Convention on the protection of cultural properties in the event of armed conflict, The so-called "1954 Hague Convention" was adopted, armedConflictAlso whenCultural propertyIt was announced that sabotage against etc. should not be performed[8]. Since then, UNESCO has adopted a series of recommendations and treaties on cultural property protection.[9][10].

In this flow, what was important wasNubian RuinsIt is a preservation international campaign[11][7].Egyptthe governmentNile RiverIn the basinAswan High DamHe started planning construction in the 1950s. When this dam is completed,Temple of Abu SimbelIt was feared that the Nubian ruins such as the above would be submerged, and in response, an international campaign was launched in 1960. Nubian Relief Relief is the Egyptian President who decided to build a damNacelleIt was what he had requested of UNESCO,Suez CanalRepulsion of Western countries against nationalization, construction of Aswan High DamUSSRDue to the background such as the support of the[12]. However, French Minister of CultureAndré MalrauxApproximately 50 million, which is half of the total project cost, from 4,000 countriesDollarFundraising was done and $28 was sent from Japan (Japanese govermentIs $1 million,Asahi ShimbunIs $27[Annotation 3][13]). This successful campaign[Annotation 4], The beginning of the international campaign that continued after that, followed by flood damage in Northern ItalyFlorenceヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アCampaign to Protect Cultural Properties in 1966[14]. Then, at the UNESCO General Assembly of the same year, it was decided that a framework for protecting cultural heritage of global value would be started, which became one of the foundations for the World Heritage Convention.[15]. This was called the “Convention for the International Protection of Memorial Works, Buildings and Ruins of Universal Value” at the UNESCO General Assembly in 1970 at the next General Assembly It will be submitted at[16]..The proposal envisioned only a list of heritage sites for which international assistance was sought.It corresponds to "" instead of the entire current World Heritage list.World heritage at riskCan only be said to be a "list"[17].

On the other hand, established in 1948International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) ButThe United States of AmericaWas led by the government, and a convention for the protection of natural heritage was being made.[18]. in AmericaWhite HouseIn 1965, the Council for Natural Resources of the Japan International Cooperation Agencytrust”Was proposed, and an international framework for protecting excellent nature was sought, and its concrete work was carried out through IUCN.[19][20]. America isYellowstone National ParkFirst in the world by establishment (1872)National parkThe country that established the system and the presidentRichard NixonIs "environmentalTeaching"(1971) Preached the significance of embodying the World Heritage Trust for the 100th anniversary of the national park (1972).[16]. The result was a proposal called the "World Heritage Trust Convention for the Conservation and Conservation of Natural Areas and Cultural Places of Universal Value," which was included in this proposal. "Book" proposal led to the current World Heritage List[17].

Establishment of World Heritage

The above two flows areUnited Nations Human Environment ConferenceUNESCO Executive Director at an Intergovernmental Specialist Conference prior to (1972)(English editionThere was also a proposal, and it was agreed to be unified[21]. As a result, the same yearMay 11, The 17th UNESCO General Assembly (Chair) held in Paris, unified the Convention on the Conservation of World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) Was adopted[22].. following yearThe United States of AmericaRatified first[22]Parties reached 1975 on September 9, 17[23]. As a result, the requirements for enforcement were met, so it officially came into effect on December 3, three months later.[23].

In November 1976, the 11st World Heritage Convention Contracting Party was held. The Conference of the Parties is held in synchronism with the UNESCO General Assembly (that is, once every two years) to select members of the World Heritage Committee andWorld Heritage FundOf each country's contribution amount to[24]. The first in that first meetingWorld Heritage CommitteeThe member countries ofThe 1th World Heritage CommitteeWas held[25]. The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (hereinafter abbreviated as “work guidelines”) were adopted by this committee, including the criteria for World Heritage registration. And this "working guideline" will continue to be revised.[26][Annotation 5].

そ し て,1978 OfThe 2th World Heritage Committeeso,エクアドル OfGalapagos Islands,West Germany OfAachen CathedralTwelve such cases (12 natural heritage sites, 4 cultural heritage sites) completed the first World Heritage List registration (the so-called "World Heritage No. 8").[27]). The 3rd World Heritage Committee of the following year triggered the World Heritage SystemNubian RuinsFor example, 45 cases were registered, including Egypt and France, which registered 5 cases at a stretch and became the number one holding country.[28]. This 3rd World Heritage CommitteeComplex heritage(Tikal National Park) Was born and[29], Severely damaged by the last big earthquakeKotor Nature and Culture Historical Area(Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia[Annotation 6]) Is the first meeting on the list of critical heritage sites[30]. After that, in the 1980 4th World Heritage CommitteeWarsaw Historical CenterRegistration (Later), there were some discussions, but the number of contracting parties and the number of registrations also increased.

Expansion of registration target

Based on the increase in work related to World Heritage,1992Is the secretariat of the World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage CenterWas installed in the UNESCO headquarters[31]. Initially, it was not fully separated from the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Department, but later the World Heritage Center was assigned responsibility for tangible cultural heritage, and the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Department was mainly responsible for intangible cultural heritage. Was[32].

In 1992, the "working guideline"Cultural landscapeIt is also the year when the concept of was introduced. As will be described in more detail later, this concept opens the way to World Heritage registration for a wider variety of cultural heritage, and can be used to correct the imbalance between Europe and the United States, where the number of registrations is high, and other regions. Expected to contribute[33][34].

1992 isJapanWas also the year that ratified the World Heritage Convention,Developed countryBecame the last 125th party[35][36](The same yearMay 6Deposit acceptance letter toMay 9Effective in[37][Annotation 7]. Several reasons have been pointed out that Japan's participation was delayed compared to other countries. For example,Cultural property protection lawIt was difficult to recognize the necessity due to the existence of unique protection-related legislation such as[38], There was concern about complicated administrative procedures and amendment of domestic law when participating[39]The priority of the Diet deliberations was not high, given the lack of awareness of its importance[40],Cold WarWhat I didn't want to stimulate America under[Annotation 8],World Heritage FundThat the debate on the contributions of[35][41], There was a negative effect of vertically divided administration of ministries[42]Are listed.

Japan participated in some twists and turns in Japan, but soon after joining, important discussions will begin in earnest. That is "how to evaluate the culture of wood".Japan World HeritageOf these, the first cultural heritageHimeji castleBuddhist buildings in the Horyuji area(All registered in 1993). All of these are structures that have been passed down to the modern age through the method of dismantling and repair, and there was an aspect that did not fit in the evaluation criteria of "stone culture" that basically did not require such repair, so it became a discussion, that is"(English edition'[Annotation 9]Led to the establishment of[43](Laterreference). This is a tree often found in Asia and Africa,Sun-dried brickIt has led to the increase of various world heritage sites, such as mud buildings, and has important significance in the history of world heritage sites.[44].

Appearance of cases to be erased

As the number of World Heritage sites increases each year, discussions about the upper limit begin to be seen (Later). On the other hand, if the registered property loses "prominent universal value", the property will beDelete from World Heritage ListThere was a regulation that[45], Such cases have not existed for a long time. But in 2007The 31th World Heritage CommitteeArabian Oryx ReserveWas erased for the first time, and then in 2009The 33th World Heritage CommitteeThen.Dresden Elbe ValleyWas erased.Koichiro MatsuuraConsiders 2007, the time of the first erasure, to be of greater importance to conservation and protection[46].

While facing various challenges, the number of World Heritage Sites continues to grow.Industrial heritage,Cultural roadWhile incorporating relatively new cultural heritage categories such as2010ToCentral area of ​​Thang Long Imperial Palace in Hanoi(Vietnam World Heritage), the number of registered World Heritage sites exceeds 900[47],2014ToOkavango Delta(Botswana World Heritage Site) Has exceeded 1,000 cases[Annotation 10].

2019 yearsThe 43th World Heritage CommitteeAt the end of the treaty, there were 193 countries that signed the treaties, and the number of World Heritage sites registered was 1,121 (167 countries).[48].. It is often counted as the most successful category of international treaties due to its number of parties, popularity and name recognition.[49].

Registration target

Properties to be registeredReal estateThat is, it is limited to land and structures that cannot be moved. So, for example, even if the temple is a World Heritage Site, it is enshrined inside.Buddha statueArt works (Personal property-Movable cultural property) Is usually not a World Heritage Site. However,Todaiji BuddhaIf it is difficult to move, as in[50].. On the contrary, if it is judged that there is a possibility that it will become movable in the future, it will not be accepted even if it is real estate at the time of recommendation (“Working Guidelines”, paragraph 48).[51].Cerveteri and Etruscan Cemeteries in TarquiniaWhen registering (Italy), it was debated whether to register the adjoining museum, which contains a number of excellent excavated items, but the World Heritage Committee said that only the real estate would be evaluated. The museum registration was not accepted due to the excavated artifacts[52][Annotation 11].. The limits to the setting of such objects are laterIntangible cultural heritageLed to the framework of[53](See below).

In order to be registered as a World Heritage Site, at least one of the below-mentioned World Heritage Evaluation Criteria must be satisfied, and it must have "completeness" and "authenticity" that can prove its "prominent universal value."World Heritage CommitteeNeed to be judged from[54].. At that time, if they belong to the same history or culture, or if there are similarities in biological and geological characteristics,Serial Properties(Serial Properties,Related assets) Are collectively permitted (“Working Guidelines”, paragraph 137)[55][Annotation 12].. For example,France,India,Japan,アルゼンチンIt is a world heritage of 7 countriesLe Corbusier's architectural works-A remarkable contribution to the modern architectural movement-Are examples.

In addition, after registration, it is necessary that the protection and management framework has already been established by domestic law at the time of recommendation in order to inherit it in the future. For example in Japan,Atomic bomb domePrior to the World Heritage nomination ofCultural property protection lawHas been amended for the Atomic Bomb DomeHistoric siteIt is possible to specify it because it is necessary to match such points.[56].

Sort

World heritage is divided into three types: cultural heritage, natural heritage, and complex heritage according to their contents. In Japanese literature,Intangible cultural heritageIs sometimes called simply "World Heritage",LaterAs such, they are not subject to the World Heritage Convention and are not included in the "cultural heritage" treated by the World Heritage Committee.[57].

In addition to the content classification, there is a high priority for international response.World heritage at risk(Crisis heritage), “Cross-border assets” owned by two or more countries, unofficial classification but widely used in Japanese-speaking countriesNegative world heritage"and so on.

cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is stipulated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention,Commemorative work, Buildings,(I.e.[Annotation 13]Of those that have universal value in history, art, or scholarship[58].. Often called "World Cultural Heritage"[59].

Although the basic categories remain the above three types, the categories included in them are as described above in 3.Cultural landscapeSince the concept of was added,Industrial heritage,Cultural roadVarious categories have been added[58].. Cultural heritage is expanding in scope as research progresses, and thereforeICOMOSHowever, the list of World Heritage sites is expected to be an "open list"[60].

Natural heritage

Natural heritage is stipulated in Article 2 of the World Heritage Convention. By its definition, "a characteristic natural area consisting of inanimate or biological products or groups of products with a universal value of appreciable or academic value" "geological or topographic formations" And areas that have clearly defined areas as habitats or native areas of threatened animal or plant species and that have significant academic or conservation universal value." A natural area with well-defined areas and areas that has significant academic, conservation, or landscape universal value."[61]Are listed. Often called "World Natural Heritage"[59].

In the case of cultural heritage, various types of cultural heritage have been sought after through thematic research conducted by ICOMOS.IUCNIs at leastThe 39th World Heritage CommitteeAs of (2015), it has been revealed that due to financial circumstances, research on natural heritage has not been conducted by theme.[62].. However, in the first place, natural heritage was different from cultural heritage, and its value was stable from the beginning.[63].. IUCN created a global catalog in 1982, and finished covering the types that should be registered as natural heritage.[64].. The IUCN therefore aims to make a natural heritage (and complex heritage) a "closed list", the limit of which is considered to be 250 to 300.[60].

Complex heritage

Mixed heritage targets those with outstanding universal value, both cultural and natural. Although the first complex heritage was registered in 1979[65]The World Heritage Convention has no direct provisions, and the work guidelines have not specified it for a long time. However, it was defined in the 2005th paragraph of the “Working Guidelines” during the 46 revision.[66].

Not only was the complex heritage registered as such from the beginning, but the cultural aspects of what was registered as a natural heritage were confirmed to become a complex heritage, or conversely, the natural aspects of a cultural heritage were confirmed to be a complex heritage. It may become a heritage. The first example registered in the latter case isAncient Mayan city and tropical reserve in Karakumul, Campeche(Mexico, expanded in 2014) However, due to the difficulty of this deliberation, the method of information exchange of advisory bodies was changed.[67].

Crisis heritage

Although it is not a classification based on the content, it is difficult to leave it for future generations, and there are strong concerns about registered properties,World heritage at riskIn addition to the list (Crisis Heritage List, List of World Heritage in Danger), additional consideration will be given for preservation and restoration (World Heritage Convention Article 11(4) and “Work Guidelines”, paragraph 177). -Paragraph 191)[68].. Crisis heritage is stipulated in detail in the World Heritage Convention and “Work Guidelines” and is positioned as the core concept of the system.[69].. Only the governments of each country can make recommendations to the World Heritage List, whereas in the case of registration on the Crisis Heritage List, applications from individuals and groups will be accepted and considered if proper grounds are shown. Sometimes[70].

In 2013Syrian Civil WarFor reasons such asWorld Heritage Sites in SyriaAll 6[71], In 2016Libyan Civil WarFor reasons such asWorld Heritage Sites in LibyaAll 5 are registered, etc.[72], 2019The 43th World Heritage CommitteeThere are 53 registered heritage sites at the end.[73].. However, some of the countries that hold the crisis heritage view disproportionately and show strong resistance, and even if it should be registered on the crisis heritage list, it is not easy to register it. There is[74].. In addition to the officially registered list of crisis heritage, there are also concerns about the increase in such “hidden crisis heritage” (Later).

