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🥾 | New mountain climbing route for Aso Nakadake [Kumamoto]


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New mountain climbing route for Aso Nakadake [Kumamoto]

 
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This mountain climbing route has been developed by the Ministry of the Environment so that even if the eruption alert level is raised and access within 1 km from the crater is restricted, it is possible to bypass this area and climb Aso Nakadake and Takaoka.
 

A new mountain climbing route to Aso Nakadake was developed, and the opening ceremony was held on the XNUMXth. Aso Yamagami Visitor Center on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Eruption alert level

Eruption alert level(Funking level,English: Volcanic Alert Levels[1]) IsJapanIn eachVolcanoAs an indication of the necessary disaster prevention measures and warning range according to the activity status ofJapanese Meteorological AgencyTo announceindexAnd 1 (active volcanoThere are 5 stages from) to 5 (evacuation).[2].

It is always announced for each volcano, and the level change isEruption alarmOrforecastMade by the announcement of[2].2007(Heisei19) Started in December[3]Currently (as of September 2019) 9 volcanoes are targeted[2].

Eruption alert level classification

1 levels from 5 to 5[2].Eruption alarm・ It is always announced together with the forecast.Notify changes in the text of the eruption forecast for level 1 and the eruption warning for levels 2 to 5[2].

The name of Level 1 at the time of introduction was "normal".Eruption of Mt. Ontake on September 2014, 9After that, there was a voice saying that it would lead to the misunderstanding that it was safe.2015May 5From 14:XNUMX "Note that it is an active volcanoWas changed to.At the same time, if there is a change in volcanic activity that does not lead to an increase in level,Commentary on the state of the volcanoToExtraordinaryWill be announced clearly[4][5].

Typelevel[6]DesignationCorresponding alarm, etc.Degree of volcanic activityEvacuation behavior, etc.
Special alarm
  5
EvacuationEruption alarm
(Residential areas)
Volcanic activity (eruption) that causes serious damage to the residential area has occurred, or there is a high risk of it and it is in an imminent state.All residents are evacuated in dangerous areas.
  4
Evacuation preparationVolcanic activity (eruption) that causes serious damage to residential areas is expected to occur, and the fear is increasing.Disaster Relief RequiredEvacuate.Other residents also prepare for evacuation in dangerous areas.
alarm
  3
Mountain entry restrictionsEruption alarm
(crater(Around)
Life-threatening volcanic activity (eruption) has occurred near or is likely to reach the residential area.Depending on the situation, mountain climbing prohibitions and mountain climbing restrictions are enforced.In some cases, evacuation preparations are made for people requiring assistance during a disaster.
  2
Regulations around the craterLife-threatening volcanic activity (eruption) has occurred or is likely to occur in or around the crater.Access is restricted around the crater.
forecast
  1

To be an active volcano Pay attention

Eruption forecastVolcanic activity is almost calm,Volcanic ashThere is a change in the activity state such as spouting, which may be life-threatening in the crater.Access may be restricted inside the crater.

Presentation criteria

The standards are set based on the assumption of volcanic activity at each volcano.The criteria are not immutable and will be reviewed when the situation of volcanic activity changes or new findings are obtained from research.In addition, based on the recommendations of the Volcanic Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee in March 2015, from March 3, the criteria for determining the eruption alert level from the ready volcanoes have been announced sequentially (as of September 2016, 3). Volcano)[7][8].

The specific criteria for raising or lowering the level vary from volcano to volcano.To give an exampleVolcanic tremorAmplitude increase and continuation for a certain period of time,Volcanic earthquake, Red heat phenomenon at the bottom of the crater, activation of sediment eruption,Volcanic gasIncreased release, decreased amount of hot water,GNSSCrustal movements that indicate mountain expansion due to eruption, rapid crustal movements that indicate pressure increase just below the crater by an inclinometer, etc. Phenomena and eruptive activities such as distant scattering of volcanic stones and large air vibrations can be mentioned.[9][10].

