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🥾 | Kirishima Mountain Range Summer Mountain Opening Kagoshima is expected to increase the number of climbers due to rising outdoor demand


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Kirishima Mountain Range Summer Mountain Opening Kagoshima is expected to increase the number of climbers due to rising outdoor demand

 
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In the Kirishima mountain range, outdoor demand is expected to increase due to the influence of the new corona, and it is expected that the number of climbers will increase.
 

The annual summer opening of the Kirishima mountain range was held at Takachihogawara in Kirishima City, Kagoshima Prefecture.The opening of the Kirishima mountain range in summer is climbing ... → Continue reading

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Mt. Kirishima

Mt. Kirishima(Kirishimayama)KyusyuSouthernMiyazakiとKagoshimaSpread near the prefectural borderVolcanoIt is a general term for groups,Kirishima mountain range,Kirishima mountain range,Kirishima MountainsOrKirishima VolcanoesAlso called.The highest peakKorean mountain(Altitude 1,700m) andSacred peakTakachiho peak(Altitude 1,574m[1][Note 1]) And the surrounding mountainsMassifIs done.

Repeated eruptions even after recorded historyactive volcano(Japanese Meteorological AgencyThe ranking of active volcanoes isB[2]), EspeciallyShinmoedakeとMihachiIn, active volcanic activity continues.Volcanic eruption prediction liaison meetingIt has been selected by the volcano as a volcano that requires the improvement of monitoring and observation system for volcanic disaster prevention.[3].

Geography

HokkaidoMt. TaisetsuzanLike Mt. Kirishima, there is no unique mountain, and each mountain is called by its own name.In addition to the mountains, it has large and small lakes and marshes.Takachihogawara,Ebino Plateau,Kirishima OnsenBlessed with tourist destinations such as.The center of the massifKirishima Kinko Bay National ParkIt is designated as (Kirishima area).Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains),One hundred views of JapanIn September 2010GeoparkCertified as one of[4].

NorthKakuto Basin, NortheastKobayashi Basin, In the southeastMiyakonojo Basin, In the southTakakuma MountainsAnd Aira Plateau (Silas Plateau), SouthwestHokusatsu Volcano Group, NorthwestHisatsu Volcano GroupAdjacent to.Miyazaki prefectureEbino City,Kobayashi City,Plateau town,Miyakonojo City,Kagoshima prefectureKirishima,Yusui TownSpan.

It is one of the most rainy areas in Japan, with annual rainfall reaching over 4,500 millimeters, of which about half is concentrated from June to August.[5]..The northeastern foot of Mt. Kirishima has long been known as a horse-producing region.Satsuma DomainAlso owned many ranches.Even after the Meiji Restoration, many state-owned ranches were set up and war horses were produced.After World War II, it was sold to the private sector, and livestock farming by cattle and pigs is flourishing.[6]..Also, tea (Kagoshima tea) Is also popular.

Geology

The volcanic groups tend to line up roughly from northwest to southeast, and are divided into the northwest (Korean group) including Onami Pond and Mt. Karakuni and the southeastern part (Takachiho group) including Mt. Takachiho and Mt. Shinmoedake.Rich in geothermal heatKirishima OnsenBlessed with hot spring areas such asOgiri Power StationIt is also used for power generation.Hydrogen sulfide,carbon dioxideFumaroles that spout out are scattered. As "Kirishima Volcanoes"Top XNUMX geological features in JapanHas been selected.

Formation history

Shimanto GroupAnd the stratum called, and it overlaps on itTertiaryIt is based on volcanic rock.Volcanic activityActivities before about 60 years ago, About 60 to about 33 years agoAncient Kirishima volcano[7], About 33 years agoNew Kirishima volcanoDivided into[8][Note 2].

Activities before about 60 years ago

Pumice streams and tephras such as the Sagise pyroclastic flow (about 87 years ago) and the Hiwaki pyroclastic flow (about 60 years ago) exist as ejecta of unknown source from southern Kyushu.[7].

Ancient Kirishima volcano

From the oldest tephra (Akisha River descent tephra group, about 55 years ago), which is currently considered to be the source of the Kirishima volcano, to the eruption of the Kakuto pyroclastic flow (about 33 years ago).Ancient Kirishima volcanoIs defined as[7]..During this period, the Kobayashi pyroclastic flow erupted about 52 years ago (156).[10]DRE km3)as well asKobayashi CalderaFormation, eruption of Kakuto pyroclastic flow about 33 years ago (50)[11] --156[10]DRE km3)as well asKakuto CalderaVolcanic activity such as the formation of volcanic activity occurred.

New Kirishima volcano

From the eruption of the Kakuto pyroclastic flow to the presentNew Kirishima volcanoIs defined as[8].
Caused a large eruptionKakuto CalderaVolcanic activity was repeated near the southern edge of the island, mainly from about 30 years ago to about 13 years ago.AndesiteKurinodake, Yunotanidake, Ko Mt. Eboshidake, Shishikodake, Yadake, etc. were formed.
After the creation of Mt. Shiratori and Mt. Etsuno about 13 years ago, the activities were divided into east and west, with Onamiike, Mt. Karakuni, and Mt. Etc. are formed[12]..During this period, an eruption at Ebinodake volcano (2.3 km)3 DRE), eruption at Onami Pond about 4.5 years ago (2.9 km)3 DRE), eruption at Mt. Takachiho about 7600 years ago (2.11 km)3 DRE), eruption at Oike about 4600 years ago (1 km)3 DRE) and other activities[13].HoloceneEven after entering, there were eruptions such as Ohata Pond and Oike Pond.Since the dawn of history, eruptive activity has been concentrated in Mihachi and Shinmoedake, with basaltic andesalt-basaltic rocks in Mihachi and basaltic and day-site magmas in Shinmoedake.In the early modern period, northwest of Mt. KarakuniMount IwoAre formed.

Biology

Many botanists visited from the early Meiji era to the early Showa era because it is a characteristic area that is also a volcanic area and the southernmost alpine area of ​​mainland Japan.For this reason, many plants, such as, were first identified on Mt. Kirishima.In Japan, the plants whose southern limit is Mt. KirishimaWig,Cypress,Aria japonicaWhile there are more than 100 species, there are only two species with Mt. Kirishima as the northern limit.As an endemic species that grows only on Mt. KirishimaMalus spontaneaAnd so on[14].

The vegetation distribution is near the summit of Mt. Karakuni, the highest peak.Abelia serrata, Near 1,500 meters above sea levelSusuki,Miyama Kirishima, Near 1,400 meters above sea levelAlnus firma,My sweet potato, Near 1,200 meters above sea levelRed pine, Near 1,100 meters above sea levelFir,TsugaEtc. are often seen.In particular, Miyama Kirishima is widely distributed in sunny places above 700 meters above sea level.[15].

Bunting,Aogera,DeerWild animals such as Kirishima designated by the countryWildlife reserveDesignated as (Large-scale habitat) (Area 11,364)haOf which, the Special Protection Area 1,884ha).It is also designated as a forest biological genetic resource conservation forest as a valuable place where various organisms can be seen.On the other hand, there are problems such as the number of wild deer increasing too much and some trees dieing due to the bark being eaten.[16], Tourists are being called on to avoid feeding.

Many waterfowl can be seen because there are many lakes and marshes.The most common speciesMallardとCommon duckAndBulbulとAtliThere are also many.Bulbuls are often seen in spring and autumn, so they are thought to be a transit point for migration.[17].

History

In ancient timesAdvent of TensonIt is said that it was the stage of the narrative, and that it struck upside down on the summit of Mt. Takachiho when Tenson descended.Heavenly reverse hookIs set up. "Kirishima" first appeared in the literature in August 837 (4th year of Jōwa).Japanese sequelIt is written that Kirishimamine Shrine in Morokata districts will be the official shrine.

The etymology of "Kirishima" is that when you look at this area from a distance, the Kirishima mountain range, including Mt. Karakuni, looks like an island floating in the sea of ​​fog.Also, when Tenson Korin, the stage of the founding myth, was advented, the fog was so deep that I couldn't see what was going on, so I prayed to God and sprinkled the rice ears I brought from Takamagahara. There is also a theory that it came from the fact that the fog cleared up.[18]. other,Izanagi KaguchiThere is a theory that it was named "Kirishima" after the story of slashing the volcanic activity, and that the eruption of volcanic activity was likened to fog.[19].

Since ancient timesMountain worshipIn the Middle AgesStudy roadIt was a sacred mountain. In the middle of the 10th centurySex skyCame to practice and worshiped scattered in various places in the mountainsRooftopSummarized as a training system,Kirishima Rokusha GongenIt was maintained as.War godYamato TakeruBecause it was enshrinedNorthern and Northern DynastiesExpanded power toShimazuKirishima shrines were built in various parts of southern Kyushu[20].

1714 (in the early modern period)MasanoriIn 4th year), Iodani Onsen (Kirishima Onsenkyo) was discovered in the southwestern part of Mt. Kirishima and became known as a hot spring resort. In 1866Ryoma Sakamoto-OryoA couple is on their honeymoon. In 1929 (Showa 4)Kumaichi HayashidaDeveloped Hayashida Onsen, the first in Japan on March 1934, 3National parkIt was designated as (Kirishima National Park). In the latter half of the 1950s, the Ebino Plateau and Takachihogawara were developed as mountaineering bases and many climbers came to visit.

Legend

In the mountains of Mt. KirishimahermitThere is a legend that there is a sacred place where people live.Also, especiallyKirishima ShrineThe mysterious phenomenon seen in the surrounding areaSeven mysteries of KirishimaIt is called[21].

Seven mysteries of Kirishima

Seeds of sowing
I don't sow in the mountainsUpland riceMay grow.This is during the advent of TensonTakamagaharaIt is believed to be due to the species brought from.
Character rock
To the west of Kirishima Jingu, there is a large rock with a volume of 10 cubic meters, and there is a gap of about 10 centimeters.Inside, despite the narrow gaps that are difficult to reachSiddhaIs carved.
Kameishi
There is a stone similar to a turtle on the old approach to Kirishima Shrine.
Wind hole
There is a rock hole where the wind blows on the old approach to Kirishima Jingu.
Mitarashi River
A river that drains in winter and a large amount of water comes out from around May.It is said that it contains the water of Manai that was brought from Takamagahara when Tenson descended.
Both rivers
A river that flows only from June to September.It is called Ryodogawa because it flows twice with an interval of several days.
Kagura in the middle of the night
When Kirishima Jingu is relocated to its current location, it cannot be heard at midnightShinto musicIt is said that many people heard the sound of.

List of mountains, lakes and tourist spots

NameelevationRemarks
Kurinodake1,094mAn old volcanic group at the western end of Mt. Kirishima
Mt. Iimori846m
Mt. Ebinodake1,292mOccurred on Mt. ShiratoriLater volcano.
Shiratori Mountain1,363m
Ebino PlateauA plateau surrounded by Mt. Eshino, Mt. Shiratori, and Mt. Karakuni.
White purple pond1,272mShiratoriyamaCrater lake..Until recently it was a natural skating rink.
Rokukannon Oike1,198mMar.
Fudoike1,228mA crater lake with a deep blue color.
Koshikidake1,301mA volcano with a flat moor on the top of the mountain and a coniferous forest on the hillside.
Korean mountain1,700mThe highest peak of Mt. Kirishima.
Mount Iwo1,317m>[Note 3]1768 years(MeiwaFormed by the eruption of 5 years).There used to be a sulfur mine.
Onami Pond1,412m (elevation of the mountain)
1,239m (elevation of water surface)
The remains of an old crater that was active 4 years ago.
Kirishima OnsenA general term for hot springs scattered on the southern slope of Mt. Kirishima.
Biwaike 
Hinamoridake1,344mHidemine, also known as Ikoma Fuji.
Ohata Pond1,230m Marl.
Daihatayama1,353m
Shishikodake1,428mBecause the figure is shaped like a curled lion.
Shinmoedake1,421mThere are several eruption records, and eruptive activities alternate with the Mihachi.The latest eruption was March 2018.
Yunotanidake
Mt. Eboshidake988m
Yadake1,132m
Ryuodake1,175m
Nakadake1,332m
Takachihogawara970mOnceKirishima ShrineWhere there was.One of the climbing bases of Mt. Kirishima.
Mihachi1,408mLateral volcano of Mt. Takachiho.There are numerous eruption records, and the most recent eruption was in 1923.Erupts alternately with Shinmoedake.
Takachiho peak1,574mA sacred mountain that is said to be the land of the descendants of Tenson.
Futako stone (Futatsu stone)1,320mLateral volcano of Mt. Takachiho.No crater terrain remains.
Koike
Oike305mMarl.

Reference image

Other

Names related to Mt. Kirishima

Works set in Mt. Kirishima

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ Revised values ​​in the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan "List of Mountain Elevations in Japan-2014 Mountains-" on April 4, 1 by inspection and correction surveys such as GNSS surveys.The altitude of the old version is 1003m.
  2. ^ Until 2001, Imura (1994) designated the old Kirishima volcano from 15 years ago to the present as the new Kirishima volcano from the Kakuto pyroclastic flow.[9]
  3. ^ There is also a description of 1,310m depending on the material.
  4. ^ Both are builtMitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagasaki Shipyard.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Mountain list document 1 to revise the altitude value"Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000091072.pdf 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  2. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency / Classification by past volcanic activity (ranking)
  3. ^ "Volcanoes need to be fully equipped with monitoring and observation systems for volcanic disaster prevention”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2016th of February 2Browse.
  4. ^ "[Council] The results of the Japanese Geopark certification application have been announced.(Japanese). Kirishima Geopark Promotion Liaison Council Secretariat (September 2010, 9). 2011th of February 2Browse.
  5. ^ Shigeyoshi Mori, Kazuyoshi Araki "Climate of Mt. Kirishima" "Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Survey Report" Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Study Group, 1969
  6. ^ Zensaburo Yoshioka et al. "Livestock" "Kirishimayama Comprehensive Survey Report" Kirishimayama Comprehensive Study Group, 1969
  7. ^ a b c Shinji Nagaoka, Fusao Arai, Toru Danbara (2010). "Explosive eruption history of Kirishima volcano over the past 60 years estimated from tephras distributed in the Miyazaki Plain". Geological magazine 119 (1): 121-152. https://doi.org/10.5026/jgeography.119.121 2017th of February 4Browse.. 
  8. ^ a b Ryusuke Imura, Tetsuo Kobayashi (2001). “Kirishima Volcano Geological Map, Geological Survey of Japan”. Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University. 2017th of February 4Browse.
  9. ^ Masaki Takahashi,Tetsuo KobayashiHen "Volcanoes in Kyushu" Tsukiji Shokan <Field Guide Volcanoes in Japan 5>, 1999,ISBN-4 8067-1165-9
  10. ^ a b "Large-scale caldera eruption impact range display map”. Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (2003). 2018th of February 1Browse.
  11. ^ Quaternary Volcano Catalog Committee (1999). "Japanese Quaternary Volcano Catalog". Volcano 44 (6): 285-289. two:10.18940 / kazan.44.6_285. https://doi.org/10.18940/kazan.44.6_285 2018th of February 1Browse.. 
  12. ^ Sho Endo et al. "Chronology of Kirishima Lava by Volcanic Ash Layer (Essay)" "Kirishimayama Comprehensive Survey Report" Kirishimayama Comprehensive Study Group, 1969
  13. ^ 28) Kirishima volcano National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, accessed February 2016, 2. (PDF)
  14. ^ Shoichi Hirata "Explanation of Plants on Mt. Kirishima" "Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Survey Report" Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Study Group, 1969
  15. ^ Motohiko Shishido "Forest Vegetation on Mt. Kirishima" "Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Survey Report" Mt. Kirishima Comprehensive Study Group, 1969
  16. ^ Miyazaki Prefectural Museum, edited and published "Miyazaki Prefectural Museum Comprehensive Survey Report, Mt. Kirishima's flora and fauna" 2004
  17. ^ Yutaka Nakamura "Birds of Mt. Kirishima" "Miyazaki Prefectural Museum Comprehensive Survey Report" 2004
  18. ^ "Kagoshima Prefecture / Origin of place name". Kagoshima prefecture. 2017th of February 9Browse.
  19. ^ Kanako Hashiguchi, Hidetsugu Godai, Kenji Hashiguchi "Mikuni scenic spot Makiyuki 33 ”1843
  20. ^ Hatayoshi Nakano, "Mountain Religious Studies Series 13 Mt. Hikosan and Shugendo in Kyushu," published in 1977.
  21. ^ Kirishima Town Local Magazine Editorial Committee Edition "Kirishima Town Local Magazine" Kirishima Town, 1992

References

  • Ebino City Local History Edition Committee Edition "Ebino City History Vol. 1994" Ebino City, XNUMX.
  • Miyazaki Prefectural Museum, edited and published "Miyazaki Prefectural Museum Comprehensive Survey Report, Mt. Kirishima's flora and fauna" 2004
  • Makizono Town Local Magazine Edition Committee Edition "Makizono Town Local Magazine Revised Edition" Makizono Town, 1991.

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