Cross-border assets

Among World Heritage Sites, there are "Transboundary properties" that span multiple countries ("Working Guidelines", Paragraph 134).[75][Annotation 14].. It is recommended that the recommendation be prepared jointly by the holding countries and that a dedicated institution be jointly established for post-registration management.[75].. Some of theCarpathian mountains and ancient and native beech forests across Europe(12 countries),Struve Geodesic ArcThere are also cases where it is held in many countries such as (10 countries).

Initially, many cross-border assets were found in the natural heritage field, but the origin of such a system is older than the world heritage system itself,Waterton Glacier International Peace ParkIt is said to date back to the establishment (established in 1932, registered in the World Heritage List in 1995)[76][77].. It is said that the existence of cross-border assets conveys the importance of cooperation across borders and contributes to the construction of peace between holding countries. Despite this, there are examples of being registered separately due to various circumstances.[78].. For example,Iguazu (Iguaçu) National park(Brazil)Iguazu (Iguazu) National park(Argentina),Sundarbans National Park(India) andShundolbon(Bangladesh) and so on[79][80].. If it’s a cultural heritagePilgrimage Routes in Santiago de Compostela: Camino Frances and Northern Spain(Spain) andPilgrimage route of Santiago de Compostela in FranceAnd so on[81]. In such an exampleGoguryeoSome of them originate from historical and political backgrounds, such as the ruins of (Later).

Negative world heritage

戦 争,Slave trade,Racism,Cultural purificationSuch as the remains of events that should not be repeated in human history, are also registered in the World Heritage List. These are also called "negative world heritage" (negative heritage).[83].

However, the classification is not officially recognized by the World Heritage Center or ICOMOS. Therefore, what is regarded as a negative heritage varies depending on the arguing person, but it is often mentioned.Atomic bomb drop on Hiroshima cityTellAtomic bomb dome,HolocaustIs evidence ofAuschwitz-Birkenau[Annotation 15](Poland),Slave tradeWas the base ofGoree Island(Senegal),Nelson MandelaAnti-includingapartheidIt was a camp for political prisonersRobben Island(South Africa) 4 items[83][84][85]And besides thisNuclear testInvolved inBikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site(Marshall Islands),TalibanbyCultural purificationSufferedBamiyan Valley Cultural Landscape and Ancient Ruins(Afghanistan) etc. may be considered as a negative heritage.[86][87](For other examples of what may be a negative legacy,Negative world heritagereference).

In addition, it is not uncommon for these World Heritage sites to be evaluated not only for tragic events, but also for movements that do not repeat them.[87]. For example, there was a related book that positioned the Atomic Bomb Dome as a “negative heritage” even before official registration.[88]The evaluation of the World Heritage registration focuses on the half-century peace movement aiming at a world without atomic bombs, and the misery itself of war and atomic bombs does not play a central role.[89][90].

Outstanding universal value and its evaluation criteria

As mentioned above, in order to become a World Heritage Site, “Outstanding Universal Value” (abbreviation is OUV)[91][Annotation 16]) Must have. However, the World Heritage Convention does not define "prominent universal value" itself[92]. Paragraph 49 of the “Working Guidelines” has a rough definition that it has great value not only for the present, but also for humanity in the future, without being bound by the framework of the state.[91]To be certified, it is necessary to meet at least one of the 10 criteria of World Heritage registration.[93].

The above conditions are unchanged from the beginning, but since the revision of the “Work Guideline” in 2005 added preservation management to the elements that make up OUV, the certification of OUV must meet the registration criteria and completeness and authenticity. , All proof that preservation and management is being done properly is required (paragraphs 77 and 78 of "Working Guidelines")[91].

World Heritage Registration Standard

Initially, the World Heritage registration standards were divided into cultural heritage standards (1)-(6) and natural heritage standards (1)-(4), but in 2005 it was decided to unify the two standards. Of yearThe 31th World Heritage CommitteeWas applied from[94][Annotation 17]. The new standards (1)-(6) correspond to the old cultural heritage standards (1)-(6), and the new standards (7), (8), (9), (10) are the old natural heritage in order. Corresponds to standards (3), (1), (2), (4)[94]. For this reason, it is possible to apply the new standard retroactively to properties in the past, and the current World Heritage Center information shows that the registration standard for properties registered under the old standard is also shown under the new standard. Are[94][Annotation 18].

The division of cultural heritage and natural heritage continues to exist even after the standards are unified, and the properties to which the new standards (1)-(6) have been applied are cultural heritage and the new standards (7)-(10) have been applied. The property is a natural heritage, and the property to which one or more of (1)-(6) and one or more of (1)-(7) are applied is a composite heritage.[95].

Registration criteria (evaluation criteria)[Annotation 19]Is as follows (“Working Guidelines”, paragraph 77)[96]) (The following are the standards posted on the World Heritage Center official website.[97]Is translated and quoted).

  • (1) A masterpiece that expresses the creative talents of mankind.
    • This standard is based on the manual published by UNESCO.geniusIt is stipulated that it can be applied to archaeological sites whose author is unknown, rather than the standard attributed to[98]. It used to have an artistic element, but the current standards do not.[99]Can be applied to industrial heritage with functional beauty[98].
  • (2) An important exchange of human values ​​in the development of architecture, technology, monumental arts, urban planning, and landscape design throughout a period or in a cultural area.
    • The former keyword of this standard was "impact", which reminds one-way propagation, but has been replaced by "exchange".[100].. In addition, the original wording that targeted architecture and memorial works, "for cultural landscape"Landscape designHowever, the target has expanded with the addition of “technology” for industrial heritage.[101].
  • (3) The only or at least rare evidence of an existing or extinct cultural tradition or civilization.
    • This standard was originally evidence of a vanished civilization, that is, a standard mainly targeting archeological sites.[102].. However, it was gradually revised in the 1990s when the cultural landscape was introduced, and the words "cultural tradition" and "existing" were added.[100].
  • (4) An excellent example of architectural style, group of buildings, accumulation of technology or landscape that illustrates an important period in human history.
    • This standard was originally a standard that emphasized architecture, but "landscape" was added for cultural landscape and "technology accumulation" was added for industrial heritage.[103].
  • (5) Traditional settlements representing a certain culture (or multiple cultures) or outstanding examples of land or sea use. Or a striking example of a human-environmental relationship that is endangered due to irreversible changes.
    • Originally, this standard was primarily aimed at traditional settlements and architectural styles, but the wording on "land use" was added to reflect the introduction of cultural landscapes.[104]Later, it was specified not only on land but also at sea.[105].
  • (6) Events that have a prominent and universal significance, those that are directly or explicitly related to existing traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic or literary works (this criterion should be used in combination with other criteria) I think the World Heritage Committee).
    • This standard was originally written only in connection with "events, thoughts, and beliefs," but with the introduction of cultural landscapes, "existing traditions" and "artistic and literary works" were added.[106].. For example,Historic center of Salzburg cityThe reason why this standard applies to musicians isMozartIt is mentioned that it is a city that produced[107].
    • On the other hand, it is said that many of the so-called negative world heritage sites apply this standard (6) alone.[108].. However, as a result of the conflict over the registration of the Atomic Bomb Dome, it was forbidden to be applied alone.[109][Annotation 20], "However, only in exceptional cases and when related to other standards"[110]There was a time when there were severe conditions. The strict wording is three years laterRobben IslandInviting controversy during the deliberation of[Annotation 21], Changed to relaxed conditions as above.
  • (7) Includes the highest natural phenomena or areas of outstanding natural beauty and aesthetic importance.
    • Since it is difficult to objectively judge “beauty”, it is said that the advisory body does not make many registration recommendations based on this standard since 10, when the standard (1992) described below was changed.[112]. Also,Bialowieza ForestThere are also examples like (Belarus/Poland). It was registered only by the standard (1979) since registration in 7, but with the expansion in 2014, it was replaced with the standards (7) and (9) by removing (10).[113].
    • In Japan, application was considered when recommending Mount Fuji[114].. After all, it was not included in the recommendation because it was not a standard of cultural heritage, but there is also an opinion that there should be a point of view that the standard of "beauty" is regarded as a standard of cultural heritage.[115].. In the first place, this clause was originallyUntouched natureUntil 1992, when cultural landscapes were introduced, rather than just standards, there were tales of the interaction between culture and nature.[116].
  • (8) A prominent example of the major stages in the history of the earth. This includes biotic records, important geological processes in the development of topography, important topographical features, and natural geographical features.
  • (9) Outstanding examples of important ecological and biological processes that are evolving in the evolution and development of terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems and fauna and flora communities.
  • (10) Those that include the most important and significant natural habitat for the natural conservation of biodiversity. This includes the habitat of endangered species of excellent universal value from a scientific or conservation perspective.

If the World Heritage Committee recognizes that it meets at least one of the above criteria, it will be listed on the World Heritage List. Many World Heritage sites have multiple standards applied[119].. MostMount TaiTasmania Wilderness Area7 items of[120].

Completeness and authenticity

As mentioned above, the “prominent universal value” of a World Heritage Site also requires that it be complete and authentic.

Completeness

Completeness(Integrity) Means that the elements necessary for certifying the OUV of the property are fully prepared under appropriate maintenance management (paragraphs 78, 87 and 88 of "Work Guidelines").[121].Integrity,WholenessAlso called[122].

While it is required to secure a certain scale, it is negatively evaluated even if many elements unrelated to proof of value are mixed, so rather than expanding the range unnecessarily, focusing on individual element groups, It is required to formulate the scope in accordance with the proof of value, including making it a “relevant asset” that is captured by points[123].. For example,Tomioka Silk Mill and Silk Industry Heritage GroupAt first, it was a recommended property with 10 constituent assets, but as a result of refining in accordance with the proof of the value of technological innovation and international exchange of the silk industry, it has been narrowed down to 4 cases.[124]It is said that the narrowing down was effective[125][126].

The advisory body recommends reconsidering the range in the case of a recommendation with insufficient range setting, but on the contrary, when it is judged that an extra element is included, the exclusion of a specific element is used as a condition. May provide registration recommendations. For example,Mt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of artIn the recommendation ofMiho MatsubaraExclusion of[127],"Kamiyadoru Island" Munakata, Okinoshima and related heritage groupsIn the recommendation ofNiihara/Nuyama Burial MoundsExclusions such as[128]Each was recommended (all registered in reverse). On the other hand,Hiraizumi-Architecture/Garden and Archaeological Sites Representing the Pure Land of France-Exclusion was recommended by the recommendationYanaginosho RemainsIs an example in which it was decided to be excluded as recommended in the deliberation by the committee.

In the example of natural and compound heritage,Blue and John Crow Mountains(Jamaica) is an example in which narrowing down was recommended when recommending a national park with the same name, and re-recommendation was limited to only the core part.Great Himalaya National Park Preservation Area(India) is an example registered by expanding to an adjacent nature reserve as it is said that there is a shortage in the national park alone.

Authenticity

AuthenticityEspecially, regarding the cultural heritage, it means that the design, material, function, etc. have original value (“Working Guidelines”, paragraphs 79-82).[129].TruthIn addition to[130], As there was originally no concept corresponding to JapaneseAuthenticityMay be expressed in katakana[130].

The historical value of the rebuilt building was registered in 1980.Warsaw Historical Center(Poland) already had a problem[131].. The streets of WarsawSecond World WarIt was faithfully restored after a reconstruction project that was said to have been thoroughly destroyed by the war, and that even the cracks on the walls were reproduced after the war.[132].. Conflicting discussions continued in 1979 and 1980, in exchange for Warsaw registration, it was decided not to register other European cities rebuilt after World War II.[133].. The "Work Guidelines" also clearly states that reconstruction of historical areas is only permitted exceptionally (paragraph 86).[129].. However, registered in 2005Le Havre, a city rebuilt by Auguste Perret(France), renewed pre-war lookReinforced concreteThere is an example in which a plan city for building is registered[134].

After that, the issue of "authenticity" was highlighted in relation to the bias of registered properties. This is because unlike European cultural heritage, which is mainly composed of solid stone structures, the cultural heritage of Asia and Africa, which is mainly composed of trees and soil, is stored differently.[135][136].. So in 1994NaraDocuments Adopted at the "International Conference on the Authenticity of World Heritage Sites"[Annotation 9]In, authenticity takes into account each cultural background.[137]In the case of wooden construction, even if the building materials are replaced with new ones, authenticity will be recognized if the traditional construction methods and functions are maintained.[138].. Japan is also actively involved in the definition of this authenticity and is regarded as a remarkable contribution to Japan in the history of the World Heritage System.[138][139].

Registration range

The World Heritage site (Boundary) is required to include the elements necessary for proving “Outstanding Universal Value” (OUV), including completeness, as described above.[140].. It is said that the setting of the range should not be influenced by administrative divisions, etc., and it is desirable that it be in accordance with the characteristics of natural topography[140].. The range can be changed even after registration. about thatLaterchecking ...

When registering a world heritage site,Buffer zone(Buffer zone) is often provided. However, it is an area not recognized as having OUV and is not a World Heritage Site[141].. In the past, the world heritage registration area was called the core zone, but since 2008, the world heritage itself has not been mistakenly recognized as if the core area and the buffer zone were both world heritage registration areas. The registered area of ​​is called property and has become clearly distinguished from the buffer zone.[142].

Buffer zone

Buffer zoneIs in katakana as it isBuffer zoneSometimes expressed as[143].. The idea of ​​setting a buffer zone outside the originally protected area can be said to be an extension of the concept found in nature conservation to cultural heritage. This range is set by UNESCO(English editionThe concept of “core area” and “buffer area” was introduced based on the fact that there were three categories of “core area”, “buffer area” and “transition area” in[144].. In the case of Japanese ministries, the Buffer zone is a "buffer zone" for World Heritage Sites.Biosphere reserve(UNESCO Eco Park) translates as "buffer area"[145][Annotation 22].