These standard settings are based on eruption scenarios based on past eruptive activity literature, observation records since modern times, and scientific knowledge at that time.Therefore, there is a possibility that an eruption will occur without observing anomalies, or that the eruption will continue in an atypical or unexperienced scenario.In addition, access restrictions and evacuation plans according to the alert levelZoningIs just an eruption scenario of the assumed crater, and some craters are not targeted for zoning because they have not been active recently.As an example, Mt. Aso is zoning assuming an eruption from the Nakadake crater, and zoning centered on Mt. Kishima, Mt. Ojo, and Mt.[9][10].

History

Background of enactment

Prior to the introduction of the Volcanic Alert Level, the Japan Meteorological Agency aimed to easily understand the status of volcanic activity.2003(15)May 11Announced "Volcanic Activity Level" for some volcanoes[11]..This represented the activity of the volcano in 0 steps from 5 to 6,Cabinet OfficeAt the Volcanic Disaster Prevention Measures Study Group, which was established in 2006 by the government, the level is centered on volcanic phenomena, and it is difficult for the residents of the recipient to imagine the degree of urgency and utilize it for appropriate disaster prevention actions. Was pointed out[12].

After subsequent discussions, on March 2007, 3, the "Summary of Volcanic Disaster Prevention Measures for Evacuation Systems in the Event of an Eruption (tentative name)" was announced, and the volcano information released by the Japan Meteorological Agency was made more suitable for disaster prevention activities. It was indicated that it is necessary to change and promote the formulation of evacuation plans for temporary residents such as residents and tourists around the volcano and to link them closely.It is recommended that the volcanic activity level be changed to a new level that is classified based on evacuation behavior such as during an eruption regarding the volcanic activity status.[13].

On June 2007, 6, it was announced that the name of the new level was proposed as "Volcanic Alert Level" at the study group.[14], The outline was announced by the Japan Meteorological Agency[15].

Preparation for the start of the announcement and addition of target volcanoes

Japan Meteorological AgencyEruption forecast111 active volcanoes announcing (eruption warning)2017As of June) Yes[16]..Of these, 50 volcanoes with high disaster prevention needsVolcanic eruption prediction liaison meetingBut"Volcanoes need to be fully equipped with monitoring and observation systems for volcanic disaster preventionThe Japan Meteorological Agency and universities monitor activities 24 hours a day (constant observation volcano).[17].

In the local area of ​​50 volcanoes, it was installed sequentially市町村-Prefectures,Weather station, Volcano expert,Policemen,FireEtc. hold discussionsRegional disaster prevention planInclude the evacuation start time and range according to the level of volcanic activity.From this ready volcano, we are starting to announce the eruption alert level in sequence.[2].

2007(Heisei19 years)May 12Initially started in 16 volcanoes[3], Will be added sequentially to the present.

Act on Special Measures against Active VolcanoesUntil the 2015 amendment, the establishment of a volcanic disaster prevention council was voluntary.Therefore, there were areas such as Mt. Taisetsuzan, Mt. Zao, Mt. Chokai, and Mt. Norikura where the council was not established until 2015. Did not).Due to the amendment of the law, installation is required at 50 constantly observed volcanoes, and it was later added to the subject of announcement[18][19][2].

50 constantly observed volcanoes[17]Out ofTowada,Iwo JimaTwo have not yet been announced at Volcanic Alert Level[2].. (Eruption warnings and forecasts are covered.)

Current target volcano

As of September 2019, the target is as follows48 volcanoesIs. Some volcanoes are divided into multiple zones and separate alert levels are set.Mt. KirishimaIs in the three areas of "Ebino Plateau (Mt. Io)", "Shinmoedake", and "Mihachi".Kusatsu Shirane MountainIs divided into two categories, "Mt. Shirane (near Yugama)" and "Mt. Motoshirane".AlsoEastern Izu Volcano Group,Mt. Tsurumidake / GarandakeIn the active volcano group of, a group of volcanoes containing multiple volcanoes is counted as one volcano.The latest eruption alert level introduced volcano2019May 7Hakkoda Mountains, Niijima, and Kozushima added to.

