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👍 | Tweets are in real bloom in the night sky! # Fireworks Ekiden's Twitter project is amazing


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Tweets are in real bloom in the night sky! # Fireworks Ekiden's Twitter project is amazing

 
If you write the contents roughly
Encounter a surprise fireworks display on the go ... You may be able to experience such a coincidence, "said the person in charge.
 

Your tweet will be launched! ??When I asked the person in charge of Wakamatsuya about the topical project ... (Photo courtesy of Wakamatsuya ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

fireworks

fireworks(Hanabi, fireworks)GunpowderとMetal powderI mixed it and wrapped it, set a fire,combustion-ruptureThe sound of timesparkThose that produce the color, shape, etc. Of metal to color the sparksFlame reactionIt is possible to produce sparks of various colors depending on the type of metal to be mixed. As a general rule, it is generally used outdoors.

Fireworks light/color/煙Part of the gunpowder that generates星Called (Hoshi)[1].. OftenGunpowderEnjoy the color and shape of the sparks that scatter when explodes and burns, but rocket fireworks and snake fireworks (Snake ball),parachuteSome things, like fireworks, enjoy more than just burning gunpowder. In addition to the fireworks display, to announce the holding of events etc.,Congratulatory gunAlso used in place of.

EnglishThen,fireworksSay. In recent years, the word “kahwa”Japanese alphabetThere are rare cases where it is used as.

Fireworks types

Fireworks (smoke fireworks in a broad sense) include “fireworks” and “in-process fireworks”.Cancer toolIt can be roughly divided into "smoke other than smoke" and "cancer tool smoke".[2].

  • Fireworks other than cancer tools
    • Signal or ornamental smoke
      • Fireworks (fireworks, fireworks)
      • In-process fireworks (in-process fireworks)
    • Other smoke and fire
      Competition paperdetonator,Smoke candle, Lighting tubes, fireworks for destroying birds and beasts, etc.[2].
  • Firearms (toys fireworks)
    In Japan, in addition to smoke and fire used as cancer tools, smoke and pyrotechnics, automobile safety flame tubes, and other smoke and fire designated as cancer tools according to the law are also classified into this category.[2].

Classification by consumption method

Signal or ornamental fireworks are classified into launch fireworks (launch fireworks, launch fireworks) and in-process fireworks (in-process fireworks) depending on the consumption method.[2].

Launch Fireworks (Fireworks)

It is a firework that launches a paper ball "ball" (smoke fireball) filled with "stars" that is formed by forming explosive powder into a spherical shape. Place a propellant powder on the bottom of a cylinder facing upwards and place a ball on it to prepare for launch. For launching, a fire type called "throwing" is thrown in from the ejection port above the cylinder and the propellant is ignited. At the same time as the launchfuseThe flame ignites, and the ball rises to a predetermined height, the squib breaks, reaches the powder charge inside the ball, the ball ruptures, and the star ignites and scatters. The amount of propellant and the length of the squib are adjusted and selected according to the size of the ball (height of fireworks). There are various types of stars, such as those that burn while catching the tail of light, those that burst while falling, and those that change color after the ball ruptures. It is important to pack the stars uniformly inside the ball, but the detailed technique is a secret of the fireworks master.

Fireworks

Fireworks that are artificially designed, such as using multiple fireworks.

  • Star mine (rapid fire)[2]
    Fireballs, stars, whistles, etc. are arranged in order, connected by rapid fire lines, and launched at high speed one after another. Sometimes used as a backing at the end of a framing. Balls from No. 2 (about 6 cm) to No. 4 (about 14 cm) are mainly used. To control thesecomputerAnd electronicrelayThose that frequently use are sometimes called "Digital Star Mine".
  • Frame work[2]
    Connected withFlame tube(Enkan) are placed side by side on a frame that is shaped with letters and pictures using wood or iron pipes, etc.combustionFor a few minutesText,çµµWhat makes us stand out.
  • Rope tackle[2](Niagara)
    A flame tube connected by a fast-fire wire is hung in a line from several to several tens of meters, and sparks simultaneously flow down from the flame tube by ignition. Some of the fireworks festivals have a length of 2000 m.Niagara Falls.
  • Underwater device[2]
  • Gimmick[2]
    A device that emits and ejects stars and sparks from a cylinder[2].. What is ejected while holding or holding is called a "hand cylinder".
  • Car fireworks[2]
    A cylinder filled with gunpowder is placed around a disk, etc., and the disk is rotated by the propelling force of the gunpowder to eject the sparks in a circular shape.

Classification by structural performance

Signal or ornamental fireworks are classified into fireworks (fireworks) and fireworks other than fireballs depending on the structure and performance.[2].

Fireball

The mainstream of fireworks is that the light spreads concentrically when landing, and the shape of the ball itself is also spherical. On the other hand, early fireworks did not become circular even when they were landed, and the fireworks themselves were often cylindrical in shape. Cylindrical fireworks can increase the amount of gunpowder, etc., and produce bright lights and colors compared to spherical fireworks, but it is said that it is difficult to change the color during the burst. It was said that once Japanese fireworks spread concentrically, it was difficult to manufacture them, and it was said to be a secret tradition of only some samurai fireworks masters.MeijiIt is said that the XNUMXth generation Yabei Kagiya acquired the technology during the period and many circular fireworks have been produced since then.

Traditionally, the size of the “ball” of launch fireworks isSize,ShakuIt is represented by. From a 6.06 inch ball (No. 2 ball) with a diameter of about 60.6 cm to a shaku ball (No. 20 ball) with a diameter of about 30 cm, and a XNUMX shaku ball (No. XNUMX ball),Four shakudamaThere is (No. 40 ball). The diameter of the two shaku balls is about 500 m, and the diameter of the four shaku balls, which is said to be the largest in the world, extends to about 800 m. However, this number is the thickness of the launching cylinder (inside), and the actual diameter of the fireworks ball is slightly smaller than this. Specifically, the diameter of No. 20 ball is about 60 cm instead of 57 cm. Also recently[When?]The world's smallest fireworks that were developed have a ball diameter of 1 cm and a launch distance of 2 m. However, it has not been put to practical use because it is still in the development stage.

"Itte Q to the end of the world!], a fireworks ball (four shaku three-dimensional large thousand rings) whose diameter at the time of flowering is estimated to be 1 km was made and fried. However, the fireworks ball itself was too heavy and did not rise, so it exploded in water and failed.