The role of the buffer zone is an area set up to protect assets, and development is regulated legally or customarily.[146].. In the case of France, for example, there is a uniform regulation (a radius of 500 meters) around the historic monument, but in the case of World Heritage, there is no mechanical demarcation in the protected area, and only the same area for the entire property Not something you have to set[147].. Initially, the buffer zone was not specified in the policy document and was not set as a very early World Heritage Site.[148].. Although it was gradually included in the "work guidelines" of 1980 and 1988,[149]It was in 2005 that the "work guidelines" were revised to require strict application.[150], If not set, it is necessary to show the reason[151].. When recommending a World Heritage Site, it is necessary in principle to specify not only the asset but also the buffer zone, the size and use, and submit a map (“Working Guidelines”, paragraph 104).[152].

from then,The 31th World Heritage Committee(2007) is set retroactively to 7 World Heritage sites already registered, etc.[153], "Minor changes" (Later) As a retroactive setting of the buffer zone[152].

On the other hand, unlike the biosphere reserves, there is no transition area outside the buffer zone, so that development just outside the buffer zone has become a problem.[154].. For exampleTower of LondonFor skyscrapersThe ShardWas built outside the buffer zone, but its height in the city of London has affected the view of the Tower of London.[155].. Since it was outside the buffer zone, the World Heritage Committee expressed concern, but did not go further.[156].. The World Heritage Committee has come to the opinion that even outside the buffer zone it should be regulated if it affects the landscape.[157][Annotation 23].. On the other hand, some commentators are concerned that it may lead to excessive restraint on the growth and development of cities.[158].

As mentioned above, it is acceptable not to set the buffer zone if the reason is specified. The reason for being allowed is that if the protection range of the asset itself is originally set sufficiently wide, or if the setting of a buffer zone is meaningless considering the conditions depending on the environment where the asset is located, such as the Great Plains and underground. Or it may be judged as unnecessary[152]. But,Force bridge(Registered in 2015) did not set a buffer zone due to the wide scope of protection, but there were cases where the debate was confused, and experts recommended that a buffer zone should not be set as an exception. Is considered[152].

World heritage list registration procedure and post-registration conservation

The prerequisites for the registration of the World Heritage List, the flow of examination, and the conservation status report after registration are stipulated in the "Work Guidelines for Implementing the World Heritage Convention" ("Work Guidelines"). The flow up to the registration is illustrated below.

The government agency in charge of each country recommends ready-made properties listed on the provisional list (described later)
UNESCO World Heritage Center is an advisory body[Annotation 24]Request to evaluate
Candidates for cultural heritageInternational Monument Remains Conference (ICOMOS) recommends whether to register based on the field survey.
Consultations may also be held with IUCN on cultural landscapes.[159]
Natural heritage candidateInternational Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Recommends whether to register based on the field survey
World Heritage CommitteeFinal deliberation
Official registration

Provisional list

Provisional listIs a list submitted by each country to the UNESCO World Heritage Center prior to being registered as a World Heritage Site. Originally, it was not allowed to register and recommend cultural heritage that is not on this list to the World Heritage Committee in principle, but with the 2005 revision of the “work guidelines”, natural heritage is also obligatory. It became so[160][161]. However,Bam earthquakeSuffered catastrophic damage in (2003)Bam and its cultural landscape(Iran,2004Like registration)[162], If it is recognized that it is necessary to urgently register due to an unforeseen situation, it may be admitted that the provisional list and recommendation can be made almost at the same time in accordance with the provisions regarding "urgent registration recommendation".[163](Later).

The provisional list, there is a list of aims to countries registration application to the World Heritage Committee to the prospect of within 1 years from one year[164], Review every 10 years and resubmit[165]. However, if you do not recommend for 10 years, you do not have to remove it. For example, in Japan, of the properties that have been on the provisional list since 1992,Temples and shrines in the ancient city of KamakuraWas first recommended approximately 20 years later (results withdrawn before the deliberations),Hikone CastleHas never been recommended.

The properties listed on the provisional list were not approved by the World Heritage Committee for their "Outstanding Universal Value" (OUV). Also, some have received a decision to postpone registration. However, at the World Heritage Committee "not registered" (Later) Is not allowed to continue to be included in the provisional list (paragraph 68 of the “Working Guidelines”).[165][Annotation 25].

The World Heritage Committee urges each country that has concluded a treaty to scrutinize the OUV of its heritage and to show that conservation activities are being carried out properly when listing on the provisional list. There is. The Committee also called for the creation of the provisional list to shed light on properties that are not yet registered, and for countries with many World Heritage sites to narrow down the provisional list as much as possible. Intended to help correct "property bias"[166].

This tentative list is a list where properties that each country thinks have OUV can be added or removed. On the other hand, regarding properties that are in conflict with other countries, proposals have been made to take into account the verification of the World Heritage Committee, but there are also careful opinions.[167].The 41th World Heritage CommitteeThen, it was reminded that the provisional list was created by each country independently, and that it does not reflect the intentions of the World Heritage Center and the Commission.[168].

In the case of Japan, the description on the provisional list isAgency for Cultural Affairs,Ministry of the Environment,Forestry AgencyThe above 3 ministries and agencies are in charge of recommendation.Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism,Fisheries AgencyAs an observer to 6 ministries that addedMinistry of educationMinistry of AgricultureIt was necessary to go through the "World Heritage Convention-related ministries and agencies liaison meeting"[169][170]. After that, the participating ministries were changed, and as of 2017, the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Ministry of the Environment, Forestry Agency, Fisheries Agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry,Imperial Household Agency,Cabinet SecretariatHas become[171][Annotation 26]. Based on that, the properties that were officially decided after the liaison meetingCabinetConsent is given[172][Annotation 27].

Recommend

As a general rule, submit a recommendation letterWorld Heritage Convention PartiesCan only be done[173]. So for exampleTaiwan TheList of World Heritage SitesAlthough it is positive to register as a World Heritage site,[174],World Heritage ConventionNot a Party,One chinaRaisePeople's Republic of ChinaHas never recommended a property in Taiwan, so it has never been subject to consideration by the World Heritage Committee[173][175].. vice versaVatican City TheUnited NationsNeither UNESCO nor UNESCO, but because the World Heritage Convention is signed,The whole country is a world heritage siteIs[176]. The exceptions that are not owned by the parties to the World Heritage Convention are:Old City of Jerusalem and its WallsOnly. this isJerusalemFrom the problem of belonging,JordanWas accepted by the application ofWorld Heritage Sites in JordanInstead of being positioned as "Jerusalem (application by Jordan)"[177]. In addition, as a concept that does not fit into the current framework,World Heritage on the high seasIs being sought.

The recommendation should include provisions such as the scope and content of the asset, proof that it has OUV, and conservation-related information including monitoring of threatening factors.[178].

The deadline for official recommendation is February 2 of the previous year[Annotation 28], Submitted the draft by September 9th of the previous year,World Heritage CenterAuthorized to submit a formal recommendation after being pointed out by the[178]. Submission of draft is optional, but if there is a defect in the formal recommendation submitted by February 2, the draft will not be sent to the advisory body and will be required to be resubmitted from the following year.[178].

Emergency registration recommendation

Emergency registration recommendationThe procedure of means that the recommended property can be recommended over the normal procedure when there is no doubt that it owns OUV, and when it is urgent, such as when facing a serious danger (see “Working Guidelines”). (161・162 paragraph)[179]. In the case of urgent registration recommendation, it is possible to perform provisional list entry and recommendation at the same time, and register at the fastest in the same year. If registered by this procedure, it will be registered at the same time on the crisis heritage list.[179].

The assets registered by this procedure had a risk of flooding due to dam constructionAshur(Iraq)[180]Suffered from a big earthquakeBam and its cultural landscape(Iran)[181]and so on.Palestinian World HeritageIn the case of, the regulation was applied three times in a row from the first property, but there is controversy regarding such a method (Later).

Advisory Board Recommendations

As shown in the figure above, regarding natural heritage,International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) about cultural heritageInternational Monument Remains Conference(ICOMOS) is an advisory body[Annotation 24]As a preliminary examination based on the field survey[Annotation 29]. There are four types of recommendations: "registration", "information inquiry", "deferral of registration", and "non-registration", as in the resolution of the World Heritage Committee described later.[182]. Although the World Heritage Committee will review based on the recommendations as described below, properties with recommendations other than "registration" may be registered in reverse, or may be evaluated lower than the recommendations.[183].

There is only one inspector of the advisory body dispatched to the site, and a recommendation is prepared by multiple people based on that investigation.[184]. In the case of Japan, in principle, in the ICOMOS search, investigators from the Asia-Pacific region (described later) are dispatched. This is said to avoid unnecessary criticism when investigators from other districts make a severe evaluation.[185].

Upstream process

Upstream processIs a procedure for dialogue with the World Heritage Center and advisory bodies in the recommendation process to help resolve or reduce problems related to registration (“Working Guidelines”, paragraph 122).[186]. this isThe 32th World Heritage CommitteeProposed by[186],The 34th World Heritage CommitteeBased on the resolution inThe 35th World Heritage Committee10 targets to be introduced on a trial basis were selected inNamib sand sea(Namibia),Rock paintings in Ha'il region of Saudi ArabiaHas registered as a World Heritage List[187]. On the other hand, in Jordan(English editionAs a result, some projects were withdrawn as a result of implementation[188][189]. In order to fully implement the upstream process, it is necessary to solve problems such as cost sharing, but it is recommended to seek advice from the advisory body and the World Heritage Center at least before writing the recommendation. It has become[190].The 41th World Heritage CommitteeAlthough it was officially introduced in (2017), due to the above restrictions, only 2 cases will be selected and implemented annually for the next two years.[191].

After the submission of the recommendation letter, no contact between the advisory body and the recommending country was allowed.Rajasthan Hills CitadelsThe recommendation from India, which has been dissatisfied with the evaluation of India, has led to the dispatch of special advisory missions from advisory bodies during that period.[192]. Also,The 40th World Heritage Committee(2016) From the deliberation, the advisory body will issue an "interim report" before the formal recommendation, making it easier to respond to withdrawal of recommendation or major revision of recommendation.[193]. JapaneseNagasaki Churches and Christian HeritageIs an example withdrawn from the judgment that a major re-examination is necessary based on the interim report.[194](Formally registered in 2018).

Bureau

Bureau(Bureau) is the chairman, vice-chairman (21 people), secretary of 5 member countries of the World Heritage Committee.[Annotation 30]It is a meeting held only[195].Bureau conferenceAlso called[196]. Until 2001, the World Heritage Committee held in December[197]At that time, a bureau was held about XNUMX months ago and just before.[198]. In particular, the bureau six months ago was a place to decide whether or not to newly register a World Heritage Site, and there was room to overturn the recommendation by the time the committee was held in December.[198]It was normal that it would not be overturned at the World Heritage Committee[199]. At this time, the bureau had high authority, but there was criticism that strong decision-making power gathered in the limited number of 21 member countries.[200]. Therefore, whether or not the World Heritage Site can be registered will be unified into regular committee deliberation, with the last being the Bureau held in April 6, when the World Heritage Committee held around June and July. Became[198].

Since then, bureaus have only dealt with limited issues during the World Heritage Committee, such as coordinating agendas and managing dates.[195].

World Heritage Committee Resolution

World Heritage CommitteeExamines the recommended properties based on the recommendations of the advisory body,Registration""Information inquiry""Registration postponement""Not registeredResolution” (paragraph 153-164, “Working Guidelines”).[201]. The property for which the "registration" recommendation was issued has rarely been overturned by the World Heritage Committee. In exceptional cases, except for the cases involving territorial issues described below, the committee members opposed the method of restoring the ruins.Bolgar Ruins(Russia. Later official registration)[202], Recommending country proposed postponement due to lack of coordination with local(English edition(Canada. Later official registration)[203]Etc. are very few.

The World Heritage Committee also has an extraordinary committee, but in principle, World Heritage sites are registered only by regular committees.The 43th World Heritage Committee(2019) The only exception at the end was registered by the 1981 Extraordinary CommissionOld City of Jerusalem and its WallsIs only[Annotation 31].

Registration

"Registration" (description, inscribe[Annotation 32]) Officially authorizes registration on the World Heritage List. Based on the 2005 revision of the “Work Guidelines”, after 2007, when officially registered, the OUV statement must be made[204]. The OUV statement is a two-page A4 summary that summarizes assets, applied registration criteria, authenticity, integrity, preservation status, etc.[205]. Assets registered prior to 2007 were not obligatory, but they were subsequently required to make retrospective statements. For example, in Japan, all retroactive statements were completed in 2014.[206].

Information inquiry

"Reference information" (refer[Annotation 32]) Is generally prominent in universal value, but was resolved in cases where deficiencies such as preservation plans were pointed out.[207]If you submit the relevant additional documents by the deadline, you can be re-examined by the World Heritage Committee next year. However, if there is no re-recommendation within 3 years, the following procedure will be required to follow the same procedure as new recommendation ("Working paragraph", paragraph 159).[208].

The “Information Inquiry” resolution allows for the earliest redeliberations of the following year. Therefore, if the recommending country receives a recommendation that it is difficult to register that year, it is the resolution that it wants as the second best measure, and the appeal to the member countries is also remarkable.[208]. However, if the "information inquiry" resolution is issued, the recommendation form cannot be rewritten significantly, and the recommended range cannot be changed. Therefore, the easy "information inquiry" resolution risks moving away from the formal registration. It is also pointed out that there is[209]. In fact in India(English editionWas overturned by the 30th World Heritage Committee as a "information inquiry" resolution overturning the "deferred registration" recommendation,The 32th World Heritage CommitteeIn the deliberation of "registration deferred" resolution, registration has been far away[210].

Registration postponement

Notable evidence of universal value is considered inadequate[207], "Delayed registration" (deferred description, defer[Annotation 32]) Is resolved. In this case, it is necessary to re-submit the necessary documents and then undergo another on-site survey by the advisory body, so the re-examination by the World Heritage Committee will be at least two years after the next year.[212].

