Kaoru Karēzawa's family life 242nd Library
If you write the contents roughly
For students who have no friends in their class, the "library" is an "evacuation facility."
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Housing evacuation site
Housing evacuation siteWhat is (Shuyo Hinambasho)?disasterFor a short period of timeEvacuationAn old term that refers to a facility where people live in evacuation for a certain period of time when they are forced to live.CurrentlyDisaster Countermeasures Basic LawTerminology is defined inDesignated emergency evacuation siteIt is called.
The facility that serves as an evacuation site isRegional disaster prevention planOften specified by, by this planDisaster prevention warehouseIs installed.The refugee shelter has a certain amount of supplies necessary for living for a certain period of time, and since indoor facilities are designated, it is thought that there is no need to worry about rainfall.
Even though it is a certain period of time, we live with a large number of peoplePolicies, Space allocation, material distribution, problems that are an extension of the problems that local communities have in their normal lives, and problems that are difficult to integrate without participating in the community are said to occur.But,Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeOr later,Social welfare council,Public welfare officer,Disaster volunteerSuch worries are less likely to occur due to the activities of organizations that have gained experience in.
In addition, public facilities that were not designated as evacuation sites in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (Police station-City / ward office-hospitalSome victims evacuated to (etc.).In fact, it is said that it sometimes became an obstacle to initial disaster prevention and initial rescue activities, but it is said that it was difficult to request movement to a designated evacuation site because it was a victim of the disaster.
Evacuation population and duration
In general, the greater the scale of damage, the more people will gather at the evacuation site and the longer it will take.Especially in volcanic disasters, it is normal for volcanic activity to be long, so life is long.
In the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, it was not possible to accommodate the evacuation shelter that was designated in advance, and it was additionally designated later.In the case of Kobe City, about 24 people (about 16% of the population) lived in evacuation at the most.It is said that a long person lives in an evacuation site for about 7 months.
Niigata Chuetsu Earthquakein the case of,OjiyaAt the most, about 2.6 people (about 62% of the population), and it is said that long people lived for two months.Great East Japan EarthquakeThe maximum number of people exceeded 46, and even after two months, 2 people were still living in evacuation shelters..
Opening an evacuation site
In the regional disaster prevention plan, the establishment of evacuation sites is often done by local government officials.However, it may be difficult to open the facility immediately after the disaster because the local government itself may be damaged or the staff in charge may not be local residents.In the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the victims gathered earlier than the local government employees.Therefore, in effect, local residents will open evacuation shelters.In addition, it is better to think that the evacuees themselves will be involved in the operation of the evacuation site.However, depending on the time of the disaster, the facility may be locked and you may not be able to enter until the facility manager arrives, so it is necessary to coordinate with the local government in advance.
When opening an evacuation site, in the event of an earthquake, the facilities at the evacuation site itself may collapse.Therefore, before opening an evacuation site (or accommodating evacuees), it is necessary to judge the safety of the facility (building and basin affected by sediment-related disasters).
In consideration of the prompt opening of an evacuation shelter in an emergency, some local governments have installed an "earthquake automatic unlocking box (resident evacuation shelter opening box)" that automatically opens the door when an earthquake with a seismic intensity of 6 lower or higher is detected..
Procedure for opening an evacuation site
The activities that are immediately required to open an evacuation site are as follows.
- Election of a central figure in evacuation site management
- Inspection of evacuation site facilities
- Accepting evacuees and allocating rooms according to usage
- Creating a list of evacuees
- Installation of temporary toilets
- Organize the management system and create living rules
Groups / individuals involved in evacuation shelters
If the evacuation period is long or if there are many evacuees, the Red Cross, the Self-Defense Forces, NPOs, volunteers, etc. will provide support that makes the best use of their characteristics, in addition to the victims and local governments.
- Victims (main body of evacuation site management)
- Municipalities (Many evacuation facilities are owned by local governments. Evacuation facilities in the area are managed comprehensively so that there is no major bias)
- Red Cross(Medical support, etc.)
- SDF(Medical care, water supply, school lunch, bathing support,tentProvision etc.)
- NPOGroup (support according to each characteristic)
- volunteer(Often works under the supervision of volunteer centers established by local governments and support according to individual skills)
Spaces, facilities, and buildings created to escape some kind of disaster or damage.
- Mizutsuka - Flood damageIn order to avoid damage from such things, the first floor is a temporary storage of household goods and tools, and the second floor is a residence, which is a tower-shaped building built on the embankment.
- Warehouse-Godown --Store valuables and propertyFireproofWarehouseIn Although,火災It also has a role as an evacuation facility at that time.
- basement - North America OfHurricaneIn high-incidence areas, basements are actively included in the design stage of houses, which also has the role of escaping the damage of hurricanes.
- Temporary housing - Disaster areaVictims who have temporarily or permanently lost their habitable housing inSimple house.
- Temporary tent ――It is also used as a temporary housing in a normal disaster area, butCrackdownEscaped fromRefugee campTemporary housing used in.
- Panic room - TrespassMade to escape damage from peopleHouseAn inaccessible room inside.So that I can live for a few dayslife lineSome are equipped with.
- 戦 争
- Air defense shelter - Second World WarMade by digging holes in slopes such as cliffs and the ground to evacuate the general public from damage such as air raids in Japantrench.
- Basement that also serves as a nuclear shelter スイスWhen building a house, it met the standards set by the country.concreteIt is obligatory to install a basement made of wood, and it is made assuming a nuclear attack.
- Nuclear shelter - Nuclear attackRobust designed to escape the damageUnderground facilityでcityThere are also things with a scale that can be said to be.
- "Earthquake and Society" Great Hanshin Earthquake "" by Hidetoshi Sotooka Misuzu Shobo ISBN 4622036622
- "Earthquake and Society" Great Hanshin Earthquake "" by Hidetoshi Sotooka Misuzu Shobo ISBN 4622036630
- "Research on evacuation centers in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake』Edited by Shiro Kashiwara, Jun Ueno, Takao Morita, Osaka University Press
- ^ "About "emergency evacuation site" and "evacuation site"". ShigaDisaster Prevention and Crisis Management Bureau, General Policy Department. 2017th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "27 White Paper on Disaster Prevention | Part 1 Chapter 1 Section 2 2-2 Designated Emergency Evacuation Sites / Designated Evacuation Centers". Cabinet Office. 2017th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Cabinet Office Victims Life Support Team (May 2011, 5). 2011th of February 6Browse.
- ^ Automatic unlocking at a seismic intensity of 6 lower ... Residents' shelter opening box: News: Home guide: YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun)