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📱 | Apple's privacy protection without compromise, even stronger with the new iPhone OS


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More robust with the new iPhone OS, uncompromising Apple privacy protection

 
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Smartphones have become active all day long for various purposes such as browsing the Internet, SNS, address books, maps, cameras, electronic payments, and breaking news.
 

Despite the times when personal information becomes money, "we do not allow" dada leakage "of personal information" "user privacy ... → Continue reading

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Electronic payment

Electronic paymentWhat is (Denshi Kessai)?ProductsorServicesOf the pricesettlement, Coins, banknotes, etc.currencyIt is a mechanism to send and receive data with the same value as the currency, instead of paying in (cash)[1].

Overview

Classification by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications

1997(9) Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications at the time (currentlyMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications), according to the conventional (currencyPayment method (other than)check,Credit card(Imprinter),Offline debit,onlinecommunication[2]Which was digitized byElectronic paymentAnd typically is[3].

  • Online check
  • Credit card (online)
  • Debit card (online)

In contrast,Electronic moneyWas encrypted and digitally signed as necessary[2]Currency data,currencyData card etc.[4]Some are stored in and some are retained by network online authentication. Typically the following[3].

Classification by payment method and method

In contrast to classification by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, today's classification focuses on means and methods of payment.

There are payment methods (cash, deposits, etc.) and payment methods that assume such payments (transfers, direct debits, checks, credit cards, etc.).[5].. Electronic payments also have electronic means of payment and electronic means of payment.[6].

Used for electronic payment, for exampleElectronic moneyIn the narrow sense, it means that the payment method is computerized, but in the broader sense, it includes only the payment method.[6].. Therefore, electronic money should be divided into those with settlement method (terminal electronic money or server type electronic money) and those without settlement method (payment instruction type electronic money) depending on whether or not it has value. Can[7].

Electronic paymentIs electronic in the narrow sense[6].. This electronic payment system canelectronic dataCan be divided into card type and network type depending on the location where[1].. Electronic data such as financial information is the IC chip built into a card or mobile phone in a card-type electronic payment system.[8]It is managed by the server, and in the network type, it is managed by an online (Web etc.) server.[1].. In addition, card-type electronic payments can be read by inserting it into a terminal (reader/writer) and reading it by contact, or by holding it over the terminal and reading it by wireless communication.Non-contact typeThere is[1].

On the other hand, the computerization of payment methods (without means of payment) isdebit cardThere are payment instruction type electronic money such as[6][7].. Payment instruction type electronic money is not a payment method of its own value, but a payment method that electronically directs the transfer of deposit currency.[7](For debit cards, only the payment method is computerized, and the payment method exists as a deposit in the account.[6]).

The above electronic payment system is classified according to the time relationship between service and product purchase and payment,pre-paidMethod (prepayment), method (immediate payment),Post payIt is divided into methods (deferred payment).

In addition, "electronic money" refers to a type of payment method that is an alternative to cash.[9], Which range is included in electronic payment is different and not always uniform depending on statistics, surveys and research.[1].

In-store cashless payment

In-store cashless payments can be made by means of communication of payment information.Magnetic stripe card, Contact IC card, non-contact IC card (Contactless payment),QR code,barcode,OtherbeaconThere are types such as (infrared, optical, acoustic, etc.). Above all,Contactless paymentIs excellent in payment speed[10].

Spread of electronic payment

As mentioned above, computerization of the payment side (checks, credit cards, etc.)onlineIs inseparable fromBringing financial institutions onlineWas ahead. Electronic technology, communication technology,Short-range wireless communicationWith the development of technology, the sophistication of electronic payments and electronic money has been achieved, leading up to today.

Today, all世界With the rapid spread of electronic payments in the United States and the advancement of "cashless" currencies,Cashless societyThe view is strong. The most "cashless" in the worldスウェーデンThen,Swedish Krona OfcurrencyUsage rate is 2%[11].

Sweden makes cash transportation extremely difficult in winter, but high-value banknotes exist but are difficult to useThe United States of America,Counterfeit billA lot of cash is not creditablePeople's Republic of China-South KoreaThe penetration rate is high in countries where stores have advantages. On the other hand, in Japan, ATMs are located in the city, and the currency can be used without any inconvenience, so there is not much advantage for the store to pay the fee, and the diffusion speed is slow compared to the above countries.

However, even in Japan in 2009Fund settlement lawBy this, restrictions on small-scale foreign exchange transactions (less than 100 million yen) will be relaxed, and if you register a money transfer operator,bankPeople other than financial institutions can now enter the settlement market[1].. As of 2012, the total payment amount for the six major electronic money standards has doubled in three years, and is rapidly spreading.[12].