"Postponement of registration" is often viewed as a disgrace. In the case of Japan, the first decision to postpone registration was issued.Hiraizumi-Architecture/Garden and Archaeological Sites Representing the Pure Land of France-Is[Annotation 33]. At this time, in Japan, it was reported that there were “losing elections” and “Hiraizumi shock”, which also influenced the movement of other local governments to register as a World Heritage Site.[213].

The "deferral of registration" resolution is certainly positioned one step below that of the "information inquiry" resolution, but it should be understood that the experts gave the opportunity to deepen the proof of value over time, which is a disgrace. It is also pointed out that it is not[214]. It should be noted that it took 30 years as an example of the heritage that took a long time from the first “deferred registration” resolution to the official registration.Lake District in England[215]Took over 35 yearsSydney Opera House [216]and so on.

Not registered

Properties that have not been recognized for their outstanding universal value are “not registered” (not listed, not inscribe[Annotation 32]) Is resolved. As a general rule, properties that have been resolved to be “non-registered” cannot be re-recommended. However, it can be recommended when new scientific knowledge is obtained or when the value from the registration criteria different from that when non-registration is recognized.[217][218].

When a “non-registration” recommendation is issued at the time of the advisory body's recommendation, a procedure for withdrawal of deliberations is often taken to avoid a “non-registration” resolution by the Commission. For example, in 2012The 36th World Heritage CommitteeThen, nine recommended assets received the recommendation of "not registered"[Annotation 34]Yes, but five of them were withdrawn before the committee held[219]. The "non-registration" resolution was considered to have no merit to the recommending country.[217]. But,The 41th World Heritage CommitteeHowever, many of the assets that received the “non-registration” recommendation were not withdrawn, and four of the five cases that were deliberated were “delayed registration” or “information inquiry” resolutions. This different trend is2000 eraIt is said to indicate a conflict of opinion between the advisory body and the recommending country, which has increased from the middle[220].

Incidentally,World Heritage CommitteeAs a result of deliberation in such cases, a property whose registration has been postponed may be referred to as a backside world heritage site.[221][222]. Originally private on the internetWebsite[223]It is a concept launched in, not an official name.

monitoring

In world heritagemonitoringThere are two types of (Monitoring), one that must be included in the recommendation form and the other that is performed after registration, by clearly indicating the indicators and influential factors related to maintenance management.[224]. However, even if they use the exact same terms, they are separate procedures.[225].

If there are any deficiencies in the monitoring items in the recommendation form, "information inquiry" recommendations may be issued.[226].

There are two types of post-registration monitoring: periodic reporting and reactive monitoring.Regular report(Periodic Report) is conducted every 6 years for all registered assets, and the value of the world heritage is maintained and preserved by gradually shifting the period in regions such as Asia/Pacific and Africa. Check other information updates etc.[227]. The first periodic report was conducted from 1 to 2000[228]. All the second periodic reports were completed from 2008 to 2012, and were summarized by the 2th World Heritage Committee in 2015.[227].

Reactive monitoring(Reactive Monitoring) is a procedure different from the regular report, and while the regular report is a report by the holding country, if the World Heritage Site is judged to be under some threat, the World Heritage Center or advisory body Do[229]. Naturally, it also applies to World Heritage and Crisis Heritage listed properties that may be deleted (paragraphs 169-170)[230].

However, reactive monitoring must be based on the resolution of the World Heritage Committee, and the cooperation of the holding country must be obtained, so it does not function sufficiently in an emergency or when the holding country is uncooperative. Including problems[231].

So what was newly introduced wasEnhanced monitoring system(Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism). This is a mechanism that enables a field survey at the discretion of the Director General of UNESCO without the resolution of the World Heritage Committee.The 31th World Heritage CommitteeIntroduced in[232]. This was a mechanism that allows multiple reports to be submitted in a timely manner even when the World Heritage Committee is not open, but as of 2017 it is not included in the official “work guidelines”.[233].

According to the original principle, only the property registered as a crisis heritage is considered[233]In fact, that was the case in 2007, but in 2008Machu Picchu Historic ReserveProperties that are not on the list of critical heritage were also included in the target.[234]. It is said that there were cases in which instead of being registered on the list of critical heritage sites, they were targeted for enhanced monitoring during that period.[235].

Changes after registration

Name

The name of the recommendation should be in English and French by the recommending country. The advisory body may recommend a name change that better describes the characteristics of the asset, and the recommending country itself may change the name accordingly. For example, "Meiji Japan's Industrial Revolution Heritage Steel & Steelmaking, Shipbuilding, Coal IndustryIs the name of the original recommendation "Meiji Japan's Industrial Revolution Heritage Kyushu, Yamaguchi and Related Areas", which was renamed based on the recommendation of ICOMOS.[236]. vice versa,Hiraizumi-Architecture/Garden and Archaeological Sites Representing the Pure Land of France-In that case, it was recommended to remove the “archaeological remains”, but the World Heritage Committee supported the opposition from Japan, so the name was registered as recommended.[237].

It is possible to change the name even after registration, and it will be accepted if the application of the holding country is approved by the World Heritage Committee.[238].NaziFor example, the Auschwitz concentration camp was changed to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi German extermination camp (1940-1945) to clarify that[239]From the English "Skellig Michael" speculated to respect local cultureGaelic"Skellig VihilExample of change to (Ireland)[238][Annotation 35]And so on.

There is no official Japanese translation for the World Heritage Site registered name in English or French. ,World Heritage AcademyEach group has a Japanese translation at its discretion. As a result, depending on the property, there are cases in which the notation differs for each document.

Minor changes

"Minor modifications" of the registration range are changes that do not significantly affect the "significant universal value" (OUV), and include the setting of buffer zones (see "Work Guidelines"). (163rd paragraph and Annex 11)[240]. In principle, if there is no problem with the rationality of the reason explanation, the World Heritage Committee will approve it without much discussion. For example, in 2016Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii MountainsCockfighting shrineThe other 22 points added are not "extensions" but "minor changes".[241].

If it is recognized as exceeding the “minor” range, it will be considered as a significant change in the so-called “enlargement” registration procedure (same as new recommendation). There is no clear demarcation of minority or seriousness, and it is judged comprehensively[242].. For example,The 34th World Heritage CommitteeThen.Sanjiang River Conservation Areas in YunnanThere was debate over (China). In response to the fact that pre-registration resource mining activities in this part of the World Heritage Site were revealed, the Chinese authorities owning the mining area (total area of ​​approximately 170 millionHaOf which 7 hectares) are excluded.[242]. As a result of being finally voted, it was approved as a "minor change" with the approval of two-thirds.[242],World Heritage Committee of the next yearIt was decided that changes due to mining etc. should always be treated as "significant changes".[240].

Significant change

“Significant modifications” of the scope of registration refers to changes that not only change the scope significantly but also affects OUV, and the same procedures as for newly registered properties are applied.[244].. So-called"Enlargement registration"(Extended registration) Corresponds to this, but also applies to reduced registration.

For example, "Enlargement registration"Darjeeling Himalaya Railway"ToNilgiri Mountain RailwayAnd so onIndian mountain railwaysThe example expanded to "is applicable. However, 1980 registrationBurgess ShaleRegistered in 1984Canadian Rocky Mountains Natural ParksAs integrated into[245], There are also cases that do not take the form of "expansion". In addition, the World Heritage registration standards may change due to such changes in the scope. The aboveBialowieza ForestIs also an example.

On the contrary, the first example of reduction isGelati Monastery(ジ ョ ー ジ ジ). originallyBagrati Cathedralと と も にGeorgian KingdomAlthough it was registered as a masterpiece of the times,[246], It was judged that the authenticity was lost due to the reconstruction work of the cathedral, and in 2017, it was switched to registration only for the Gelati monastery.[247]. This is a new method of cutting off elements that have lost significant universal value (OUV) and retaining the remaining OUV.[248].

Erasure

A World Heritage Site will be "deletioned" from the list if it is determined that the OUVs that were present at the time of registration are lost, or if the conditionally registered property is no longer met. There is (working guidelines, paragraphs 192-198)[249].

The first time I was erased was2007 OfArabian Oryx Reserve(Oman). This property had a history of being registered overturning IUCN's “deferral of registration” recommendation due to the lack of a protection plan, but it was confirmed that there was a fatal deterioration such as a drastic reduction in the protected area instead of the plan being prepared. Was deleted, and the Omani government announced that it would prioritize development.[250].2009ToDresden Elbe Valley(Germany) Has been erased. This is because the construction of the bridge, which the World Heritage Committee determined to "damage the landscape," was not canceled despite the warning and continued based on the referendum.[251]. In addition, as mentioned above, there have been cases in which some of the constituent assets are deleted to reduce the registration range.

On the other hand, at the final meeting of the 40th anniversary of the adoption of the World Heritage Convention (2012), the participating experts criticized that the removal from the list would be a waiver of liability in the light of the purpose of international cooperation.[252].

The conditions for erasure are as described above, and the handling of cases such as withdrawal from the World Heritage Convention is not specified. However, experts point out that if you withdraw, you will not be able to take various procedures and you will not be able to use even the World Heritage emblem.[249].

Challenges and responses

Bias of registered countries

The 43th World Heritage CommitteeAs of the end of (2019), 1,121 world heritage sites were registered, of which 869 were cultural heritage sites, 213 were natural heritage sites, and 39 were complex heritage sites.[48]. As you can see at first glance, the number of cultural heritage registrations is overwhelmingly large, and it is biased towards European properties that account for about half of cultural heritage (List of World Heritage Convention Partiesreference).

Also, Italy/China (55 each), Spain (48), Germany (46), France (45).[Annotation 36]While there are countries where a large number of properties are registered, etc.Countries without any registered propertiesThere are 26 countries (all figures are at the end of the 43rd Committee)[48]. From the West Asian history experts, one of the reasons why the world heritage of West Asia is few is that the idea of ​​cultural property protection itself is of European origin and is a new concept for West Asia. Some have pointed out that the design itself is rooted in Western-centricism.[253].

originallyWorld Heritage CommitteeNo regional assignments were set for the member countries. In the case of the UNESCO main body, to the executive committeeWestern Europe-North America,Eastern Europe,Latin America,Asia-The Pacific Ocean,AfricaAlthough there are quotas for the five regions, the World Heritage Committee did not have quotas until the beginning of the 5st century due to reasons such as consideration for cultural equity.[254]. As a result, as of 1999, only 10 countries had served as committee members three times (term of office for 3 years), whereas 6 countries, or 6% of the contracting parties at that time, were appointed once. The former included many countries with a large number of World Heritage sites, including Italy.[255]. In light of these issues, the “Work Guidelines” and “Rules of Procedure for the Conference of the Parties” have been revised, and the Member States should “voluntarily” reduce the six years to four years, and at least six years before re-election. , "Western Europe/North America" ​​"Eastern Europe" "Latin America/Caribbean" "Arab countriesIt is stipulated that the minimum quotas for each of the two countries from "," "Asia and Pacific" from three countries, and "Africa" ​​from four countries should be set.[256].

In the World Heritage deliberations, the recommendation of countries that do not have (or have few) World Heritage is prioritized, but there are criticisms that this is considered excessive. For example,セントルシアFirst World Heritage "Piton Management AreaIt was pointed out that the fact that the country did not have a World Heritage until then was pointed out because (2004) was overturned by the advisory body and was registered as a reversal.[258]. This is no exception,The 35th World Heritage CommitteeThen, it is a problem from the advisory body that the number of reverse-registered properties exceeds the properties recommended for registration and that properties with insufficient proof of value and protection management plan are registered as World Heritage sites. Became[259]. Most of the properties that reversed this time were in Africa, Arab, and Latin America.[259]. This tendency is a problem related to "reliability" in the Strategic Action Guidelines formulated in 2002 and revised in 2007.[260]. In the first placeSovereign stateSince the borders of Japan are not drawn in consideration of the representativeness of nature and culture, having at least one World Heritage site for each treaty contracting party could rather bias the list. There is also[261].

Such regional disparities of World Heritage Sites and prioritization as a remedial measure, or imposition of authenticity and values, is stated as follows.HegemonyFor the UNESCOCulture hegemonyThere is also a sharp criticism that "[262].

Economic disparity

World heritage requires a large amount of money for recommendation. For example,Gusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu KingdomIt is said that it cost more than 1 million yen to recommend[263]Says that these costs can even amount to billions.[264]. The breakdown is the personnel expenses of the expert who actually writes the recommendation letter, the commission fee to the consultant company who handles the photos attached to the recommendation letter, etc., and also the holding of expert meetings to create the recommendation letter etc. May be done[265].

In addition, World Heritage nominations must be written in English or French, so countries that do not have these languages ​​as official languages ​​will also need to arrange specialists who are fluent in those languages.[266]. For example, oldUSSR3 countries that were members (Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Was recommendedNishitenzanFaces exactly such difficulties,World Heritage CenterReceived support from[266]. as a result,Developing countriesMay not be able to adequately cover these costs and may be unable to reach formal deliberation by submitting incomplete recommendations.[267]. Like Nishitenzan,World Heritage FundSome of them are being sent to support the recommendation of developing countries, but that is not enough, and many countries do not receive support.[267][266]. It has been pointed out that this situation is contributing to further bias.[267][266].

Type bias

As mentioned above, cultural heritage is predominant in terms of content. It is pointed out that this is different from the natural heritage, as described above, and the difference in the nature of cultural heritage that increases in types as research progresses, and also in the relationship with other institutions. That is, for natural heritage, the MAB plan,Ramsar ConventionFor example, there is a multi-layered system for worldwide listing and protection, and the best of them can be made a world natural heritage, whereas in the case of cultural heritage, there is no similar mechanism, They tend to concentrate on world heritage.[268].

As an attempt to correct such imbalance,A global strategy for the representation, balance and credibility of the World Heritage List(The Global Strategy for a Representative, Balanced and Credible World Heritage List, 1994) Was launched,Cultural landscape,Industrial heritage,20st centuryThe need for comparative studies to register heritage, etc. was shown[269][270]. Redefining “prominent universal value”, which has been undertaken since 2004, and working to make appropriate choices to eliminate bias when making a provisional list. Is an example[271].

Cultural landscape

Cultural landscape is a type of cultural heritage that was introduced in 1992, and refers to the landscape created by both humans and nature.[272]. This is a cultural heritage that shows that humans have evolved while being affected by various factors while being constrained by the natural environment (“Work Guidelines”, paragraph 47).[272][273]. The contents aregardenA landscape that incorporates nature into a space designed by humans, such asRice terraceslikeAgriculture, forestry and fisheriesA landscape that is organically linked to various human activities, includingSacred place of natureCan be divided into landscapes to which humans have added religious and artistic value, etc.[272][273].

The first cultural landscape in the World Heritage Site was registered as a natural heritage site,MaoriThe cultural elements that have been the object of worship ofTongariro National Park(New Zealand, expanded 1993)[274]. However, the debate that started it began in 1981, and the properties that played an important role in that debateLake District in EnglandMet. It was postponed to registration in 1987 and 1990, respectively, but its examination was said to have played an important role in establishing the concept of cultural landscape (formally registered in 2017).[275].

Natural heritage in UK propertiesSt KildaThe expansion of (1986) also caused much debate. Originally ICOMOS recognized cultural value from the beginning, but not in 1986 when there was no concept of cultural landscape.[276]. Although it was recognized as a multi-inheritance in the 2005 deliberation, it was confused whether it was regarded as a cultural landscape or not.[277]. Some experts who attended said that it was hard to say that the standards around it were not clear among the member countries.[278].

In any case, the cultural landscape was widely accepted and some even said it was the mainstream nomination of World Heritage sites in early 21st century deliberations.[279]. On the other hand, due to the heavy use of cultural landscape concepts, ICOMOS is said to have come to judge its value more severely.[280], Including the completeness of the registration range, etc.[281]. Mt. Fuji, which was recognized internationally as one of the representative examples of cultural landscapes, was not recommended or registered as a cultural landscape.[282].

Industrial heritage

The industrial heritage itself was registered from the beginning. Included in the so-called "World Heritage No. 1"Wieliczka Salt MineIs also classified as an industrial heritage[283]. However, the full-scale discussionNew LanarkIt was said that it should be done after the recommendation of (UK), and the discussion about whether to register such a type led to the “global research” started in the following year, and this research was linked to the global strategy.[284]. "industryIs an element that is inseparable from the activities of humankind, and the fact that it can exist in any part of the world is considered to be the reason why it is incorporated into the global strategy.[285].

After that, as mentioned above, the evaluation criteria were revised assuming the registration of industrial heritage, and the number of industrial heritage registrations increased. But,Völklingen Steel WorksDuring the deliberation (Germany, registered in 1994), some participants were confused about adding such a non-decorative modern factory to the World Heritage Site.[286]. In addition, conventional industrial heritageIndustrial revolutionIn many cases, it was described mainly in England, but in the World Heritage, it was ancient.Roman EmpireRuins of a gold mineLas Medulas(Spain) from the 20th centuryHydroelectric power plantincludingRyukan Notodden Industrial Heritage(Norway), etc.[287].

20th century heritage

20th century heritage is as its name implies20st centuryIt is a cultural heritage targeting buildings built in, including some in the latter half of the 19th century.[289]. Sometimes called “modern heritage”[290][Annotation 37]. From a relatively early stage,Antoni Gaudi's worksSome properties were registered and evaluated from an aesthetic point of view (Spain).[211],Sydney Opera HouseWas considered to have not been fully evaluated when it was deliberated in 1981, and was finally registered in the re-deliberation in 2007.[216].

Modernism architectureWas important in the category ofBauhaus and related heritage groups of Weimar, Dessau and Bernau(Germany), which is said to have prompted the registration of architecture of the same type.[291].. However, there is often concern that the registration of Modernist architecture does not make the World Heritage a place to honor outstanding architects.House of Tugendhat in Brno(Mies van der Rohe, Czech)[292],Louis Barragan House and WorkplaceDeliberation of (Mexico)[293],Le Corbusier's architecture and city planningOf deliberation at the time of the first registration postponement of[294].

20th century heritage and modernist architecture are not equal. It is said that there is a risk of incorporating the 20th century heritage into European centricism, and ICOMOS is not limited to modernist architecture.[295].. Already as a group for modernist architectureDOCOMOMOHowever, ICOMOS is trying to promote the registration of 20th century heritage in a broad sense, such as the establishment of the "20th Century Heritage International Scientific Committee," which is not limited to modernist architecture.[296].

Increase and maximum number of registrations

At the beginning of the World Heritage Site, there was even a plan to limit the number to 100.[297][298].. However, as of the 1981th World Heritage Committee in 5, it had already reached 110, and it did not take long for the unrealism of this outlook to become apparent.[299].. And in 2015The 39th World Heritage CommitteeHas exceeded 1,000 and is still increasing. While the above-mentioned Global Strategy has achieved certain results, such as reducing the percentage of countries that do not have World Heritage Sites.[300], Countries that originally have a lot of heritage have increased the recommendation of the recommended types of heritage, and as a result, it has not led to the suppression of the absolute number.[301].

There were reports that the world heritage brand value was impaired based on the number of cases exceeding 1,000.[297], There is no upper limit on the number of registered World Heritage sites (paragraph 58 of the "Work Guidelines")[302][Annotation 38].

In the past, there was no limit to the number of cases a committee could consider or the number of recommendations per country. Therefore, at the 1997 World Heritage Committee held in NaplesItaly World HeritageIncreased by 10[303][304], 24th World Heritage Committee (Cairns, 2000), the total number of recommendations is 72[305], The number of newly registered properties reached 61[306].. The constraint set by that committee is the Cairns Resolution. This has a maximum of one recommendation in each country[Annotation 39], The total number of deliberation was 30[307].. The 27th World Heritage Committee (Paris, 2003) revised this limit from 30 to 40, and the 28th World Heritage Committee (Suzhou, 2004) "Cairns-Suzhou Resolution". With this amendment, the maximum number of each country can be increased to 1 when one natural heritage is included, and the total number of deliberation is 2 (including re-deliberation and expansion registration deliberation).[308].. This was further modified in 2007 to allow the recommendation of two cultural heritage sites.[309].. The rule was revised in four years, so in 4The 35th World Heritage Committee1 cultural heritage and XNUMX natural heritage (however,Cultural landscapeIn 2014)The 38th World Heritage CommitteeWill be applied from[310].

In addition, the 2020th World Heritage Committee in 44 has decided that there will be only one case in each country and a total of 1 cases will be discussed.[311][312].. Although it was supposed to be 25 cases in the draft, it is the result of being revised to 35 cases after deliberation[312][313].

Strict deliberation

In the early days of World Heritage, there were many easy-to-understand registrations that anyone could understand.[314].. For example,The three major pyramids of Giza[Annotation 40](1979 years),Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper[Annotation 41](1980 years),Great Barrier Reef(1981 years),Taj Mahal(1983) etc. were registered in the early stage. Have twice chaired the World Heritage Committee(English editionCalled the early, easy-to-understand World Heritage Site "Idolistic Heritage"[315].. However, as the registration of such heritage progresses, it is said that the number of properties where it is difficult to recognize "prominent universal value" and the stories that support the value are difficult to understand.[316].

It is often said that World Heritage recommendations and deliberation tend to be stricter,[317][318]It has been pointed out that "difficulty in registration" may not only result from stricter deliberations, but also from the above qualitative changes.[319][320]. Also,Japan World Heritage Registered PropertyDeliberation2010 eraIt is said that strict recommendations are increasing when[125]It has been pointed out that the property used to be recommended by Japan was often rejected at the time of the property's initial participation in the World Heritage Convention because it was often rejected.[321].

Resistance to crisis heritage registration

The crisis heritage list should have a core function from the original meaning of the world heritage, but it has been pointed out that it does not function sufficiently.[322]. Of course, in anticipation of international support that can be obtained when registered on the crisis heritage list, there is no objection to the case where the holding country voluntarily applies for registration of the crisis heritage and the holding country accepts recommendations from advisory bodies. In some cases, the registration of crisis heritage is realized. As an example of the former, we sought the backing of international public opinion to stop the progress of development.Los Catios National Park(Colombia) is[323]. In this example, the registration of the Crisis Heritage List has not only led to the gathering of local residents and related parties, but has also strengthened the relationship with neighboring Panama.[Annotation 42]It was also safely excluded from the list of heritage sites because the development plan that had been lifted was withdrawn.The 39th World Heritage Committee[324]. This example is recognized as one of the effective use cases of crisis heritage.[324]. As an example of the latter, the advisory body's recommendation was accepted and it was registered as a World Heritage Site and at the same time on the Crisis Heritage List.Nanmatul: ritual center in Eastern Micronesia(Federated States of Micronesia)[325]There is. In this example, the World Heritage Committee received praise for the nation's attitude to accept the crisis heritage list positively.[326][327].

On the other hand, it is also true that there is often a strong opposition by the holding countries. For example,Panama Viejo and Historic Center of PanamaFor the construction of a maritime road that surrounds the historic district, even considering removal from the World Heritage List,The 36th World Heritage CommitteeRecommended to be registered in the Crisis Heritage List[328]. However, due to the fact that the possessing nations strongly encouraged the member nations, the inclusion in the crisis heritage list was avoided.[328]. While the construction progresses to the situation where it is difficult to withdraw,Next year's committeeHowever, although it was recommended to enter the crisis heritage list, the holding countries promised to revise the registration range while avoiding it.[329]Agree to the resolution stating that if the promise is not fulfilled, removal from the World Heritage List will be considered, clarifying the stance of avoiding inclusion in the Crisis Heritage List even at the risk of deregistration.[74].

Kathmandu Valley(Nepal) was listed as a Crisis Heritage from 2003 to 2007, which is also one of the strong objections of the owning countries.[330][331]. Due to urbanization, the possibility of becoming a crisis heritage was said in 1992, but due to the strong opposition from the Nepalese authorities, the World Heritage Committee and the World Heritage Center are working together, not adding to the list of crisis heritage. I was trying to improve the situation[332]. However, due to limitations, it was added to the Crisis Heritage List in 2003 and removed in 2007 due to temporary improvement.[333]. However, it was recognized that it still did not provide a radical solution to the problem.[331]. And the heritage is2015 Nepal EarthquakeWhen I was affected by the disaster, I was suggested to be added to the list of critical heritage sites. The earthquake caused severe damage to the Kathmandu valley, and many buildings, including the royal palace, were completely destroyed, and it was recognized that international assistance was needed.[334]. However, the Nepalese authorities again opposed the listing of the Crisis Heritage List, offered a grace period of one year, and was officially recognized.[335].. Four years laterThe 40th World Heritage CommitteeHowever, the advisory body was in a situation to recommend the listing of the Crisis Heritage List, but the Nepalese authorities offered another grace period of one year, which was also approved.[336]. AndThe 41th World Heritage CommitteeThere was also an advisory body pointed out that rebuilding during the post-earthquake reconstruction would damage OUV, but Nepal's application for grace was granted again.[337].

Originally, it is said that the consent of the holding country itself is not required for registration as a crisis heritage site, but it is not normally done by the World Heritage Committee to strongly register ignoring the intention of the holding country.[338]. Instead, he emphasizes the significance of crisis heritage registration and emphasizes that it is not a punishment, but it will change the sense of resistance in countries with a sense of resistance against the backdrop of improving the international recognition of the "World Heritage" brand. Is not seen as easy[74][339]. Some people are concerned that the "hidden crisis heritage," which should otherwise be registered as a heritage of danger, will continue to increase due to such resistance.[340].

Urban development

World heritage registrationLandscapeAs environmental protection is required, there may be friction with surrounding development. In particular, with regard to historical districts and buildings in the city, debate may occur because the landscape is damaged by new high-rise buildings built around them. For example,Cologne Cathedral(Germany) was not fulfilled despite registration of a buffer zone at the time of registration[341][342]. Among them, a high-rise building plan in the neighborhood was brought up, so it was added to the list of critical heritage sites in 2004, and even temporarily removed from the list of world heritage sites.[342]. The reason why this case was noticed was that it was the first case where the damage to the landscape due to development was the reason for registering a crisis heritage.[343]. In this case, there areCologneHowever, due to the introduction of buffer zone settings and height restrictions, it was removed from the list of World Heritage in Danger in 2006.[342]. But Cologne's debate was alarming that similar problems could occur here and there in historic cities.[344].

In fact, even after that, in cases where measures such as regulation and plan revision were taken,Imam Square in Isfahan(Iran),Palaces and parks of Potsdam and Berlin(Germany),Fuertte / Neusiedler Lake Cultural Landscape(Hungary/Austria)[345]In addition, at the 32nd World Heritage CommitteeSt Petersburg Historical Center and related buildings(Russia)Schoenbrunn Palace and Gardens (Austria)[346], At the 41st World Heritage CommitteeShafuri Subs Historic Center(Uzbekistan)Maritime city Liverpool(England)[347]However, development became a problem. On the other hand, aboveDresden Elbe ValleyAs mentioned above, there are some cases where it was deleted from the World Heritage List because of the destruction of the landscape due to the construction of bridges.

On the other hand, the issue of how to perceive the landscape is not always unequivocally fixed,Moon port bordeauxHistoric in (France)Swing bridgeWhen the bridge was demolished and an alternative bridge was planned, the impact assessment by ICOMOS and the World Heritage Center became the opposite, and the resolution of the World Heritage Committee did not reach a strong decision.[348]. Also,Eiffel tower(The banks of the Seine in ParisSome of the experts questioned that they would be fixed in the cityscape at a specific point in time, taking as an example the fact that the property of[349].