Fireworks (fireworks) are classified as cracked and warm[2].

  • Split
    What makes the star part open in a spherical shape with an explosive powder[2][1].. Above all, the starschrysanthemum"Chrysanthemums" are those that have tails that spread like flowers, and those that do not.peonyIt is called "button thing" by analogy with. Moreover, what spreads in a double spherical shape is called a "core".
    Deformation of splitSaturnA thing in which stars scatter in the shape of is called a "shaped object".
  • Pokamono
    In the airKusutamaA part that breaks up and pops out.
    • Sound
      What is commonly known as "noshiro" and "sign fireworks". It is used to signal the holding of various events such as athletic meet. The "three-step thunder" that sounds three times in a row and the "five-step thunder" that sounds five times are mainly used.
    • Bags, hangings, etc.
      Daytime fireworks where dolls made of thin paper such as Japanese paper in a bag shape, smoke balls and flags hanging on a parachute fall slowly. Launch is prohibited except under specific conditions. "Bagmono" was patented by fireworks master Jinta Hirayama in the United States in 1883, but this is the first Japanese patent in the United States.[3].

There are the following points to appreciate "warimono" which is a typical fireworks display.

  • Are the balls firmly seated? The fact that the ball is open at the point where it rises is said to be "the seat of the ball is solid." This is an important point to spread cleanly.
  • Is the tray removed? Does the star look like a tray in a perfect circle?
  • Do you have all the vanishing points? The colors of the stars have changed all at once and have disappeared all at once. However, there are some fireworks that intentionally shift their mouths.
  • Are the stars spread evenly and missing teeth?
  • Is the color of the stars good, and is there a clear color? In addition, how to color the stars is an important point to show the individuality of the fireworks artist.

Fireballs are also used for in-process fireworks such as Star Mine[2].

Fireworks other than fireballs

Rocket fireworks that shoot stars like meteors (dragons), and hand-held fireworks that emit sparks, etc.[2][4].

Toy fireworks

It used to be called a toy fireworks, but the notation used by the Japan Fireworks Association is unified here. A generic name for fireworks that do not require a license to purchase or useSparklerA typical thing is to hold it with a hand, but even if it is small, it is a fireworks display, and there are things that burst in the sky due to the cylinder. In Japan, the Japan Fireworks Association inspects shipped products, and those that have passed the inspection are marked with the "SF mark".

It is often sold as a single item at a toy store, etc., but usually it is a combination of several pieces of one type to about 100 fireworks of various types, from late spring to early autumnsupermarket,Home center,Mom-and-pop candy storeIt is sold at.

Homecoming,TravelIn that case, you may buy it before you leave for use while traveling or bring back the fireworks that you have not used up to your home.However, if you carry fireworks and use transportation, there are restrictions and restrictions on bringing in fireworks. Be careful.aircraftFor safety reasons, we cannot carry in or carry checked baggage even if it is a small amount when traveling with[5][6].. When using a train or bus, you can bring in a small amount, but there is a limit to the amount you can bring in.[Note 1]. Also,home deliveryCannot be shipped[9][10].

Snake fireworks
Like the rat fireworks described below, it is known as a firework with an organism name.
When you light a circular charcoal, the charcoal will come out with smoke.ヘ ビA firework with a structure that extends into a shape like this.Unlike ordinary fireworks, there are no brightly colored sparks, only smoke.
Mouse fireworks
A string of fireworks of string-shaped fireworks assembled in a circle. Invented by the first generation founded in 1929[11][12][13].. When a flame is ignited and a flame is blown out, a force is applied to the center of gravity so that the center of gravity is rotated. The round flames make a rustling noiseA mouseIt has this name because it was compared to. At the end, it is common to have a device that pops like bread. Recently[When?]Many people don't understand how to use, and it seems that burns are common.
Coma fireworks
It is an application type of mouse fireworks, the main body istopIt looks like a (top). Because it can rotate faster than the mouse fireworks, it roars on the ground with a groaning noise.
Dragonfly fireworks
Applied system of top fireworks.The fireworks cylinder of the main body that sprays in both directions has two paper blades, and it is launched by placing it on a flat surface with the surface facing up.It rotates at high speed by the injection force from two places, and gains lift by the paper blades that receive the wind, and it rubs and rises at high speed.It has the characteristic of rapidly rising in two stages when rising.
UFO fireworks
Derived fireworks from dragonfly fireworks.Since it has small fins like a fan, it rises by receiving wind from the fins as it rotates.If you do not place it on a flat surface, it may fly in unexpected directions, so be careful.
Sparkler
It is a fireworks display that represents the Japanese summer atmosphere. Fireworks with gunpowder attached to the tip of a thin bamboo stick. When fired, the gunpowder became round and scattered small sparks. There are various names for how to burn. Current[When?]But development is underway. It is said that it is better to tilt it at an angle of 45 degrees to stabilize and burn it for the longest time.
Rocket fireworks
Fireworks of the landing type.bottleEtc. as a launch pad. There are those that burst after launch, those that do not burst, and those that do not have a flash. Many of the things that do not burst have been modified to make a loud sound when they are launched. Due to the problem that burnt residue cannot be collected, some local governments prohibit the use on the coast.
Bat fireworks
It's basically the same as rocket fireworks,BatIt has wings such as, and has the characteristics such as a sharp rise right above and no pattern. There are different names depending on the region.
Parachute fireworks (bag)
It is a type of launch fireworks and a type of daytime fireworks. There is a bag inside the ball that burst in the sky, and all flags and parachutes come down. Some small toy fireworks are produced. Hosoya Fireworks in 1931 (Founded in 1906. In 1990, the fireworks department became independent under the name of Hosoya Enterprise.[14]) Is manufactured by the beginning. Be careful when launching, as it may cause problems such as electric wires getting caught.
Fireworks
Sparks from a paper cylinderfountainSomething that blows up like. “Dragon” from Ota Yukihana Seisakusho, which once stood out, was a representative product.[15][16].. Place it on the ground and ignite the fuse. There is also one that has been improved to be as small as a small pipe for handheld use.
Firecracker
A small firework with a length of a few centimeters. In many cases, multiple firecrackers are connected by a fuse to explode continuously. The history of fireworks is old, and there is even a theory that it is the oldest type of fireworks. In Chinese culture,Lunar New YearUsed to celebrate etc. Another name, dynamite.
cracker
Small fireworks with a length of about 10 cm. Like blasting, it is a firework that enjoys the sound, but unlike blasting, it is used alone. There is no squib, instead, the gunpowder at the tip of the cylinder acts as a squib. Explosion occurs in about 5 seconds after ignition.
Snake fireworks
When litヘ ビFireworks that embers grow like. The color is black. There are different names depending on the region.
Smoke fireworks
Ball-shaped (ball ofColorIs various). A type of fireworks. When it is lit, it emits smoke, as the name implies. Most give off colored smoke. Because of its characteristics, rather than the way fireworks are usedmischiefVery often used for. There are different names depending on the region.
Jade ball(Kansakudama)
If you step on it or hit it against somethingsoundWill be.pachinkoOften skipped with. Sometimes called a cracker ball.
A larger version of this is set on the track in the event of an abnormality, and when a train passes, it makes a loud noise and prompts an emergency stop.Signal detonator.
Paper powder
Play gunOr, it is used as a pistol for starting athletics, and when a gunpowder part is hit, it ignites and emits a spark and a popping sound. A small piece of gunpowder placed on a red wrapping paper at equal intervalsVolcanic powder, A red or yellow sheet with perforations with slightly larger gunpowderHiratama GunpowderCall. Due to the danger of being used in large quantities, they are being culled due to the spread of cap explosives described below.
Cap gunpowder
Mainly used for play guns,PlasticA cap made of paper filled with explosives similar to paper explosives. There is no risk of overloading, it is easier to handle and more reliable than paper powder. EspeciallyModel gunThe ones used for are tightly tuned to ensure operation and are expensive. There are two types, 5 mm and 7 mm in diameter.

Fireworks and flame color

atomTheexcitationWhen it does, the electron moves to the outer orbit and emits light of a color corresponding to the energy emitted when it returns to the original orbitFlame reactionIs being applied. Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals are often used as added elements.

Fireworks history

There are various theories about the origin of fireworks. Generally the roots of fireworks are ancient ChineseWolf smokeIt is said that it is a (commission), and it is a means of communication by smoke, and fireworks will be born with the development of gunpowder technology.[17].

History in Europe

EuropeWas transmitted to13st centuryAfter that, the initial oneCongratulatory gunIt is thought that the sound of the was made louder or the smoke was colored. The main production areas in EuropeイタリアThere was a lot of explosives and fireworks production.

Fireworks for viewing are from the 14th century ItalyFlorenceIt is said to start fromキ リ ス ト 教It is said that it was used for the mechanism to exhale fire from the doll used in the festival[17].

16st centuryTo become andEnglandThe technology of fireworks makes great progress.1532,Henry VEstablished rules for recruiting fireworks from the Royal Army,CoronationAnd the royal familywedding,birthdayEtcRiver ThamesThere is a record that he enjoyed the fireworks over water.

さ ら に17st centuryTo become andポーランド,スウェーデン,デンマークA fireworks school was established in, and a group of specialized fireworks masters with systematic knowledge was formed.[17].. Of EnglandJames IInvited a technician from Denmark to daughterエ リ ザ ベ スCelebrated his wedding ceremony with fireworks. Also1672The Fireworks Research Institute was established in1683A textbook on fireworks was published in, and fireworks technology gradually developed.

History in Japan

It is unclear when, where and when the first fireworks were used in Japan.

As an old record,Muromachi Period OfOfficial houseGreat alley Tokifusas diary"Kennai(Kenshoin's internal journal)”1447May 5(Wen'an4May 3) Article,JokainAfter the law in境内There is an article in which "Tang" performed "Funryu" which is considered to be fireworks. There, bamboo is used to make a frame, and fire is used tothin-Chinese bellflower-Sennohana-Water mill”, etc., a thing that fire goes back and forth along a rope, a “mouse” that ignites to “run”, and a hand in the air to ignite “meteor” It is said that the ones that fly like, etc. were shown. Tokifusa praises "Kiyo no Hijutsuya" and gives him a reward.

This eraYoshimitsu AshikagaWas lost after the death ofNichimei Trading Yoshinori AshikagaIt has been restarted by, and it is thought that the fireworks were also brought in from the continent.

at leastSengoku periodIs said to have received fireworks for viewing along with guns and gunpowder[17].. It is said that fireworks will soon be produced in Japan, but Christianity will continue after that.MissionaryThere are many records of fireworks by the hands of foreigners such as the "Tangjin".

1582May 4(Tensho10May 3)Portugalperson'sJesuitsMissionaryIs the currentOitaUsuki CityWas inCathedralRecord that fireworks were used in the "Jesuit Society Annual Report"Frois Japanese History)) isSorin OtomoUsing fireworksHoly weekThe ceremony ofChristianGrand opening to increaseEventsIt is whatHoly SaturdayFrom the night to the nextdawnFor up toResurrection all-night festivalThen threeCastle towerThere are XNUMX lanterns (approx.ChurchAnd JapanstoryImitatedNight high andon) The procession was added to the procession. More fireworksOur SkyIt actually took on various shapes.”人 々All stopped to watch the fireworks. AndmidnightThere is also a churchcourtyardAlso広 場It became crowded with no room for standing[18].

It is thought that foreigners learned the technology of fireworks and created their own fireworks in Japan, but at the beginning it is not well understood.1585To the currentTochigiTochigi Cityso,Minagawa mountain castle guardとSatake ShuAlthough there is a theory that he set fireworks in the batter of the war, it is also argued that the gunpowder, which was valuable at the time, should not be used for such things during the war.

Beef OtaBy "Nobunaga』\Vol XNUMX looks1581May 2(Tensho 9th yearNew year 15th)Firecracker"Things that look like"FirecrackerIs a fireworks firecracker,Azuchi castleThere is a theory that firecrackers (a kind of fireworks) were made underneath, but this is the one that burns bamboo to make noise.New yearIt has been held since at least the Kamakura era as one of the events, and it cannot be immediately determined whether it was a fireworks using gunpowder.

However, around this time, mass production of gunpowder was started due to the demand for guns, and it seems that Japanese fireworks were also manufactured.