List of volcanoes that have introduced eruption alert levels
VolcanoPrefecturesDate of introductionJudgment criteria[20]Major volcanic activity (maximum level)
AtosanupuriHokkaido2016th of February 3[21]Published
MeakanHokkaido2008th of February 12[22]Published
Mt. TaisetsuzanHokkaido2019th of February 3[23]Published
Mt. TokachidakeHokkaido2008th of February 12[22]Unpublished
Mt. TarumaesanHokkaido2007th of February 12[Note 1]Unpublished
Mt. UsuHokkaido2008th of February 6[25]Unpublished
KuttaraHokkaido2014th of February 10[26]Unpublished
Hokkaido KomagatakeHokkaido2007th of February 12[Note 1]Unpublished
KeizanHokkaido2016th of February 3[21]Published
Mt. IwakisanAomori2016th of February 7[27]Published
Mt. HakkodaAomori2019th of February 7[28]Published
Akita YakeyamaAkita2013th of February 7[29]Unpublished
Mt. IwatesanIwate2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
Akita KomagatakeAkita2009th of February 10[30]Published
Mt. ChokaiAkita·Yamagata2018th of February 3[31]Published
Mt. KurikomayamaIwate prefecture, Akita prefecture,Miyagi2019th of February 5[32]Published
Mt. ZaoMiyagi prefecture / Yamagata prefecture2016th of February 7[27]Published
Mt. AzumayamaFukushima2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
AdatarayamaFukushima2009th of February 3[33]Published
Mt. BandaisanFukushima2009th of February 3[33]Published
Nasu mountainFukushima Prefecture·Tochigi2009th of February 3[33]Published
Nikko ShiraneyamaTochigi Prefecture·Gunma2016th of February 12[34]Published
Kusatsu Shirane MountainMoto ShiraneGunma2018th of February 3[35]Published   January 2018, 1 eruption (level 23)[36][Note 2]
Mt. Shirane (near Yugama)2007th of February 12[Note 1][Note 3]Published
Mt. AsamayamaGunma Prefecture·Nagano2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
Mt. NiigatayakeyamaNiigata2011th of February 3[37]Unpublished
Mt. YakedakeNagano Prefecture·Gifu2011th of February 3[37]Unpublished
Mt. NorikuraNagano prefecture, Gifu prefecture2019th of February 3[23]Published
ChigaharaToyama2019th of February 5[32]Published
Mt. OntakeNagano prefecture, Gifu prefecture2008th of February 3[38]Published   2014 eruption(Level 3)[39]
HakusanIshikawa·Gifu Prefecture2014th of February 9[40]Published
Mount FujiYamanashi-Shizuoka2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
Mt. HakoneKanagawa and Shizuoka prefectures2009th of February 3[33]Published
Eastern Izu Volcano GroupShizuoka2011th of February 3[37]Unpublished
izu-OshimaTokyo2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
NiijimaTokyo2019th of February 7[28]Published
KozushimaTokyo2019th of February 7[28]Published
MiyakejimaTokyo2008th of February 3[38]Published
HachijojimaTokyo2018th of February 5[41]Published
AogashimaTokyo2018th of February 5[41]Published
Mt. Tsurumidake / GarandakeOita2016th of February 7[27]Published
Kokonoe MountainOita2007th of February 12[Note 1]Unpublished
Mount AsoKumamoto2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
UnzendakeNagasaki2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
Mt. KirishimaEbino Plateau(Mount Iwo) SurroundingsMiyazaki2016th of February 12[34]Published   January 2018, 4 eruption (level 19)[42]
ShinmoedakeKagoshima・ Miyazaki2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
MihachiKagoshima prefecture, Miyazaki prefecture2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published
SakurajimaKagoshima2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published2015 eruption

(Level 4)

Satsuma Iwo JimaKagoshima2007th of February 12[Note 1]Unpublished
Kuchinoerabu IslandKagoshima2007th of February 12[Note 1]Published   2015 eruption(Level 5)[43]
Suwa Nose IslandKagoshima2007th of February 12[Note 1]Unpublished

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 16 volcanoes from the beginning[24]
  2. ^ Until the division of Mt. Shirane (near Yugama) on March 2018, 3, the announcement will be made for the entire Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane.
  3. ^ Until the division of Mt. Motoshirane on March 2018, 3, it will be introduced for the entire Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane.

Source

  1. ^ "Volcanic Warnings and Volcanic Alert Levels”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2016th of February 3Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Japan Meteorological Agency 2019
  3. ^ a b "" We will announce the eruption alert and eruption alert level from December XNUMXst. "" (pdf) (Press Release), (November 2007, 11), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0711/30a/honbun071130.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  4. ^ "Review of volcano information based on the eruption disaster of Mt. Ontake-Changes to" Commentary information on volcanic conditions "-" (pdf) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (May 2015, 5), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1505/12b/kazanjoho.pdf 2015th of February 5Browse. 
  5. ^ "Volcanic Alert" Normal "Expression Canceled". Metropolitan area NEWS WEB (NHK). (April 2015, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 5.. https://archive.is/20150512060126/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/shutoken-news/20150512/4683971.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter 2015th of February 5Browse. 
  6. ^ "Disaster prevention information: Eruption warning / eruption bulletin”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021th of February 4Browse.
  7. ^ "About the publication of eruption alert level judgment criteria" (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2016, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1603/25a/160325levelkijunn.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  8. ^ "Criteria for eruption alert level”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019th of February 9Browse.
  9. ^ a b "Aso Mountain Eruption Alert Level Judgment Criteria As of December 28, 12 (pdf) ”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019th of February 3Browse.
  10. ^ a b "Eruption alert level judgment criteria of Mt. Aso and its explanation As of April 30, 4 (pdf) ”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019th of February 3Browse.
  11. ^ (pdf) Introduction of volcanic activity level (Report). Japan Meteorological Agency. https://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vois/data/tokyo/STOCK/kaisetsu/CCPVE/Report/090/kaiho_090_32.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse.. 
  12. ^ (pdf) About the outline of the proceedings of "Volcano Disaster Prevention Measures Study Group Corresponding to Volcano Information" (XNUMXst) (Report). Cabinet Office. (2006-11-02). http://www.bousai.go.jp/kazan/zyouhoutaiou/pdf/061102kazangiji.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse.. 
  13. ^ ( The outline of volcanic disaster prevention measures related to the evacuation system in the event of an eruption (tentative name) (Report). Cabinet Office. (2007-03-22). http://www.bousai.go.jp/kazan/zyouhoutaiou/pdf/20070322.kosshi.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse.. 
  14. ^ "Regarding the name of the new level classified based on evacuation behavior such as eruption regarding volcanic activity status" (PDF) (Press Release), Cabinet Office (in charge of disaster prevention), Japan Meteorological Agency, (June 2007, 6), http://www.bousai.go.jp/kazan/zyouhoutaiou/pdf/070607kisya.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  15. ^ "Improvement of volcano information corresponding to the evacuation system at the time of eruption" (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2007, 6), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0706/07c/20070607kazanbosai_kaizen.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  16. ^ "Explanation of eruption warning and forecast”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2017th of February 7Browse.
  17. ^ a b "Volcano surveillance”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019th of February 3Browse.
  18. ^ "Disaster prevention council and government request installation of 14 active volcanoes such as Mt. Taisetsuzan and Mt. Zao”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2014, 11). 2019th of February 3Browse.
  19. ^ "Volcanic disaster 49 140 municipalities around the volcano to "disaster alert area" Cabinet Office". excite newsHazard Lab (November 2014, 11). 2019th of February 3Browse.
  20. ^ "Criteria for eruption alert level (§Update information)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2020th of February 10Browse.
  21. ^ a b “Atosanupuri will start operation of eruption alert level of Mt. Esan” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2016, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1603/08b/160308atosa_esan.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  22. ^ a b “Introducing eruption alert levels for Mt. Meakan and Mt. Tokachidake” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2008, 12), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0812/02a/081202_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  23. ^ a b “Mt. Taisetsuzan and Mt. Norikura will start operation of eruption alert level” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2019, 2), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1902/25a/taisetsunorikura190225.html 2019th of February 3Browse. 
  24. ^ "Eruption warnings and eruption forecasts for each volcano announced on December XNUMXst" (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2007, 11), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0711/30a/3betsu071130.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  25. ^ “Introducing an eruption alert level on Mt. Usu” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2008, 5), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1509/18d/150918kuttara.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  26. ^ “We will start operating the eruption alert level of Kuttara” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2014, 9), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0805/29a/080529_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  27. ^ a b c “Mt. Iwakisan, Mt. Zao, Mt. Tsurumidake / Garandake will start operation of eruption alert level” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2016, 7), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1607/12b/iwaki_zao_tsurumigaran160712.html 2016th of February 12Browse. 
  28. ^ a b c "We will start operating the eruption alert level of Hakkoda Mountains, Niijima and Kozushima" (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2019, 7), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1907/10a/hakkodasanniijimakozushima190710.html 2019th of February 9Browse. 
  29. ^ “We will start operating the eruption alert level of Akita-Yakeyama” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2013, 7), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1307/10a/130710_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  30. ^ “Introducing an eruption alert level at Mt. Akita Komagatake” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2009, 9), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0909/30c/090930_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  31. ^ “Starting operation of the eruption alert level of Mt. Chokai” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2018, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1803/09a/chokaisan180309.html 2019th of February 3Browse. 
  32. ^ a b “Mt. Kurikomayama and Midagahara eruption alert level will start operation” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2019, 5), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1905/10b/kurikomamidagahara190510.html 2019th of February 9Browse. 
  33. ^ a b c d “We will introduce eruption alert levels on Mt. Adatara, Mt. Bandaisan, Mt. Nasu, and Mt. Hakone” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2009, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0903/17a/090317_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  34. ^ a b "We will start operating the eruption alert level of Mt. Nikko-Shirane and Mt. Kirishima (around Ebino Plateau (Mt. Io))" (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2016, 11), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1611/22c/nikkoshirane_ebinokogen_161122.html 2016th of February 12Browse. 
  35. ^ “We have set a new eruption alert level for Mt. Kusatsu Shiranesan (Mt. Honshiranesan) and will start operation from 3:16 on March 14th.” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2018, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1803/15f/kusatsu-motoshiranesan180315.html 2018th of February 4Browse. 
  36. ^ “Raise the eruption alert level of Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane to 3” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2018, 1), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1801/23a/kusatu-shiranesan180123.html 2018th of February 4Browse. 
  37. ^ a b c “Introducing eruption alert levels for Mt. Niigatayakeyama, Mt. Yakedake and the eastern Izu volcanoes” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2011, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1103/17a/110317_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  38. ^ a b “Introducing eruption alert levels on Mt. Ontake and Miyakejima” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2008, 3), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/0803/27b/080327_level.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  39. ^ "Volcanic activity commentary material on Mt. Ontake (September 26)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2016th of February 3Browse.
  40. ^ “Starting operation of the eruption alert level of Mt. Haku” (PDF) (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (March 2014, 8), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1508/19a/150819hakusan.pdf 2016th of February 3Browse. 
  41. ^ a b “We will start operating the eruption alert level of Hachijojima and Aogashima” (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2019, 5), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1805/09a/hachijojimaaogashima180509.html 2019th of February 3Browse. 
  42. ^ "Raise the eruption alert level of Mt. Kirishima (around Ebino Plateau (Mt. Io)) to 3" (Press Release), Japan Meteorological Agency, (January 2018, 4), https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1804/19a/ebinokogen180419.html 2018th of February 4Browse. 
  43. ^ "Volcanic activity commentary material on Kuchinoerabu Island (May 27)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2016th of February 3Browse.

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