These development issues include the inside and outside of the buffer zone.[Annotation 23]Even the development ofTower of LondonThe same is true of the case. In response to these issues, several declarations and arrangements regarding historic cityscapes have been made as follows.

Historic cityscape

Historic district of vienna(Austria) revealed plans for skyscraper construction in buffer zone shortly after it was registered in the World Heritage List in 2001[343].. At the World Heritage Committee, even the deletion from the World Heritage List became an agenda item,ViennaEven the crisis heritage list was not even entered by the plan revision by the authorities[343].

The Vienna Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture was adopted at an international conference held in 2005 in Vienna. Was adopted[350].. The Declaration states that the development of cities for development should also respect the protection of historic cityscapes, and above all the outstanding universal value as a World Heritage Site. Have been[350].. Other than that, there were multiple discussions and declarations on historic cityscapes, and at the 2011 UNESCO General Assembly, recommendations based on them were also issued.[351][347].

However, based on that recommendation, immediately, "Seville Cathedral,Alcazar,Indias Archive MuseumWhen there was discussion on the inclusion in the crisis heritage list in (Spain), the question of whether or not the protection system, which was considered to be no problem at the time of registration, would be considered as a heritage site due to the concept developed later, became a problem. Entry into the heritage list was avoided[352].. On the other hand, the historic center of Vienna, where the Vienna Memorandum of Understanding was adopted, was added to the list of critical heritage sites in 2017 due to subsequent development plans.[353]Is being erased from the World Heritage List[354].

Sightseeing

Being registered as a World Heritage Site has a great impact on the tourism industry in the surrounding area. Originally, there are some opinions that the harmful effects of tourist resorts on cultural heritage have been regarded as a problem even before the World Heritage Site.(English edition"The Charter" (1976) was announced and appealed for the protection of cultural heritage.[355].. However, the attitude of trying to link the World Heritage Site to tourism promotion is deep-rooted, and its harmful effects are being expressed.[356].

For example,Gassho-style village of Shirakawa-go and GokayamaThen, the number of tourists increased dramatically after registration.Shirakawa-goIn the case of, the number of tourists, who had been in the 60 level every year for the last few years before registration,21st centuryIn the first few years, it has been in the 140 to 150 million range[357].. Local governments, villagers, and experts have responded to such situations, and traffic regulations have been formulated.[358]Negative opinions are seen in the increase in tourist facilities such as souvenir shops[359].

This tendency is not limited to Japan, for example,Lijiang Ancient City(China) is also often cited as an example of rapid tourism. Lijiang Ancient CityPearThe traditional streets of the city have been preserved, and the waterways that line the town have become associated with traditional customs. However, before and after the World Heritage registration (1997), the number of tourists surged from about 70 (1995) to about 370 million (2006).[360]For commercial purposesHan peopleDue to the influx of water and other factors, the number of Nasi inhabitants has decreased from 1 (6,900) to 1997 (6,000).[361]. In addition, the spread of water supply has weakened the connection between the Nasi people and the water flowing through the old castle, and the poor behavior of tourists, who lack understanding of traditional culture, has caused the water quality to deteriorate significantly.[362][363]. This trend toward tourism has two aspects: the protection of tangible buildings and the loss of traditional lifestyles while modern reconstruction is in progress.[364].

In this way, the rapid transformation of tourist spots can have a negative effect on the preservation of the original image of the area. World heritage is for the purpose of conservation and not for the purpose of promoting tourism development, so there are areas where tourism development is restricted by the World Heritage registration,Macquarie IslandSome properties, such as (Australia), are closed to tourists[Annotation 43]. In the case of a World Heritage site that has become a tourist destination, restrictions such as entry restrictions may come into play in part or in whole. For example, some people were limited in number and timeMachu Picchu Historic Reserve(Peru)Historical ruins of Potala Palace in Lhasa(China),Leaning Tower of PisaLimited to guided toursPiazza del Duomo(Italy) and so on[365].

In addition,Okinoshima("Kamiyadoru Island" Munakata, Okinoshima and related heritage groupsWomen's property was originally prohibited for religious reasons, but with the world heritage registration as an opportunity, it became even more strict with the prohibition of all islands other than priesthood, making it a clear departure from tourism. Sharpened[366].

On the other hand, creating jobs by activating tourism in poor countries may result in protection of World Heritage Sites. In connection with these issues,2001The World Heritage Committee of "To protect the world heritage" in order to balance the economic benefits of local residents with the protection of the heritage.Sustainable tourismPreparation of "plan" began[367].

Political problem

Lobbying

As the attention to world heritage sites increases, so does the scale of the World Heritage Committee. Only the member states and advisory bodies participate directly in the deliberations, but many observers participate.The 32th World Heritage CommitteeDuring the event, the host country, Canada, warned that the venue could not accommodate participants.[368][Annotation 44].

Amid such growing interest, each country aims to register its own World Heritage SiteLobbyingIs becoming popular[369][370]. As mentioned above, the advisory body's recommendation has been overturned, and reversal registration has been spawned one after the other, which is also behind the overheating of lobbying activities.[371].

When the bureau was actually deciding on the properties to register, about half a year from the bureau to the World Heritage Committee was the lobbying period. It was also expected that lobbying activities could be suppressed by centralizing decisions by the World Heritage Committee when the registration examination at the Bureau was abolished.[372]. However, in reality, intense lobbying activities have been underway for about 6 weeks from the recommendation of the advisory body to the holding of the World Heritage Committee.[220][373].

For the situation where the specialists pointed out the deficiencies one after another to reverse registration,The 35th World Heritage Committee(2011), on the contrary, warned that it could be a "poisoned gift" to the State party,IUCNEmanated from[374]. IUCN has expressed concerns about the credibility of the list even before that[375].

In addition, at the final meeting of the 40th anniversary of the adoption of the World Heritage Convention the following year,World Heritage CenterThe chief Bernd von Dorste also expressed concern that the world heritage system would be centered around experts and diplomats.[376],The 41th World Heritage Committee(2017) chaired(Polish versionHowever, there were often scenes where the argument was warned to be political.[377].

Ethnic/territorial issues

Since World Heritage is in the form of being recommended by the owning country, recommending properties for which the attribution problem has not been resolved may result in disputes between the countries concerned. Located on the border of Thailand and Cambodia, for examplePreah Vihear TempleBased on the agreement with Thai Foreign MinisterWorld Heritage Sites in CambodiaIt was registered as, but it caused a backlash of Thai people,Border dispute between Thailand and CambodiaWas invited to[378].

Problems often arise between Arab countries and Israel. IsraelgroupNo. XNUMX arch gates” and has been recognized as “prominent universal value” by the advisory body, but due to legal issues due to the location near the border, deliberation has often been postponed and registration has been postponed. Has been[379].

On the contrary, although it is registered, the problem isPalestinian World HeritageIs. Since Palestine links World Heritage registration with territorial approval, it has been actively recommending it since the World Heritage Convention was signed.[380], The procedure for emergency recommendation registration has been taken three times in a row, and all are settled by voting. Especially the third caseHebron (Al-Khalil) Old TownRegistration led to strong opposition from Israel and the United States, leading to both countries leaving UNESCO[381].. However, when Palestine joined UNESCO, the US stopped contributing to the World Heritage Fund based on domestic law, and UNESCO also stopped the voting rights of the United States.[382].. For this reason, it is unlikely that UNESCO's withdrawal will cause new harm.[382],World Heritage FundShortage of US contributions, which accounts for more than one-fifth of the[383].

Ethnic friction can occur not only internationally, but within one country.World Heritage of the People's Republic of ChinaThen,Sanjiang River Conservation Areas in YunnanWas engaged in traditional agriculture and livestock farming in the protected areaTibetan Burmese500 ethnic minority households were forced to relocate[384].. Also in 2017Aomi Kana NishizatoEven when registering, there were reports that there was concern that it would be a great cause for strengthening control over Tibetan residents in the region.[382].

Recognition of history

Problems related to the registration of World Heritage Sites may arise when dealing with issues that differ from country to country. For example,Goguryeo Chinese HistoryIs it?Korean historySay thatGoguryeo controversyAnd the registration of the Koguryo burial mounds has been confused over the past two years.[386].. First, at the 2003 World Heritage Committeenorth koreaIt was pointed out that there was a similar type of archeological site in China when the domestic archaeological site was deliberated alone, and the deliberation was postponed the following year.[386].. China was included in the committee countries at that time,[387],Tohoku processIt is presumed that one reason is that China, which was promoting the[388].. And in the deliberation of the next year, with the resolution that it is desirable to be unified in the future,Miyakonojo and burial mounds in the early Koguryo period(China) andKoguryo Burial Mounds(North Korea) will be registered separately.[386].. In this case, ChinaChinese cultureRepeated the claim to be part of[387], Korea strongly opposes such claims[389][390]Went to support North Korea[391].

Besides,Atomic bomb domeChina opposes registration of the[392]China cited concerns over Japan's political use, emphasizing only aspects of the victims[393].. Since it was such a delicate matter, at the request of the Japanese side, the bureau in June did not show the possibility of registration, and it was carried over to the temporary bureau just before the deliberation of the committee.[198].

In addition,Meiji Japan's Industrial Revolution Heritage Steel & Steelmaking, Shipbuilding, Coal IndustryWhen registering,Meiji EraTo the Japanese side's claim that it is limited toRecruiting Koreans during the Japanese ruleThe South Korean side, who was associated withIrina BokovaIn addition to petitioning to the public, they also extended lobbying to advisory bodies before the recommendation, which is customarily prohibited.[394].. Finally, the registration was made in consideration of Japan-Korea discussions, but the deliberation took extraordinary procedures such as omitting the congratulatory messages from each country.[395].

World Heritage Education

The World Heritage Convention stipulates the importance of education and public relations.

Article XNUMX
1. The State party shall strengthen, by any applicable means, the assessment and respect of its own cultural and natural heritage under Articles XNUMX and XNUMX by its citizens, in particular through education and public relations project planning. Try to.
2. Parties commit to disseminate widely to the public the dangers of threatening cultural and natural heritage and the activities carried out in accordance with this Convention. — Convention on the protection of world cultural and natural heritage

UNESCO is also active in enlightening young people, and has started the "World Heritage Education Project for Young People" since 1994.[396].. The World Heritage Youth Forum was held as part of this project (the first was in 1BergenThe second was 2OsakaYouth forums are also being held in regional units such as other parts of Japan) and Asia/Pacific.[396].

World heritage has also been introduced into education at various educational institutions, and as will be described later, “world heritage studies” is also advocated by higher education institutions. further,Lifelong learningFrom this point of view, the significance of TV programs with the theme of World Heritage has been pointed out.[397].. One such program is, for example, in JapanExplore roman world heritage』(NHK), "world Heritage』(TBS), but also in Germany(German version, Etc. have been broadcast[398].. TV programs dealing with World Heritage sites are also evaluated for their effectiveness in public relations[399].

World heritage

The study that specializes in world heritage is called "world heritage". For example,Aki Michi(Institute for Global Environmental StudiesProfessor) is "a study to clarify the significance of world heritage, universality and peculiarity of heritage, diversity, etc."[400]It is defined as. This is just an example of the definition, but in any case, World Heritage studiesHumanities-Social science-natural ScienceIs expected to become a scholarship for global research by fusing[401][402].

In Japan, in 1979, Japan's firstCultural propertyEstablished the departmentNara UniversityBut,Cultural assets of the ancient capital NaraBased on the World Heritage registration (1998) ofDepartment of literatureEstablished World Heritage Course in[403].graduate Schoolas,University of TsukubaGraduate school in 2004Master's Course"World Heritage Major", 2006PhD"World Cultural Heritage Major" has been established[404].. Besides,University correspondenceAsCyber ​​universityEstablished the Faculty of World Heritage,Specified nonprofit corporation OfWorld Heritage AcademybyWorld Heritage TestWas also working with[405].. However, since the fall semester 2010, recruitment of new students has been suspended.[406][407].

Other than Japan, in AsiaBeijing UniversityThe World Heritage Course has been held in (China) since 1998, and the textbook is commercially available.[408].. In Europe,Brandenburg University of Technology(Germany),University of Birmingham(England),University College Dublin(Ireland),University of Turin(Italy) and other major courses in World Heritage have been set up, and the Brandenburg University of Technology curriculum is 2 years and the rest is 1 year (as of 2015).[409].. The Brandenburg University of Technology(English editionWe also have a master's program in collaboration with (Egypt)[410].

Other UNESCO heritage

UNESCO World Heritage, Intangible Cultural Heritage,World memory(World Memory Heritage) is also the UNESCO “Three Great Heritage Projects”[411][412], "Unesco's three major cultural heritage projects"[413]Sometimes called.

Intangible cultural heritage

The World Heritage Convention draftIntangible cultural propertyIt is said that there was also a reference to[414], The World Heritage Convention, which was established and came into effect, only covers real estate. Therefore, in order to comprehensively protect the cultures that exist in various forms in each region, it has become recognized that the intangible cultural heritage is protected.Convention on the protection of intangible cultural heritage(Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention) was adopted. From an international perspective, intangible cultural propertiesFolk cultural propertyIt is rare that the protection legislation for the nation has been established, and it is said that it was only in Japan and Korea before the establishment of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention.[415].. Especially, the Japanese legal system had a great influence on the enactment of the Korean Cultural Property Protection Law.[416][417].. From this background,First ResidentRelationship withCultural landscapeIt is said that Japan's contribution was very large in persuading Western European countries, which had strong dissenting views that they could cover intangibles, and lead to the establishment of the Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage.[418][Annotation 45].

World heritage and intangible cultural heritage are separate, and the secretariat is also different (the former is the UNESCO World Heritage Center, the latter is the UNESCO Cultural Bureau Intangible Heritage Division). However, some intangible cultural heritage

It has been pointed out that there are close ties with properties registered on the World Heritage List, and that some can be regarded as tangible and intangible "composite heritage."[419].

Intangible cultural heritage was originally designed based on the negative aspects of world heritage.[412], The original focus was on the protection of intangible culture that could be destroyed[420].. Therefore, it is not in that category.French food gastronomyThe registration of (2010) leaves strong opposition to experts.[421]Since then, changes in direction have been pointed out, such as connections with cultural nationalism and commercialism.[422].

World memory

The memory of the world is also called the World Memory Heritage in Japan, but unlike the World Heritage and Intangible Cultural Heritage, there is no international treaty.[423].. It’s a business that UNESCO started in 1992.[424], Information and communication sector (Cultural sector for World Heritage and Intangible Cultural Heritage)[425].. Registers tangible movables (records) based on authenticity and international importance[424].

Among them,

It also includes records related to World Heritage sites, such as.

The registration of “memory of the world” has attracted a great deal of debate over the registration of properties that have different perceptions among countries as the level of attention has increased. Unlike World Heritage Sites, it is the expert committee appointed by the Executive Secretary who conducts the examination, and the content of deliberation is not disclosed.[430].. This system is based on Chinese applicationNanjing IncidentCaused a strong backlash in Japan at the time of registration, which led UNESCO to consider revising the system for registration of "world memory".[431].. At this time, there were hard-line opinions that some parts of Japan should stop paying UNESCO contributions.[432], Korea etc. advancedComfort womenWere postponed (2017) to suspected relevance by those countries (UNESCO denies pressure related to contributions)[433].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Examples of other time categories are:World Heritage CenterThere is also a four-stage division (1972-1991, 1992-1999, 2000-2005, 2006 or later) by the first director, Bernd von Droste, etc.World Cultural Heritage Office 2013, Agency for Cultural Affairs Memorial Section, p. 7).
  2. ^ The original language is English: the world's inheritance and French: (le) patrimoine universel Is (UNESCO Constitution).
  3. ^ Japan's firstTutankhamunThe exhibition was held by Asahi Shimbun, and all proceeds were donated to this campaign. The numbers in the textMatsuura 2008According to (p.73), the secretary-general of both the Japan UNESCO Federation and the Asia-Pacific UNESCO Association has contributed 140 million dollars from Japan, of which more than 130 million dollars are to Asahi Shimbun.Japan UNESCO Association Federation 1997, p. 25).The story that the total amount was 140 million dollarsNishimura & Honnaka 2017 (pp.239-240)
  4. ^ Monuments of Nubia-International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia(World Heritage Center, December 2017, 12), it was treated as a successful campaign, and the World Heritage literature often describes only positive aspects. But of the Egyptian archaeologistJiro KondoIs appraising its significance, but in this campaignTemple of Abu Simbel,Philae TempleWhile major temples such asMetropolitan Museum of Art,Khartoum,LeidenThe museum ofMadridThere are also ruins that have been relocated to completely different places, such as a park in theAmenhotep IIIThe meaning of "salvation" is that there are also ruins that have been submerged and disappeared, such as temples, that 10 people were forced to relocate and the scenery around the relocated temples was also different. Is reconsidering (Kondo 2002).
  5. ^ In this item, when the reference point of "work guideline" is indicated, it is a secondary information source in principle.Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017Is also mentioned.
  6. ^ After dismantling Yugoslavia, nowWorld Heritage Sites in MontenegroIt has become.
  7. ^ In addition, it is the 124th in the current list, but this is due to the fact that Yugoslavia was dismantled after the Japanese contract.
  8. ^ The first question in the Diet in 1980 about World Heritage wasJapanese Socialist Party OfTakako DoiIt was said that the Japanese heritage to be protected at that time wasAtomic bomb domeMiyakejima(There was a US military shooting site plan),US-Japan Security TreatyIt is said that the government officials were also reluctant because of their involvement with (Yoshida 2012b, pp. 34-35).
  9. ^ a b "Nara documents on authenticity" (Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, p. 80), "Nara Document on Authenticity" (Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, p. 57), "Nara Document on Authenticity" (Watanabe 1995, P. 9), etc., and are abbreviated as "Nara document" and "Nara document".
  10. ^ Incidentally, that yearThe 38th World Heritage CommitteeIf it was deliberated as originally planned, the 1,000th cultural heritage in the United States would have been expected, but due to the importance of African recommendation and natural heritage, a change in the deliberation order was proposed, and the United States agreed with it. Therefore, the Okavango Delta was selected for the 1,000th case (West 2014, p. 42).
  11. ^ Museum in Berlin (Museum Island)(Germany) andPlantin-Moretus house, workshop and museum complexIf the museum itself has value, such as (Belgium), there are registered examples.
  12. ^ Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016aThen,Serial nomination site (continuous assets)It is called (pp.35-36). "Serial nomination" itself refers to the collective recommendation of related assets (Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, Pp. 115-116).
  13. ^ The original word for "ruins" in the World Heritage Convention is "site", which has a wider range of indication than archeological sites, and since the same word is actually used for registered sites of natural heritage, it is translated as "place". Some experts (Inaba 2016, pp. 4-5).
  14. ^ "World Heritage Crossing Borders" (Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2009, pp. 13-27), "Cross-border heritage" (Kodansha 2012, p. 32), "Transboundary Site" (Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016a, P. 36), etc.
  15. ^ The official name isLaterchecking ...
  16. ^ The abbreviation OUV isWorld Heritage CommitteeBut it's an official abbreviation (Inaba 2007b, p. 24).
  17. ^ The standard decided in 2005 was applied from 2007 because the property to be deliberated in 2006 was recommended before the new standard was confirmed in 2005 (Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2006, p. 49).
  18. ^ During this integration,Hawaii Volcanoes National ParkThe standards applied to 2 natural heritage sites have been changed, such as replacing the old standard (9) = new standard (8) with the new standard (19).Inaba 2007a, p. 51).
  19. ^ With the unification of the standards, the title of the standard itself has been changed from "Standard for World Heritage registration" to "Standard for outstanding universal value evaluation". Some documents are translated as "evaluation criteria" (Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, p. 22).On the other handTokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017As mentioned above, some documents refer to “registration criteria” even after 2005.
  20. ^ Originally, as of 1994 (prior to the registration of the Atomic Bomb Dome), "commitments should be...extremely exceptional... or only when relevant in relation to other cultural or natural heritage standards. I'm thinking'' (Inaba 1995Since there was a condition, p. 24), it means that the condition itself was not added for the first time, but changed to a very strict one.
  21. ^ For Robben Island, the advisory body recommended registration of criterion (6) alone. However, the Committee, which wants to avoid the independent application due to severe conditions, calmly applied the standard (3), which was opposed by the advisory body, to the registration in (3) and (6). Set (Inaba 2011, p. 17).
  22. ^ Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2016(pp.28, 37) follows the same classification,Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016aIn (p.37), both are unified as a “buffer zone” without any translation.
  23. ^ a b The surrounding environment outside this buffer zone is called the “wider setting” (wider setting) (Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, p. 109).
  24. ^ a b Advisory BodyNishimura & Honnaka 2017,Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017Is translated as "advisory body", but there is also a document translated as "advisory body" (Inaba 2017).
  25. ^ It is allowed to make a new recommendation, for example, based on an evaluation standard that is different from that at the time of non-registration (“Work Guidelines”, paragraph 158) (Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, p. 86).
  26. ^ By the 2012 Cabinet decision,Working heritageOnly aboutCabinet SecretariatIt is defined as the jurisdiction ofMeiji Japan Industrial Revolution HeritageSubmitted a recommendation letter prepared by the Cabinet Secretariat to the World Heritage Center via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2015, p. 14).
  27. ^ Although there is a liaison conference, the Agency for Cultural Affairs selects candidates for cultural heritage, while the Ministry of the Environment and the Forestry Agency virtually select candidates for natural heritage. is there(Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2018, p. 15).
  28. ^ When the World Heritage Committee was held in December every year, the deadline was July 12 of the previous year (D. Ordori, R. Sushie & L. Villar 2005, p. 71)
  29. ^ World Heritage CommitteeOnly ICOMOS, IUCN and ICCROM are designated as advisory bodies of (Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, Pp. 14-15).
  30. ^ protractor Is sometimes written as it is in katakana as "La Porteur", and in parentheses it is "Overall secretary" (Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, p. 27), "Secretary" (Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2000, P. 51) etc.Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016a,Suzuki 2017There is also an example in which "scribe" and "country of writing" are written without using katakana.
  31. ^ The registration was voted in the face of U.S. opposition, with 14 votes in favor of registration.Inaba 2017, p. 40).
  32. ^ a b c d The four types of resolutions in English areTokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017According to the verb (phrase).Nishimura & Honnaka 2017 In some cases, as in (p.39), inscriptions/referral/deferral/not to inscribe are shown as nouns (phrases).
  33. ^ The first Japanese recommendation was "postponement of registration" and "recommendation"Iwami Ginzan Ruins and their Cultural LandscapeHowever, this was a reversal registration at the committee deliberations.
  34. ^ Excludes one case that was recommended as a complex heritage and received a "non-registered" recommendation as a natural heritage, but received a "registered" recommendation as a cultural heritage.
  35. ^ The World Heritage registered names are English and French, but there are still some cases where the local language is used as is without translation.Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum(Malta),Himeji-jo(Japan),Kizhi Pogost(Russia) etc.
  36. ^ Shared in Spain and FranceMont-Perdu in the Pyrenees, Etc. are added as one case each to both Spain and France.
  37. ^ Some point out that the 20th century heritage and modern heritage do not all overlap (Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, p. 169).
  38. ^ However, there is discussion about the upper limit within UNESCO, the 8th UNESCO Executive SecretaryKoichiro MatsuuraCited 1,500 and 2,000 as the numbers that could be realistically set due to monitoring restrictions, etc.Matsuura 2008, pp. 286-293).
  39. ^ Does not include redeliberations of properties whose registration has been postponed in the past or deliberations of expanded registration (Nanami 2006, p. 23).In addition, two or more nominations are possible for non-owning countries (Tanaka 2009, p. 8).
  40. ^ Including other pyramids, the official registration name is "Memphis and its Cemetery Ruins-Pyramids from Giza to Dahshur. "
  41. ^ This work by Da Vinci is a registration object because it is a mural (real estate) drawn on the cathedral. Including other elements, the official registration name is "Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie and Domenico Monastery with Leonardo da Vinci's "The Last Supper"It is.
  42. ^ World Heritage Sites in PanamaIsDarien National ParkBorders the Los Catios National Park.
  43. ^ For registered properties up to 2007, "Access to 21st Century World Heritage" (Shogakukan, 2007) includes access information to each property, including whether the Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommends evacuation.
  44. ^ Such an increase in the size of participants will also lead to higher costs. In the middle of the 2010s, the cost of one event is 1 million.USDIs said to exceedThe 41th World Heritage CommitteeDuring the session, the situation that the next venue was not decided was invited ((Suzuki 2017, P. 38)).
  45. ^ Besides, JapaneseHuman national treasureFrom the perspective of(English editionThe concept of was born (D. Ordori, R. Sushie & L. Villar 2005, p. 127; Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, p. 261).

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  357. ^ Arthur Pedersen 2008, p. 42
  358. ^ Yano 2006, pp. 41-42
  359. ^ Saki 2009, p. 206
  360. ^ Fujiki 2015, p. 238
  361. ^ Autumn road 2007, p. 204
  362. ^ Autumn road 2007, pp. 208-210
  363. ^ Fujiki 2015, pp. 240-241
  364. ^ Fujiki 2015, pp. 239-242
  365. ^ Arthur Pedersen 2008, p. 43
  366. ^ Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2018, p. 7
  367. ^ Arthur Pedersen 2008, pp. 40-41
  368. ^ Inaba 2012, p. 25
  369. ^ Kiso 2015, p. 104
  370. ^ Inaba 2016, p. 6
  371. ^ Kiso 2015, pp. 104-105
  372. ^ Inaba 2017, pp. 43-44
  373. ^ Kiso 2015, pp. 94-98
  374. ^ Yoshida 2012a, p. 26; Yoshida 2012b, p. 174
  375. ^ Yoshida 2012b, pp. 222-223
  376. ^ World Cultural Heritage Office 2013, Agency for Cultural Affairs Memorial Section, p. 7
  377. ^ Futami 2018, p. 29
  378. ^ Maekawa 2015, pp. 32-33
  379. ^ Inaba 2011, p. 38
  380. ^ "Approved accession to UNESCO Palestine / US repulsed, contribution freeze also"Asahi Shimbun』April 2011, 11, 1 morning edition
  381. ^ Inaba 2017, pp. 39-40
  382. ^ a b c Joshua Keating 2017, p. 10
  383. ^ Tokyo Institute of Cultural Properties 2017, p. 143
  384. ^ Autumn road 2007, pp. 35-36
  385. ^ Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016a, p. 93
  386. ^ a b c Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2005, p. 50
  387. ^ a b Kaji 2008, p. 191
  388. ^ Nishitani 2005b, p. 18
  389. ^ Nishitani 2005a, p. 43
  390. ^ Nakamura 2006, pp. 40-41
  391. ^ Tsuruma 2005, pp. 168-171
  392. ^ Kiso 2015, pp. 154-155
  393. ^ Nishimura & Honnaka 2017, p. 26
  394. ^ Kiso 2015, pp. 145-152
  395. ^ Futami 2015, pp. 32
  396. ^ a b Japan UNESCO Association Federation 1999, p. 52
  397. ^ Furuta 2009, p. 162
  398. ^ Saki 2006, pp. 29-30
  399. ^ Japan UNESCO Association Federation 1999, p. 50 (at that timeWorld Heritage Center(Mr. Droste's statement)
  400. ^ Autumn road 2007, p. 29 The title is at the time of publication of the book.
  401. ^ Ishizawa 2005
  402. ^ Furuta 2009, p. 161
  403. ^ Nara University Faculty of Letters World Heritage Association 2000, pp. 298-299
  404. ^ Hidaka 2006, p. 92
  405. ^ Cyber ​​university and world heritage test work together-preferential treatment of entrance fees and examination fees(Mynavi News, January 2009, 1) (Retrieved December 9, 2017)
  406. ^ Cyber ​​University Presentation Materials Cyber ​​University Correspondence Education Current Situation and Challenges (PDF) (December 2012, 12) (Retrieved December 19, 2017)
  407. ^ "World Heritage Department official website”. As of May 2015, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2011th of February 3Browse.(Stop recruiting new students)
  408. ^ Saki 2009, pp. 37-38
  409. ^ Leo Schmidt 2015, pp. 8-9
  410. ^ Leo Schmidt 2015, p. 10
  411. ^ Kiso 2015, p. 34
  412. ^ a b Inaba 2012, p. 26
  413. ^ Matsuura, Togo & Igarashi 2016, p. 225
  414. ^ Nakamura 2006, p. 175
  415. ^ Suzuki 2015, p. viii
  416. ^ Park 2015, p. 312
  417. ^ Iwamoto 2015, p. 396
  418. ^ Matsuura 2007, pp. 59-60, 304-305
  419. ^ Saki 2006, pp. 192-193
  420. ^ Yasue 2011, p. 161
  421. ^ Kiso 2015, pp. 80-81
  422. ^ Suzuki 2015, pp. ix-x; Iwamoto 2015, p. 407
  423. ^ Kiso 2015, p. 40
  424. ^ a b Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2011, p. 44
  425. ^ Inaba 2015, p. 3
  426. ^ Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2016a, p. 235; Kabayama 2014, pp. 98-99
  427. ^ Kabayama 2014, pp. 230-231
  428. ^ Kabayama 2014, pp. 482-485
  429. ^ Kabayama 2014, p. 190
  430. ^ Matsuura, Togo & Igarashi 2016, pp. 226-227
  431. ^ Matsuura, Togo & Igarashi 2016, p. 231
  432. ^ Matsuura, Togo & Igarashi 2016, p. 236
  433. ^ Postponement of registration of comfort women materials "Not a financial problem" = Assistant Secretary-General of UNESCO(Union News, December 2017, 12) (February 4, 2018)

References

Among the documents/sites referred to when writing the article, the ones directly shown as the source are listed. The only Japanese document officially supervised by the UNESCO World Heritage Center in Paris is "UNESCO World Heritage" (Kodansha, all 13 volumes).

World Heritage Annual Report

The World Heritage Annual Report (formerly UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report) is not an official UNESCO publication, but it is referenced in many places in this article for ease of viewing. And treat it separately. Initially it was treated as a magazine and later as a book. The editorials and feature articles of the annual report collection are only those cited directly in this article.

  • Hen "UNESCO World Heritage 1995" Japan UNESCO Association Federation, 1996.ISSN 1341-805X. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "UNESCO World Heritage 1996" Japan UNESCO Association Federation, 1997.ISSN 1341-805X. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 1997-1998" Art newspaper publisher, 1998.ISBN 4-87586-238-5. 
    • PHC Lucas, "History of UNESCO and Natural Heritage Conservation," UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 1997-1998, 1998, pp. 22-27. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 1999" Mitsumura book publication, 1999.ISBN 4-89528-093-4. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2000" 平凡 社, 2000.ISBN 4582714021. 
  • "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2001" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association Federation Heibonsha, 2001.ISBN 4-582-71403-X. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation, "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2002" Heibonsha, 2002a.ISBN 4582714048. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation, "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2003" Heibonsha, 2002b.ISBN 4582714056. 
    • Jiro Kondo "Nubian Monuments from Egypt", UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2003, 2002, pp. 40-43. 
  • "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2004" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association Federation Heibonsha, 2003. 
  • "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2005" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association Federation Heibonsha, 2005. 
    • Tadashi Nishitani "Goguryeo Archaeological Sites Registered Across Borders", World Heritage Annual Report 2005, 2005a, pp. 41-44. 
  • "UNESCO World Heritage Annual Report 2006" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association Federation Heibonsha, 2006.ISBN 4582714080. 
    • Kazuyuki Yano, "World Heritage Sites, Current Situation and Issues of Gassho-zukuri Villages in Shirakawa-go and Gokayama," World Heritage Annual Report 2006, 2006, pp. 40-42. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2007" Nikkei National Geographic Inc., 2007.ISBN 9784931450882. 
    • Hunk Karolin, "Landscape Crisis," World Heritage Annual Report 2007, 2007, pp. 38-41. 
    • Nobuko Inaba, "30th World Heritage Committee News," World Heritage Annual Report 2007, 2007a, pp. 50-51. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2008" Nikkei National Geographic Inc., 2008.ISBN 9784863130210. 
    • Nobuko Inaba, "31th World Heritage Committee News," World Heritage Annual Report 2008, 2008a, pp. 37-39. 
    • Arthur Pedersen, World Heritage and Tourism, Annual World Heritage Report 2008, 2008, pp. 40-43. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2009" Nikkei National Geographic Inc., 2009.ISBN 9784863130623. 
    • Kudo Parents Road "Natural Heritage Crossing Borders", World Heritage Annual Report 2009, 2009, pp. 22-27. 
    • Yukio Nishimura, "Recent Status of the Provisional List," World Heritage Annual Report 2009, 2009, p. 37. 
    • Nobuko Inaba, "The 32nd World Heritage Committee News," World Heritage Annual Report 2009, 2009, pp. 38-40. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2010" Tokyo Books, 2010.ISBN 9784487804375. 
    • Koichiro Matsuura; Yukio Nishimura "Special Dialogue: Walking with World Heritage Sites-10 Years of Inauguration and Future Challenges", World Heritage Annual Report 2010, 2010, pp. 14-24. 
    • Nobuko Inaba "The 33rd World Heritage Committee News" "What is Serial Nomination" "World Heritage Annual Report 2010", 2010, pp. 33-37. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2011" Tokyo Books, 2011.ISBN 9784487805181. 
    • Nobuko Inaba "Thinking from the Word" Negative World Heritage "" "34th World Heritage Committee News" "World Heritage Annual Report 2011", 2011, pp. 15-18, 38-40. 
    • Yasuyoshi Okada "'Relevance'-On the Evaluation Criteria (vi) for World Heritage Registration", World Heritage Annual Report 2011, 2011, pp. 19-21. 
    • Kumiko Yoneda, "Application for Minor Changes in Registration Scope," World Heritage Annual Report 2011, 2011, p. 41. 
  • "World Heritage Annual Report 2012" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association, Tokyo Shoseki, 2012.ISBN 978-4-487-80608-9. 
    • Masato Yoshida "35th World Heritage Committee News", "World Heritage Annual Report 2012", pp. 26-27, 2012a. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2013" Asahi Shimbun Publishing, August 2013, 2.ISBN 978-4-02-272433-5. 
    • Nobuko Inaba, "36th World Heritage Committee Report," World Heritage Annual Report 2013, 2013a, pp. 22-23. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2014" Asahi Shimbun Publishing, December 2013, 12.ISBN 978-4-02-272445-8. 
    • Nobuko Inaba, "37th World Heritage Committee Report," World Heritage Annual Report 2014, pp. 32-33, 2013b. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2015" Kodansha, 2014.ISBN 978-4-06-389841-5. 
  • "World Heritage Annual Report 2016" edited by the Japan UNESCO Association, Kodansha, 2015.ISBN 978-4-06-389912-2. 
    • Takayuki Kurozu, "The Crisis of the Kathmandu Valley Caused by the Great Earthquake," World Heritage Annual Report 2016, 2015, p. 18. 
    • Yoko Nigami, "39th World Heritage Committee News," World Heritage Annual Report 2016, 2015, pp. 32-33. 
    • Kumiko Yoneda, "Natural Heritage Sites at the 39th World Heritage Committee," World Heritage Annual Report 2016, 2015, p. 33. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2017" Kodansha, 2016.ISBN 978-4-06-389977-1. 
    • Sheridan Burke, "Modern Heritage and World Heritage," World Heritage Annual Report 2017, 2016, pp. 16-17. 
    • Yoko Nigami, "40th World Heritage Committee News," World Heritage Annual Report 2017, 2016, pp. 30-31. 
    • Kumiko Yoneda, "Natural Heritage Sites at the 40th World Heritage Committee," World Heritage Annual Report 2017, 2016, p. 31. 
  • Japan UNESCO Association Federation "World Heritage Annual Report 2018" Kodansha, 2018.ISBN 978-4-06-509599-7. 
    • Yoko Nigami (Cooperation) "41st World Heritage Committee News" "World Heritage Annual Report 2018", 2018, pp. 28-29. 
    • Kumiko Yoneda, "Natural Heritage Sites at the 41th World Heritage Committee," World Heritage Annual Report 2018, 2018, p. 29. 

Book

Bulletins, journal articles, etc.

  • Leon Schmidt "World Heritage Education in Europe" "World Heritage Studies" No. 1 University of Tsukuba, Pages 7-10, 2015. 
  • William Underhill "The Inconvenient Truth of a Glory World Heritage Site"NewsweekJapan Edition, 1464, pp. 24-29, September 2015, 9. 
  • Joshua Keating "America's withdrawal from UNESCO with a feeling of'now'" "NewsweekJapan Edition, No. 1567, p. 10, October 2017, 10. 
  • Yoshiaki Ishizawa "Toward the construction of World Heritage Studies-Thinking about the fusion of literature and science at the global level-"Institute of Electrical EngineersMagazine, Vol. 125, No. 12, p. 745, 2005. 
  • Nobuko Inaba, "A New Framework for Cultural Heritage and the Significance of the Nara Conference-Attending the 18th World Heritage Committee," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 377, pp. 21-27, 1995. 
  • Nobuko Inaba, "On the Debate over'Remarkable Universal Value'," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 529, pp. 24-27, 2007b. 
  • Nobuko Inaba, "What is Remarkable Universal Value?", Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 541, pp. 22-25, 2008b. 
  • Nobuko Inaba, "Current Situation and Future of the World Heritage Convention," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 580, pp. 23-26, 2012. 
  • Nobuko Inaba "Future of the World Heritage Convention-Toward the Construction of the Concept of Future Heritage" "World Heritage Studies" No. 2, University of Tsukuba, pp. 1-8, 2016. 
  • Nobuko Inaba, "Trends in World Heritage Sites in Recent Years," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 651, pp. 39-45, 2017. 
  • Hiroki Kaji "China's UNESCO World Heritage Policy-Impact of" Japanese "in Cultural Diplomacy" "China 21" Vol. 29 Fuyusha, Pages 183-202, 2008. 
  • Hiroki Kaji "International Approval of Political Borders and Cultural Entities in China's World Heritage Policy", ed., "East Asian Perspectives on Democracy and Cross-Strait Relations" Touhou Bookstore, 2014, pp. 179-194.ISBN 978-4-497-21403-4. 
  • Natsuori Kawakami "The debate over the global strategy of the World Heritage Convention and the accompanying qualitative transformation of the interpretation of universal values" "Ministry of Foreign AffairsMonthly Survey Report (2008), No. 1, pp. 1-24, 2008. 
  • Ichita Shimoda "Overview of the 40th World Heritage Committee" "Monthly Cultural Properties" No. 640, pp. 29-34, 2017. 
  • Kumiko Shimoma, "Issues of World Heritage Sites in Registration Deliberation," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 496, pp. 20-25, 2005. 
  • Hijihei Suzuki, "Deliberation on New Descriptions (Cultural Heritage) and Their Trends," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 541, pp. 16-21, 2008. 
  • Horizon Suzuki, "Outline of the 41st World Heritage Committee," Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 651, pp. 33-38, 2017. 
  • Toshinori Tanaka "Operations and Challenges of Global Strategy in the World Heritage Convention" "Human and Environment" Vol. 35, No. 1. Environmental Society of Japan, Pages 3-13, 2009. 
  • Yumiko Nanami, "Representativeness of World Heritage Sites," Ministry of Foreign Affairs Monthly Survey, Vol. 1, pp. 1-34, 2006. 
  • Kazuhiko Nishi "Overview of the 35th World Heritage Committee" "Monthly Cultural Properties" No. 580, pp. 10-14, 2012. 
  • Kazuhiko Nishi "Overview of the 36th World Heritage Committee" "Monthly Cultural Properties" No. 590, pp. 47-51, 2012. 
  • Kazuhiko Nishi "Overview of the 38th World Heritage Committee" "Monthly Cultural Properties" No. 614, pp. 41-44, 2014. 
  • Tadashi Nishitani "Ruins of Goguryeo Registered as a World Cultural Heritage Site" "Goguryeo Mural Painting Ancient Tomb" Kyodo News, 2005, pp. 18-23. (2005b)
  • Furuhisa "Current status and issues of World Heritage Sites-Importance of World Heritage Education" "Cyber ​​universityBulletin, No. 1, pp. 149-170, 2009. 
  • World Cultural Heritage Office, Memorial Division, Agency for Cultural Affairs "Final Meeting for the 40th Anniversary of the Adoption of the World Heritage Convention and the Result Document" Kyoto Vision "" "Monthly Cultural Property" No. 595, pp. 6-13, 2013. 
  • Yusuke Maekawa "Sometimes it invites ammunition and political conflict" "When returning to the idea of ​​conservation" "NewsweekJapan Edition, 1464, pp. 31-34, September 2015, 9. 
  • Koichiro Matsuura; Kazuhiko Togo; Takayoshi Igarashi "Thinking about UNESCO's Memory of the World Program-Between Culture and Politics" "世界878, pp. 225-236, 2016. 
  • Yoshifumi Soda "Aims of the World Heritage Convention-From the Discussion of ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites)" "Environmental Sociology Research" Volume 12 Environmental Society, Pages 5-22, 2006. 
  • Makoto Motonaka "The Future of the Discussion on World Heritage Sites-Participating in the 28th World Heritage Committee", Monthly Cultural Properties, No. 496, pp. 12-19, 2005. 
  • Akiyoshi Watanabe, "Authenticity and the Protection of Japanese Cultural Properties," "Monthly Cultural Properties," No. 377, pp. 4-9, 1995. 

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