As a record that "fireworks viewing" was held from the Warring States period to the early Edo period,Date MasamuneOf the castleYonezawa Castleso,1589May 8(Tensho 17th yearMay 7)At night, I saw the fireworks by "The Great Chinese" ("Sadayama Koujiya record", "Date Tensho Nikki", etc.),1613In 8 monthTokugawa Ieyasu Sunpu CastleAt the British EmbassyJohn SarisWhen I had an audience, I was told that the accompanying Merchant merchant showed me a firework in the shape of sparks coming out of a cylinder (“Sumpu Government Minutes』"Miyanaka Hakusaku" "Butoku Henen Shusei"), etc. (However, Masamune's article is based on the compilation material around the time of Genroku, and it has been pointed out that it is very similar to Ieyasu's article.[17].

Edo Period

In the Edo era, when the war broke out, a gunpowder store specializing in fireworks appeared. The birthplace of Tokugawa,(I.e.Centered onMikawa district TheEdo Period,Tokugawa ShogunateWas the only officially licensed manufacturer to manufacture and store explosives. With such a history, fireworks have spread and developed in the Mikawa region centered around Okazaki for a long time, and the name of Mikawa fireworks has been desired throughout the country. As a remnant, the smoke and fire manufacturing industries and wholesalers are still concentrated in the Mikawa and Enshu districts nationwide.

1648ToShogunate Sumida RiverFireworks have been banned from other countries, and fireworks are said to have been popular since that time. It is thought that toys at that time were toy fireworks.1712Published around the timeJapanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society』(Ryoan TerashimaAuthor, illustration of the Edo periodEncyclopedia), rat fireworks, wolf smoke fireworks[19]Are introduced.

KeianThe first year (1648),KanbunFireworks bans were issued in 5 years (1665) and Kanbun 10 years (1670),EdoInside, the fireworks were stopped at all and gradually moved to the region. It is said that the launch accident occurred and the ban was issued repeatedly.

The oldest surviving fireworks dealer in Japan as of 2013 is Tokyo (at that timeEdo) Soke fireworksLocksmithAnd1659The first Yahei sold a toy fireworks show.

The first locksmith, YaheiYamatoShinohara (Yoshino-gun,laterNaraGojo CityIt is said that he was born and was good at making fireworks since childhood. In 1659, Yabei, who came out in Edo, sold a toy firework with a reed inside. After that, Yabei continued research and set up a shop in Yokoyama Town, Ryogoku, and began to inherit the generation as "Kakaya" for generations, continuing to the present age (2018th generation as of 15).[20].. After that, research on large fireworks,1717The fireworks are launched at the water god festival.

Incidentally,Sumida River open fireworksAs the origin of the, there are the following widely disseminated discourses.

1733,KinaiAroundfamineSuffered from and in EdocholeraIn a gloomy world in which a large number of dead were killedYoshimunePrayed for the memorial service for the dead and for the evil spirits to disperse, and held a water god festival in the rivers of both countries (the Sumida River), and around 20 fireworks were displayed at the festival.[17].

However, this episode was created gradually from the mid-Meiji era to the early Showa era, and is far from historical facts.[21]. For example,choleraThe first epidemic in Japan occurred in Western Japan in 1822 (Bunsei 5).[22]It's against the fact that it was fashioned in the 1730s[23].. Detail is,Sumida River fireworks displaySee section.

Along with the locksmith, the representative of Edo fireworksTamayaIs. Kiyoyoshi, who was the XNUMXth generation locksmith,1810ToGoodwillAfter that, the name was changed to Ichibei and a store was opened in Yoshikawa, Hirokoji, Ryogoku.[24].

In Edo, where the two major fireworks masters of locksmiths and Tamaya came to enter, the river opening of both countries wasRyogoku BridgeTamaya is in charge of the upstream, and locksmith is in charge of the downstream.[17].. The voices of "Tammaya" and "Kaguya" were created.[Note 2].. At the timeUkiyo-eAs you can see, many fireworks of Tamaya are drawn, and also, "On the bridge, only the voices of the ball and the ball are without a key, and there is no feeling of a key." Calling)Mad songOr "Tamaya is nice and locksmith is good"SenryuIt is considered that the popularity of Tamaya surpassed the locksmiths because of the fact that there are still some. However1843May 5(Tempo14May 4), there was a fire from Tamaya, and there was a tumult that not only the shops but also the townscape of about half a town (about 1500 tsubo) was baked.[26].. At that time, a misfire was determined to be a felony, and by coincidenceGeneralKeikei OfToshoguSince it was the night before the departure of worship, strict disposal was given and TamayaPlace(Property confiscation), Ichibei is EdoReady(Exiled), and the family name was cut off in just one generation[26].

At the time, fireworks specialist fireworks such as locksmiths were called townsman fireworks. other than this,DamingThey ordered the gunpowder craftsmen under their control to compete and set fireworks at the Sumida River. These fireworksSamurai fireworksCalled. In particular, the production of gunpowder was not regulatedOwari Domain,Kishu clan,Mito DomainTwo ofTokugawa GosankeFireworksFireworksCalled EdoTradesmanIt was popular amongst others. Also, the samurai fireworks of the Date family in Sendai,Date MasamuneReflecting the rich clan style since then,Fireworks on the Sendai riverbankWith the popularity of the Edo townspeople, spectators rushed in,Edo Domain HousenearMannenbashi OfBalustradeThere are even accidents where the machine breaks. The samurai fireworks are an evolution of things used in warfare,Wolf smoke fireworksIt is called a fireworks that focuses on the vertical direction, and its direction is different from the so-called townsman fireworks that specializes in planes, with a focus on gimmicks that enjoy colors and shapes. Modern Japanese fireworks technology incorporates this difference in direction.

Teruhiko Muto, the founder of the Japan Fireworks Association, who wrote many books on fireworks.1921 - 2002According to)1751It is said to have been developed by. Prior to that, it was thought that the fireworks were smoke and fire.

LocksmithSecond World WarDuring the period, Tadō Amano, thirteenth generation, stopped producing fireworks, and as of 2013, he has become a full-fledged landing company.