Mobile payment

Mobile payment(I'm crazy)Mobile deviceGenerally refers to electronic payment systems in the field using[13].. Depending on the class of mobile device used,Mobile payment,Smartphone payment(Smartphone payment) Is also called[13].

Share by smartphone payment
2018 Source: Smart Solution Technologies Survey[14]
RankingService nameshare
1 bitMobile Suica32.1%
2 bitApple Pay24.5%
3 bitEdy22.6%
3 bitnanaco22.6%
5 bitLINE Pay18.9%

Note that payment using various types of cards that are not mobile devices (prepaid cards, credit cards, membership cards, etc., magnetic cards, contact/contactless IC cards) is not mobile payment.

There are the following types depending on the means of transmitting payment information.

Type

  • Non-contact IC method
    Non-contact typePrepaid Card(NFC,Felica,RFIDThe same IC chip as the above) is built into the mobile device and used as a terminal etc.Short-range wireless communicationIt is a method of communicating and making payments by.Contactless paymentAlso say. Usually, you can complete the payment simply by holding the mobile device over the reader.[15][16].
    Generally, the communication function of a mobile device is designed to operate even when it is offline. However, unlike the non-contact IC card type, it is often the case that the power of the mobile device must be turned on.
  • QR code, barcode
    This is a method of making payment by scanning the QR code or barcode (codes) installed/presented at the store side with the camera of the mobile device.Code paymentAlso say. There is also a method in which codes are displayed on the screen of the mobile device and the payment is read by the POS at the store.[15].. Compared to the IC card type that can always and instantly perform communication processing, there is also the drawback that it requires the operation of a mobile device (starting a payment application, etc.) and it takes time to read.[15].. Also, unlike the contactless type, when the communication function of the mobile device is offline (out of service area, etc.), payment is impossible. Widely used in Northern Europe, China, parts of the United States, etc.[15].
  • beacon
    A method of confirming the identity and making payment by exchanging encoded beacons (infrared, optical, acoustic, etc.) between a dedicated device installed by the store and a mobile device.[15].. A payment application is required. Sometimes you don't need to remove your mobile device[15].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f Trends in Electronic Money and Future Developments (Masao Okayama) Agricultural Research Institute, viewed November 2018, 11.
  2. ^ a b Encryption and electronic signature are performed as needed (progress of the times). Initial payment telegrams (including lines) and monetary data were often in plain text.
  3. ^ a b "(3) Electronic payments and electronic money: White paper on communication in 10". www.soumu.go.jp. 2019th of February 11Browse.
  4. ^ Typically, there are token cards, magnetic cards, IC cards and the like. It also includes the IC chip of an IC card built into a mobile phone or smartphone (mobile type).
  5. ^ Hitoshi Okada,, "Cryptocurrency-Technology, Law, System" Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2015, p. 8
  6. ^ a b c d e Hitoshi Okada, Ikuo Takahashi, Shigeichiro Yamazaki "Cryptocurrency-Technology, Law and System" Toyo Keizaisha, 2015, pp. 8-9
  7. ^ a b c Mechanism of virtual currency (Hitoshi Okada) National Life Center(National Life August 2016 issue), viewed December 8, 2018.
  8. ^ In some cases, magnetic card type remains
  9. ^ How virtual currency works (Hitoshi Okada) National Life Center (National Life August 2016 issue), viewed November 8, 2018.
  10. ^ Spread of code payment, thorny road Retrieved March 2020, 1, Nihon Keizai Shimbun.
  11. ^ http://president.jp/articles/-/22449
  12. ^ Electronic money 2.4 trillion yen, housewives can be used with a double discount in XNUMX years
  13. ^ a b https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%83%A2%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB%E6%B1%BA%E6%B8%88-1715702#E3.83.87.E3.82.B8.E3.82.BF.E3.83.AB.E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.B3.89
  14. ^ "Smart Solution Technologies Survey'
  15. ^ a b c d e f Yasuyuki Fuchida. “Toward the realization of Cashless Japan”. Nomura Capital Markets Research Institute. 2018th of February 11Browse.
  16. ^ Takao Takahashi, "Basics and Mechanism of Sensors", 2011, pp. 52-53.

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Sorrow,SakuIs also referred to as "Sakujitsu" when it comes to Sakushu. "SakuIs the new moon, which originally meant the day of the lunar calendar. The reading "tsutachi" is a variation of "tsukitsuki". When we read "Ichi-nichi" and "Ichijitsu," it means not only the first day of the month, but also "a certain day without specifying the month and day."

New year(Gregorian calendar)·JapaneseOld calendarSee below for the first day of each month in.

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