Regarding fireworks, there are many records especially in Edo, but it does not mean that fireworks were not produced in other regions. Especially there was trade with foreign countriesKyusyuWhen,Nagano,AichiFor example, fireworks have been made since the Edo period. Especially,MikawaguniOkazaki region (Aichi prefecture岡 崎 市The neighborhood) is the birthplace of Tokugawa Ieyasu, and regulations on gunpowder are lenient, and since the Edo period, the townspeople have competed to manufacture fireworks. It is said that this is a remnant of many toy fireworks wholesalers around Okazaki as of 2013. The other major fireworks producing areas in Japan are Nagano prefecture,Niigata,Akita,IbarakiAnd there are many regions in the Tokugawa family that are related to the Tokugawa family.

After the Meiji era

In the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe, new compounds were synthesized by the development of chemistry, and "Western fireworks" made from them were used as raw materials.MeijiNew Year (1868) Was first imported to Japan.[27]

From the overseas in the Meiji eraPotassium chlorate,aluminum,magnesium,Strontium carbonate,Barium nitrateMany chemicals were imported, and not only new colors were added to the fireworks that were expressed only by the strength of the orange color called charcoal color until then, but the brightness also changed significantly.[17].. The start of importing these substances1879から1887The shape of fireworks in Japan has changed drastically since then. Fireworks made with earlier technologyJapanese fire, After thisYanghuoSometimes you can say that.

Vivid fireworks with various colors were created by new chemicals, but it was during the Meiji era that serious accidents occurred due to lack of knowledge about chemicals. In particular, potassium chlorate becomes unstable when mixed with other acidic chemicals, and has the property of increasing the risk of explosion even with a slight impact. If this happens, it will result in a serious accident.

As a record of a large-scale launch of a Western fire with various colors,1889May 2 OfImperial Japanese ConstitutionAt the celebration event of the promulgation,Imperial Palace OfDouble bridgeIt was fried from the ground.

Until then, fireworks manufacturing had no licenses or regulations for landing,1910It became a permission system. Local fireworks before this wereFarmerMany of them were manufactured as hobbies, but after that, it became necessary to make full use of chemical knowledge, so that the pyrotechnicians would become specialized.

TaishoDuring the period, metal powders such as magnesium and aluminum were introduced as luminescent agents, and it became possible to bloom large flowers brightly in the night sky. In addition to potassium chlorateCapstoneMixedRed explosionThe fireworks with great pronunciation effect were completed. It was during the Taisho era that the famous fireworks masters such as Miya appeared.[17].

It is a firework that has developed technology steadily in this way,ShowaTo enter the,Sino-Japanese warIn a world situation in which the war is expanding, it will reach a stagnation period. Fireworks production is expensive instead of being bannedExcise taxHowever, at the beginning, fireworks for send-off soldiers sent off,GhostThere were fireworks at the memorial service and prayers for the victory such as the memorial service fireworks. However, due to the expansion of the war, the fireworks display at the Sumida River opens1937Was canceled. Meanwhile, fireworks manufacturers have smoke tubes and incendiary tubes (IncendiaryWas reproduced).

Second World WarAfter the defeat19459ToNagano city Of隲 ィ ェFireworks are fried at10ToAllied Command (GHQ) bans gunpowder manufacturing. But,1946On July 7th,U.S. ForcesJapanese traders fried American Independence Day fireworks at the base[17], The first post-war fireworks display on August 1946, 8,(I.e. OfNagara RiverNational Fireworks Festival (later National Fireworks Festival) at the riverside,May 9と30 DayToIbarakiTsuchiura CityThe 14th National Fireworks Competition (later the Tsuchiura National Fireworks Competition) held in1947In commemoration of the enforcement of the new constitution ofImperial Palace Square(The last fireworks were launched at the Imperial Palace Square).

With the persuasion of Japanese fireworks manufacturers,1948GHQ permits the consumption of fireworks in stock. In response to this, sponsored by the Ryogoku Fireworks Association,Yomiuri ShimbunSponsored by Marutamaya Kokatsu Fireworks Store, the Ryogoku River Opening Fireworks Festival was launched in 1948.May 8Was revived. At this time, the amount of landing permission was only 600, but there were 70 spectators in the large flowers of the peaceful period ("Ryogokugawa Opening Yearbook").

After the defeat, many Japanese fireworks, including toy fireworks, were exported overseas, but as of 2013,ChugokuThe amount of imports from China is larger, and exports are decreasing sharply. As of 2013, many fireworks companies are small and medium-sized enterprises with local roots, and have adopted a hereditary system that transfers technology from parents to children.

Fireworks and culture

Japan

JapanThen,Summer: Of the nightTraditional poetryIt is said that. Some local governments call large-scale fireworks a "fireworks festival." Most of the fireworks festivals are held in July and August.

Traditional fireworks

We mainly introduce historical fireworks. Some of these are also part of the local exchange, such as holding local performances such as hand-held fireworks.

Matsudown Tsuna Fire (Ibaraki PrefectureTsukuba Mirai City)
AliasKarakuri doll work fireworksAlso called.1603,Obari DomainBecame the mainMatsushita ShizunaIt is said to have started during the camp for celebration of victory. In the Edo era, people began to dedicate themselves to Atago Shrine, praying for fire protection and good harvest.
Kobarimatsu downstream Tsuna Fire is a rare event that combines folk entertainment puppet theater and fireworks. It is said that three pillars with a height of about 10 m are set up, a rope is stretched around three large ropes, a turret for operating the doll is assembled, and the doll is illuminated with a device fireworks while manipulating the doll according to the music. It is a thing.
The title of the performance is "Genpei MorishikiAnd 'Momotaro],Kiyohime Hidaka RiverAs well as the music for Matsuishita,Miko Mai, Refill,Third limbIt depends on the external question.
The dolls are subject to external problemsstrawUse a bundle of. In addition, the preparation of gunpowder of device fireworks,1807Document "Manka Fire Book" still exists[When?]And the manufacturing method according to it is observed.
Takaoka Ryutsuna Fire (Tsukuba Mirai City, Ibaraki Prefecture)
"Tsunari" isDollBy combining the fireworks with the in-process fireworks and operating the rope stretched in the air, the dolls are manipulated according to the music.Ayatsuri Doll Work FireworksAlso say. Its history is old,Keicho yearsSince then, Murauchi is said to suffer unfortunately if he cancels it.
There is no reliable record of the origin of this tug of fire, but on the day of the Atago Shrine festival during the Keicho era, I saw the nesting of black spiders and red spiders in the air. , Said that he started acting in the air.
After that, he began to wear torches and lanterns on this doll, studied the technology of making fireworks with the introduction of gunpowder, attached it to a doll, and dedicated it to a shrine to pray for the safety of the village. Current[When?]Is organized only by the eldest son living in the Takaoka areaCorpsThe tradition is protected by.
Chichibu Ryuse Fireworks (Saitama PrefectureChichibu City)
Shimoyoshida, Chichibu City, said to have started in the Tensho era,Mura ShrineHandmade fireworks dedicated to the autumn festival. A rocket fireworks about 15 m long launches up to a height of 300-500 m.
Mikawa-tetsu fireworks (Aichi PrefectureToyohashi-Higashimikawa)
It is a firework that uses a hand-held tube with a diameter of about 10 cm and a length of 70-80 cm hollowed out and wrapped around with a hemp rope. The day before the dedication, the gunpowder is struck inside, and on the day of dedication, the young people hold it on their flanks and ignite it. Then, the flame sometimes spouts over 10 meters.
Manual fire ((I.e.Nagamori)
Every year in May, September and November, pray for measuresBrute forceIt is a firework dedicated to (Taji's tomorrow. There are types such as hand-held fireworks attached to a portable shrine, dance fireworks, and waterfall fireworks.
Meteor (Shiga PrefectureMaibara・Omi and others)
Battle of SekigaharaFrom SekigaharaMitsunari IshidaIt was said that he had made contact with Sawayama, who set up the main team, by means of fireworks, and told him today.
Meteor is a Japanese traditional black powder used in meteors, but each village has a different composition and forms a school.
Shinoda Fireworks (Shiga PrefectureOmihachiman)
It is a firework that originated in the middle of Edo. With salt stonesAlumAfter adding the paste to the mixture, draw a picture or letters on the board, attach it to the turret, and set it on fire.
Naruha Atago Shrine Dedicated Fireworks (Naruha, Okayama Prefecture)
1704ToNariwaLord'sYoshikata YamazakiIt is a fireworks display that originated from the fact that the company held a dedication fireworks for the solicitation of Atago Shrine.

Fireworks display list

List of fireworks festivals in JapanSee.

Fireworks day

To commemorate the release of fireworks after the war on August 1948, 8, the Tokyo headquartersStablesMemorial on August 1955, 8, when a large-scale fireworks explosion occurred in Japan, said to be the largest in the worldGuru Festival PL Fireworks ArtThe day of fireworks, which also serves as a memorial day of August 8May 8Was established in 1967 (established in 5). In addition, since the opening of the Ryogoku River was on May 28 in the lunar calendar,May 5Is also a fireworks day.

Works related to fireworks

Fireworks regulation

There are legal restrictions on the handling of fireworks in each country. Fireworks as a cancer tool have different legal regulations depending on the culture. In some countries fireworks may be confused with gunshots, so fireworks may be banned except on anniversaries.

Japan

Explosives Control Law

Explosives Control LawThere is regulation by.

  • 製造
    As with ordinary explosives, permission is required to manufacture fireworks and gun tool fireworks.[28].
  • Sale
    Similar to general explosives, a permit is required to sell smoke and fire (a permit is not required to sell firearms and firearms)[28].
  • Storage in explosives
    Like ordinary explosives, permission is required to store smoke and fire[28].. No permission is required if the storage of cancer tool fire is 25 kg or less[28].
  • Transfer/Transfer
    Unlike general explosives, no permission is required to transfer or receive smoke or firearms[28].
  • Transportation
    For general explosives, it is necessary to report for transportation of 100 kg or more, but for smoke fire 600 kg or more, cancer tool smoke 2 t or more[28].
  • 輸入
    Similar to general explosives, a permit is required for importing fireworks and cancer equipment fireworks.[28].
  • 消费
    Like general explosives, a permit is required to consume smoke and fire (a permit is not required to consume smoke and smoke from cancer tools)[28].. Similar to general explosives, the consumption of smoke and fire has technical standards, and it is prohibited to handle under 18 years old.[28].
    For example, in order to fire launch fireworks, a smoker consumption permit is required by each prefectural governor, and the application is issued by the Japan Fireworks Association, which is a skill certification certificate of a fireworks store commonly called a fireworks master by the general public.Smoke Fire Conservation HandbookEnter the "smoke fire landing worker" holding the above.
  • Disposal
    Unlike general explosives, no permission is required to dispose of fireworks and cancer equipment fireworks.[28].

Fire Service Act

Fire Service ActThen you will be treated as dangerous goods.

Aviation law

Aviation lawTherefore, depending on the airspace to which the fireworks will be launched, launch may be prohibited, or notification to the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism may be required prior to launch (Restricted surfaceSee also).

America

The ones that are equivalent to Japan's "firearms fireworks" are called "consumer fireworks" (consumer fireworks, and those fireworks raise are called professional fireworks). The handling (purchasing, possession, consumption) of each state has an age limit (most states are 16 years old), and consumption is often limited to the year-end and New Year holidays and around Independence Day.[28].

Germany

There are restrictions on purchase and consumption except for some items such as party crackers[28].

The United Kingdom

There is also an age limit (18 years old in principle) for purchasing and consuming cancer gear fireworks except party fireworks (party popper) and cracker balls (throwdown)[28].

スウェーデン

Except for handheld sparklers, party fireworks (party popper), fountains (ice fountain), etc., there is an age limit (18 years old in principle) for purchasing and consuming cancer equipment fireworks.[28].

ノルウェー

There is an age limit (16 years old) for purchasing and possessing cancer tool fire, but no permission is required for consumption[28].

Environmental pollution by fireworks

Fireworks重金属Residue, sulfur compounds,Particulate matter, Soot containing other low concentrations of toxic substances[29][30][31][32].. The by-products of these combustions differ greatly depending on the way the raw materials are mixed. (For example,bariumMay add green to fireworks by adding salt[29].. These substances also include those that are toxic. )

Also fireworksPerchlorateHas been said to be a source of[33][34][35]. United States Environmental Protection AgencyRichard Wilkin et al. conducted a study on the use of fireworks above waters, keeping in mind the effects of environmental perchlorate on humans and wildlife. Sources of perchlorates range from lightning and certain fertilizers to those found in rocket fuels and explosives. Scientists have long suspected that local fireworks festivals could be another source of emissions, but little research has been done. Wilkin's research group established that fireworks were one of the causes of perchlorate pollution by analyzing the water in a lake in Oklahoma before and after the fireworks festival in 2004, 2005 and 2006. .. Within 14 hours of the fireworks display, the concentration of perchlorate increased from 24 times background background to 1,028 times. After 24 hours, the concentration reached its maximum, and after 20 to 80 days, it had reached the level before the competition.[36].

Perchlorate is a type of solid salt that easily dissolves and moves in groundwater and surface water. When perchlorate is mixed in drinking waterthyroid OfIodineIs known to be inhibited[34][35][37][38].. Although there are currently no federal standards for drinking water across the country, some states have already established public health goals and action levels, and some states are trying to establish maximum limits. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency is studying the effects of perchlorate on the environment as well as drinking water.[39] .. AlsoCaliforniaIssued guidelines on the use of perchlorate[40].

Pollutants from fireworks raise concerns about health risks. The effects of long-term exposure to low levels of poisons from many sources on the majority of people are unclear. On the other handAsthmaFor patients and those with multiple chemical hypersensitivity, smoke from fireworks can exacerbate the disease[41][42].

The United States of America

MassachusettsSeveral states, including the United States, have legislated drinking water standards for perchlorate. The California Legislature enacted the Perchlorate Pollution Control Act (AB 2003) in 826. The law called on the California Toxic Substances Control Agency (DTSC) to adopt regulations that set forth the best controls for perchlorates and substances containing perchlorates. This control method was adopted on 2005 December 12 and came into effect on 31 July 2006[43] .. California also established drinking water standards in 2007. Arizona,Maryland,ネ バ ダ 州,New mexico,New York State,TexasSeveral states, including the United States, have established non-mandatory recommendation standards.

The judiciary has also ruled on perchlorate contamination. For example, in 2003, the US District Court for the State of California found that perchlorate was a flammable and "characteristically" hazardous waste.(English edition)Decided to apply[44].

Some U.S. companies claim to work with Chinese manufacturers to reduce and ultimately eliminate pollutant perchlorate.[45].

India

IndiaThen mainly in urban areasAir pollutionIs becoming more seriousHinduismIs a national holidayDiwaliSounded atFirecrackerTended to accelerate the deterioration of pollution levels.2017,Indian Supreme CourtBanned firecrackers sale before and after Diwali[46]

Fireworks accident

FireworksACCIDENTCan be roughly divided into accidents during the manufacturing process at the fireworks factory and accidents during the demonstration at the fireworks display. The accident at the fireworks display is not only the danger of fireworks,Crowd accidentVarious preventive measures have been taken in advance by the management side in order to prevent accidents that may occur due to the large number of spectators gathering, but it has not yet been prevented. Also, fireworks held at home do not fully recognize the danger of explosives.ChildrenIs the main body of play, so do careless handling and playfully perform dangerous actions such as pointing to people, animals, or objects.[47]This tends to lead to accidents. There is also a risk of fire due to the mistreatment of fire after playing.

When you fireworks at home, in a park, etc.,bucketMake sure that you can extinguish the fire at any time, such as by drawing water, and then extinguish the fireworks after they have burned out properly with water, and confirm that the fire has been sufficiently extinguished. Also, since there are no adult managers, such as only small children, avoid fireworks. Unfired fireworks (especially those for launch fireworks are called "black balls") have the risk of reignition or explosion, and they need to be dipped in water.

There have been many fireworks accidents in the past, but the statistics remain1950 eraIt's about time. From the 1950s1960 eraThere were many explosions at the fireworks factory, and there were times when more than 10 people were killed each year. Many said that the fireworks factories would explode and kill employees, but some of them caused damage to nearby buildings and the lives of the general public, and these accidents gradually tightened regulations on fireworks production. However, some claim that using a safe type of explosives and keeping the amount stored should have prevented most of these accidents.

Accidents directly caused by fireworks

Japanese flag Toy wholesale explosion accident
1955May 8Around 1 pm
TokyoSumida-kuA fireworks factory operated by a wholesale store that handles toy fireworks exploded in Gamabashi. 18 dead.
Japanese flag Tokyo Takarazuka Theater火災
1958May 2X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes
The fireworks used for the production without permission are flammable.TroupeThree members died. AfterwardstheaterThere are strict restrictions on the use of fireworks in. In particular, it was completely banned in Tokyo (some deregulation in 1985).
Japanese flag Kamigo Village Fireworks Factory explosion accident
1959May 5About 2:25 pm
NaganoShimoina DistrictKamigo Village(CurrentIida) Accident that killed 7 people. Close to the fireworks factoryprimary schoolA 6-year-old female child doing gymnastics in the schoolyard died in a blast. This will contribute to the tightening of regulations on fireworks production.
Japanese flag Yokohama fireworks display explosion accident
1989May 8
Yamashita ParkThe fireworks fire that had been launched by a pontoon on the front sea ignited other fireworks before the launch, and 325 fireworks balls exploded. Two fireworks were burnt to death and seven were injured (Kanagawa Newspaper Fireworks Festival).
Japanese flag IbarakiMoriya TownFireworks factory explosion accident
1992May 6
An explosion occurred in the warehouse and chemical store inside the fireworks manufacturing factory, killing 3 people and injuring 58 people.
Dutch flag Enschede fireworks storage warehouse explosion accident
2000May 5
Netherlands OfEnschedeA 100-ton Chinese fireworks stored in a fireworks storage warehouse in the city exploded, causing devastating damage to the city since World War II in Dutch history. Over 20 people were killed, more than 900 were injured, and 1,000 lost their homes. The cause is believed to be arson by the owner of the warehouse. Total damage $8,900 million[48].
Japanese flag Hokkaido girl death accident
2002May 8
53 timesWin every fireworks displayThen, a shakudama fireworks fragment (3.4 kg) fell into the spectators' seats and a third-grade elementary school student was hit directly and died. In response to this accident, Hokkaido revised the safety distance standard.
Japanese flag KagoshimaNankoku Fireworks Factory explosion accident
2003May 4
Explosion occurred at multiple locations, including the compounding plant in the smoke and fire manufacturing plant and the temporary storage of explosives, resulting in 10 deaths. Due to the accident, the law was revised and the obligation to use electrically conductive equipment was stipulated in the compounding process of lightning, and the amount of stagnation and the number of people in this process were smaller than before, and the storage place for metal used as raw materials. Had to be installed outside the hazardous area.
Flag of the People's Republic of China Explosion accident in Chifeng, China
2012May 1
ChugokuInner MongoliaChifeng CityMotobayama WardThen, when the fireworks that were sold outdoors were lit as a demonstration, the items for sale ignited and exploded. 5 dead, 8 injured[49].
Flag of the People's Republic of China Explosion accident in Hangzhou, China
2012May 10
ChugokuZhejiang ProvinceHangzhou14th in(Chinese version)More than 100 spectators were injured in the fireworks display at the opening event, causing fireworks to explode (no casualties at the time of reporting)[50].
United States flag Accident in the United States
2012May 7
At the Independence Day Fireworks Festival in San Diego, USA, due to a computer programming error, 2 shots should have been launched in 17 minutes, but they were all launched in 15 seconds. No dead or injured.
Nigerian flag Explosion accident in Nigeria
2012May 12
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euLargest cityLagosA large-scale fire and explosion broke out in a fireworks storehouse in a densely populated area. At least one dead and 1 injured[51].
Indonesian flag Jakarta Fireworks Factory Explosion Accident, Indonesia
2017May 10
JakartaExplosion at a nearby fireworks factory, killing more than 47 people, injuring more than 34[52].
Japanese flag Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture Fireworks Factory Explosion Accident
2018May 6
Hamamatsu cityExplosion at a fireworks factory in Tokyo kills two employees[53].
Turkish flag Fireworks factory explosion accident in Sakarya province, Turkey
2020May 6
トルコ,Sakarya ProvinceAt a fireworks factoryCoronaA large number of unsold fireworks exploded, killed / missing 7 people, seriously and slightly injured 108 people[54].
Indian flag Firecracker factory explosion in Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu
2021May 2
India,Tamil NaduVirudhunagar ProvinceExplodes at a firecracker factory that was operating illegally in Japan.At least 19 dead, dozens injured[55].

Crowd accident at fireworks display

Japanese flag Ryogokubashi fall accident
1879May 8
At the time of opening the Ryogoku River, a spectator crowded so much that it was vacant only while the car passed,Ryogoku BridgeThe parapet collapses, spectators fall into the river, and fireworks are canceled on the way. It was a disaster that caused dozens of casualties[56].
Japanese flag Bandai bridge incident
1948May 8
"Niigata FestivalAt the time of the "Kawadari" fireworks, the predecessor of "Bandai BridgeThe balustrade on the downstream side flooded, the parapet dropped, and a crowd of about 100 peopleShinano RiverFall into. 11 dead and 29 seriously injured. Since then, it is forbidden to stop and watch fireworks on the bridge over the Shinano River including Bandai Bridge at the fireworks display.
Japanese flag Akashi fireworks display pedestrian bridge accident
2001May 7
The fireworks display audienceFootbridgeA crowd avalanche arose, resulting in a catastrophe of 11 dead and 247 injured.Policemen・The lack of security and response by local governments will be highlighted (Okura coast #accidentSee also).

Accident due to carelessness around fireworks display

Japanese flag2013 Fukuchiyama Fireworks Festival Street Explosion Accident
2013May 8
A stall adjacent to Dokkoise Fireworks Festival,Gasoline carrying canVaporized while refueling the generator withgasolineBecause it caught fire爆 発.. 3 dead, 59 injured.

Case of compensation

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For exampleJR TokaiStipulates that dangerous goods that cannot be brought into trains are stipulated in the passenger business rules. Things that are within.” and you cannot bring more than this.[7].. Other railway operators have similar rules. In the case of buses, the passenger car transport business transportation regulations prohibit bringing in more than 100 grams.[8].
  2. ^ It is said that the main dimension is to keep saying "Tammaya" until the flower opens and the flower opens.KyohoIt was said that there were only twenty fireworks festivals in both countries in 18 (1733)."[25].

Source

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  3. ^ “The fireworks of the Meiji era returned to Yokohama, and a man living in the Netherlands donated to the Open Port Museum. Expert “Existing and unusual” / Yokohama”. Kanagawa newspaper (Kanagawa). (October 2013, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20131014173307/http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1310140003/ 2013th of February 10Browse. 
  4. ^ Japan Fireworks Association "Fireworks Introduction 28 Edition", 2017, p. 24.
  5. ^ Baggage with restrictions on carry-on and carry-on | Safety/Flight Information | JAL Corporate Site -Japan Airlines
  6. ^ ANA baggage [domestic] baggage with restrictions (things that cannot be carried on or checked in the cabin)-All Nippon Airways
  7. ^ Tokai Passenger Railway Co., Ltd. (PDF)
  8. ^ Passenger car transportation business transport regulationsArticle 52(2)
  9. ^ Q04. What kind of items cannot be sent by Takkyubin? -Yamato Transport
  10. ^ Can I send the fireworks in a Yu-Pack? -Japan Post
  11. ^ The history of Subo Tebodan, which has remained unchanged for 400 years, will cease if we stop making it. | Hitokoto Monokoto
  12. ^ Fireworks craftsman
  13. ^ Engineers
  14. ^ Company ProfileHosoya Enterprise Co., Ltd.
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  44. ^ Castaic Lake Water Agency v. Whittaker, 272 F. Supp. 2d 1053 (United States District Court, CD California. July 15, 2003.).
  45. ^ Knee, Karen. Philadelphia Inquirer. 4 Jul 2009. Pa. Company works to make fireworks greener
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  47. ^ It's a big burn with fireworks sandwiched between the buttocksAFPBB.News 2012/07/30]
  48. ^ Failure case database
  49. ^ Fireworks explosion 5 dead, 8 injured China Inner Mongolia - LivedoorNEWS
  50. ^ Fireworks explode at fireworks display, 100 people injured China - Nippon Television News 24
  51. ^ Massive explosion at fireworks warehouse in Nigeria - AFPBB News
  52. ^ "Explosion at fireworks factory kills 47 people”. CNN (July 2020, 10). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  53. ^ "Fireworks factory explosion kills 51-year-old man seriously injured Hamamatsu”. Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL (June 2018, 6). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  54. ^ "Turkey Massive fireworks explode 4 dead”. NHK (July 2020, 7). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  55. ^ "Explosion at firecracker factory kills 19 people India”(May 2021, 2). 2021th of February 2Browse.
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